Why is Noble skeptical of the idea that racist results are glitches?

Question Description

In the introduction to Algorithms of Oppression, Noble discusses how racism and racial bias are encoded into computer software, including search engines.

In her analysis of #Gamergate and “The Fappening,” two online controversies, Massanari examines how the design of some online platforms allows racism and sexist to flourish.

In this response (minimum 250 words), please address the following questions:

  1. Why is Noble skeptical of the idea that racist results are glitches? What happened to African Americans when Google used auto photo-tagging? How was the White House identified on Google Maps? How did Michelle Obama appear in Google Images?
  2. How does Massanari define “toxic technocultures”? What “tactics” and “ideas” are common within these communities?
  3. According to Massanari, how do Reddit administrators view their role in moderating or intervening in “content disputes”? How does Reddit’s identity as an aggregator, rather than a host, affect their sense of responsibility for content?

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