Week 9 assignment

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This is Wk 9 Assignment— use the instructions under that

I also submitted all the other assignements I submitted prior related to the topic of Adults with ADHD.

Even though social workers might  think of a compelling research question and have a desire to conduct  research, this does not mean that the research is automatically  supported by stakeholders or funded by an organization. To gain such  approval, they must submit a research proposal. Much like an outline of a  paper or a blueprint of a building design, the research proposal  contains the framework so that stakeholders can see the key elements and  the vision for the study.

For this Assignment, you write the first part of  your research proposal, including the introduction, problem statement,  research question, literature review, and methodological approach. You  will work on the second part of the proposal next week.  

To Prepare:

· Review and gather content from previous Assignments and Discussions  that includes elements of your research proposal. You should have  significant material for your problem statement, research question,  literature review, and methodological approach. 

· Revise these previous course submissions based on any feedback you have received.

· Download the Research Proposal Template and review the guidance  found within the document. Use this template for the Assignment.  

· You may wish to consult the Writing Toolbox in the left navigation  of your classroom for additional resources relevant to writing your  research proposal.

· Write an introduction and refine and connect the various sections so that they work together as a cohesive research proposal.

By Day 7

Compile and submit the first part of your research proposal including the following sections in 3 to 4 pages:

· Introduction (1 paragraph)

· Problem Statement (1 paragraph)

· Research Question (1 paragraph)

· Literature Review (revision of previously submitted; 2 pages)

· Methodological Approach  (2–3 paragraphs)

Make sure to use the provided template and include appropriate APA citations and a reference list. 

6

Quantitative Research Study Critique

Richard Davis

Walden University

SOCW 6301


Quantitative Research Study Critique

According to data from several recent research, there may be adults who fulfill the current criteria for ADHD but did not begin to exhibit symptoms until they were adults or adult-onset ADHD. This systematic review reviewed and combined the empirical data on adult-onset ADHD to determine whether the literature is reliable enough to evaluate this condition. Studies in this field frequently point out that parents with ADHD frequently struggle with emotional dysregulation, a lack of sustained attention and consistency, poor planning and problem-solving abilities, and other impairments. The research question for this chosen article was: “Is the extant literature strong enough to evaluate adult-onset ADHD?” Strict inclusion/exclusion requirements were satisfied by nine studies. According to the findings, the approaches used in the previous investigations were insufficient to assess adult-onset ADHD. Insufficient techniques currently provide uncertain information about the nature of late-onset symptoms. But during the past few years, there has been a lot of debate in the ADHD community over the possibility that symptoms could appear later in life, casting doubt on the neurodevelopmental classification of ADHD. This systematic review’s objective is to evaluate the evidence that is currently available on adult-onset ADHD (Taylor et al., 2021).

Title and Authors

The article title is
Adult‑Onset ADHD: A Critical Analysis and Alternative Explanations by Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. The article was accepted and published online in 2021. The information in the article is current and up-to-date, which lends credibility to it. My study of adult ADHD makes use of the source. Both the authors and the source are reliable. The cited sources in the article are clear, easy to find, and unbiased. The article is peer reviewed and has been accepted and published online. The article is one of the most credible sources for ADHD in adults. The article has policies on copyright and peer review. The authors of the article have published other articles. The authors also have high numbers of “Cited By,” which shows credibility. From google scholar, the authors of this article have been cited by over a thousand people (Taylor et al., 2021).

Literature review

In order to determine if the current body of literature is reliable enough to assess adult-onset ADHD, the present systematic review will examine the currently available data. The neurodevelopmental disorder’s characteristics are described in this article. It explains how adult symptoms are more common because of greater environmental demands, the potential for improper assessment, or a failure to seek medical assistance at an earlier age. Symptoms cannot be observed in childhood but are more prominent in adulthood. Eight hundred and five adults who completed a self-report assessment and sought outpatient psychiatric care made up the sample size for this study. The information in this article about co-occurring disorders associated with ADHD, which may have prevented someone from having their ADHD symptoms evaluated at a younger age, is crucial to my research. Therefore, while certain similarities between the genders in this study are reported here, especially between the hyperactive groups who had ADHD at follow-up and those who did not, the authors caution against placing too much value on those findings until larger investigations have replicated them.

Additionally, the authors did not look into the psychological development or psychiatric condition of our hyperactive and control groups’ offspring at this outcome. While the majority of the control group (87%) had not yet given birth to children, only half (48%) of the hyperactive group had children, many of whom were too young to accurately document their psychiatric state by current methods. It’s been up for discussion for a while now whether adult-onset ADHD is possible when there are no prior symptoms in childhood (Taylor et al., 2021). In adults, symptoms do exist, but they are thought to be the outcome of signs that have already peaked, were misdiagnosed in the past, or weren’t found sooner.

Strategy of Research

The evaluation and synthesis of the empirical data on adult-onset ADHD was the goal of the quantitative study on the topic. It is exploratory. The goal and the research question are compatible. Nine studies met the strict inclusion/exclusion standards. According to the findings, the approaches used in the previous investigations were insufficient to assess adult-onset ADHD. Insufficient techniques currently provide uncertain information about the nature of late-onset symptoms.

Methodological Approach and Design

A longitudinal research design was used. This study uses a sample of 805 persons who completed a self-reporting evaluation and sought outpatient psychiatric care. This article is crucial to my research since it offers a wide range of information on co-occurring conditions linked to ADHD, which may have prevented some people from having their ADHD symptoms evaluated at a younger age. Strict inclusion/exclusion requirements were satisfied by nine studies. According to the findings, the approaches used in the previous investigations were insufficient to assess adult-onset ADHD. Insufficient techniques currently provide uncertain information about the nature of late-onset symptoms. A diagnosis of late-onset ADHD was not given to almost 95% of people who first tested positive on symptom checklists. The most frequent reason for diagnostic exclusion among people with impaired late-onset ADHD symptoms was symptoms or impairment occurring only in the setting of severe substance use. Most cases with late-onset started in adolescence and only manifested during this time. Independent of a complicated psychiatric background, there was no proof of adult-onset ADHD (Taylor et al., 2021).

Threats to Internal Validity

A causal relationship’s results are reliable and credible when they have internal validity. An experiment cannot prove a causal relationship between two variables without having strong internal validity. Instrumentation and testing are two instances of internal dangers to the study. The authors’ addition of a comparable control group mitigates all risks of single-group trials. Threats won’t impact the study’s findings if comparable control and treatment groups experience the same risks. A large sample size undermines testing since the results would be more sensitive to outcome variability. Testing hazards can also be mitigated using filler tasks or surveys to conceal the study’s goal.

Application to Practice

The limits of the literature and the current review are explored, along with future directions and clinical advice. The information provided in the article relates to social work practice. According to the article, a social worker should not undervalue the significance of psychosocial therapy. Although drugs are the most successful treatment for ADHD symptoms, symptom relief does not always mean improvements in day-to-day functioning. Numerous individuals with ADHD have benefited from psychosocial interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy, which has been proven to be an indispensable auxiliary treatment. Although having ADHD is not the reason for having a gloomy outlook, individuals with ADHD frequently have formed one concerning specific life roles or responsibilities, which may make it difficult to practice new coping mechanisms. CBT may be useful in assisting these people as they work to transform their life.

References

Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. (2021). Adult-onset ADHD: A critical analysis and alternative explanations. 
Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 1-19.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01159-w

2

Articles on ADHD and Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Richard Davis

Walden University

SOCW 6301

Articles on ADHD and Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Introduction

There are many ways this question can be answered. The first would be to look at the current research and see if it provides insight into whether ADHD impairs learning and performance. This may be done by looking at articles from journals or other sources that address this topic and books on the subject. Another method would be to interview experts in the field, such as teachers or psychologists. Finally, it might also be possible to conduct surveys with people who have ADHD and see what they think about their condition and how it affects them.

1. Can ADHD impair a person’s ability to learn and perform cognitively?

In this article by Russell and other researchers, the authors investigated the impact of ADHD on adults’ lives. They used a mixed-method approach involving multiple research methods to obtain a complete picture. This study was conducted by using interviews and observations.

This study showed that adults affected by ADHD were less likely to be employed and more likely to live in poverty than their unaffected peers. This is consistent with previous research showing that adults affected by ADHD are more likely to be unemployed and less likely to have jobs with good hours and benefits (Russell et al., 2008).

In the article, the researchers used interviews to gain insight into what it means to have ADHD and how it affects adults’ lives. The researchers also collected quantitative data by administering a survey to a representative sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD as children. The survey asked about their daily activities and experiences with the condition over time. Finally, they analyzed their results to provide an overview of the effects of ADHD on adults’ lives today.

2. What are the characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorders?

The first section of this article by Taylor, begins by describing the types of neurodevelopmental disorders and their prevalence in children (in particular) and then moves into more specific topics, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors then discuss how these disorders are diagnosed through observation in children with ASD (Taylor et al., 2022).

The second section involves interviews with parents with children with ASD or other neurodevelopmental disorders. These interviews provide insights into families’ experiences as they have cared for their children with these conditions. Some of these experiences include difficulties at school or home due to sensory issues, difficulty finding appropriate treatment services, and difficulty finding community support systems that understand what it means to be a parent.

References

Russell A. Barkley, Kevin R. Murphy, & Mariellen Fischer. (2008). ADHD in Adults : What the Science Says. The Guilford Press.

Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. (2022). Adult-Onset ADHD: A Critical Analysis and Alternative Explanations. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 53(4), 635–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01159-w

2

Literature Review

Richard Davis

Walden University

SOCW 6310


Literature Review

Introduction

The significant impairments produced by ADHD include; difficulty maintaining focus, hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention, and distractibility. These symptoms affect adults in a variety of ways.

Hyperactivity can cause problems with social relationships and work. Adults with ADHD are often misdiagnosed with other mental health disorders because they present differently from children with ADHD. This misdiagnosis can lead to the adult suffering from untreated ADHD symptoms for years before seeking help for their condition. The symptoms of ADHD may also make it difficult for some adults to hold down jobs or relationships with others (Weibel et al., 2020).

Impulsivity can negatively impact an adult’s ability to make good decisions when it comes time to act on those decisions. In addition, impulsivity can cause problems with personal hygiene. Hygiene habits that are important for personal hygiene habits, such as brushing teeth or flossing regularly, are essential for good oral health. That leads to potential tooth decay or gum disease later in life if not addressed early on by a dentist specializing in treating dental issues caused by tooth decay or gum disease caused by other conditions such as diabetes).

Inattention is another significant impairment produced by ADHD that impacts adults in many ways, including a lack of motivation and poor organizational skills (Castells et al., 2018).

Neurodevelopmental disorders consist of a group of disorders characterized by early-onset, severe intellectual disability, and severe physical impairments. There are several different types of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD), bipolar disorder with psychotic features (BDP), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). These conditions are characterized by social, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities that start in childhood or adolescence (Morris-Rosendahl et al., 2021).

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairment and impaired communication skills. More than half of those diagnosed with ASD have very high levels of intellect; however, IQ scores below 70 are not uncommon. The average IQ score for children with ASD is between 50 to 70—lower than that of typically developing children but higher than that of individuals with learning disabilities (Parenti et al., 2020).

Asperger syndrome is a form of ASD that presents at a younger age than typical cases. People with Asperger syndrome typically know how to communicate verbally but may struggle with complex social interactions, body language, and gestures such as eye contact and facial expressions.

References

Weibel, S., Menard, O., Ionita, A., Boumendjel, M., Cabelguen, C., Kraemer, C., … & Lopez, R. (2020). Practical considerations for evaluating and managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. L’encephale, 46(1), 30-40.

Castells, X., Blanco‐Silvente, L., & Cunill, R. (2018). Amphetamines for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8).

Parenti, I., Rabaneda, L. G., Schoen, H., & Novarino, G. (2020). Neurodevelopmental disorders: from genetics to functional pathways. Trends in Neurosciences, 43(8), 608-621.

Morris-Rosendahl, D. J., & Crocq, M. A. (2022). Neurodevelopmental disorders—the history and future of a diagnostic concept. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience

2

ADHD in Adults

Richard Davis

Walden University

SOCW 6301

ADHD in Adults

Introduction

ADHD does not just affect children. It can also have a negative impact on adults’ lives, especially in the workplace. ADHD has four primary effects on adults: Inattentive ADHD can cause problems at work because people with this condition are more likely to make mistakes and take longer to complete tasks than people without it.

Hyperactive ADHD can cause problems at work because people with this condition tend to be unable to concentrate or sit still for long periods. This can lead to lost productivity and other issues that arise from having an employee who is fidgeting too much or who are not being able to focus on their work.

Impulsivity is often accompanied by hyperactivity, making it difficult for people with ADHD to stay focused on their job responsibilities—especially if those responsibilities require them to take detailed notes or read through files before making decisions about what needs to be done (Castells et al., 2019).

Difficulty paying attention makes it harder for people with ADHD to focus on the task at hand when they are trying something new at work—like learning how a new product works or starting up a new project from scratch—and this can lead to frustration when trying.

Additionally, the effects of ADHD on adults are varied and can include organizational problems, difficulties with time management, and lack of self-discipline. Adults with ADHD may also have problems with memory, concentration, and attention (Parenti et al., 2020).

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the brain’s ability to regulate behavior and focus attention. There are three characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorders based on what we know about ADHD: impulsivity, hyperactivity/inattention, and difficulty maintaining attention over time.

Impulsivity is acting without thinking about the consequences of one’s actions. For example, someone with ADHD may make inappropriate remarks or interrupt other people during meetings because they cannot pause before speaking or thinking about how their words might impact others.

Hyperactivity is defined as having an excess amount of motor activity. This would include fidgeting, running around, or jumping excessively in public spaces such as stores and restaurants. Difficulty maintaining attention over time is the “inability to stay focused for long enough periods.” This symptom can be exacerbated by distractions such as loud noises or bright lights (Weibel et al., 2022).

Characteristics of neurodevelopmental

Neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by the onset of symptoms before the age of three and by a delay in brain development. These disorders affect the whole brain, not just one particular area.

There is no single cause of neurodevelopmental disorders, but they are thought to result from genetic and environmental factors interacting with each other over time. Genetic factors include Genetic mutations that predispose individuals to certain diseases or conditions; Genetic variations that affect how well a person’s genes function; Genetic variations that affect brain development and function (Morris-Rosendahl et al., 2022).

I will change, refine, or focus the research on the effects of ADHD on adults and characteristics of neurodevelopmental disorder based on my exploration of the literature by focusing on the following: The impact of ADHD on adults is often overlooked and misunderstood by adults themselves. This can lead to frustration with their symptoms and a lack of understanding about living with ADHD. The literature explores how this lack of understanding can harm adults’ health and well-being.

The literature also explores how adults cannot always access treatment for ADHD because they do not know how to find it or do not understand what it means to be treated for it and how it relates to their lives. In addition, there is a lack of understanding about why medication alone is not enough for many people with ADHD, which can make it difficult for them to understand why they need other types of treatment, like therapy or support groups, in order to overcome their symptoms.


References

Weibel, S., Menard, O., Ionita, A., Boumendjel, M., Cabelguen, C., Kraemer, C., … & Lopez, R. (2020). Practical considerations for evaluating and managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. L’encephale, 46(1), 30-40.

Castells, X., Blanco‐Silvente, L., & Cunill, R. (2018). Amphetamines for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8).

Parenti, I., Rabaneda, L. G., Schoen, H., & Novarino, G. (2020). Neurodevelopmental disorders: from genetics to functional pathways. Trends in Neurosciences, 43(8), 608-621.

Morris-Rosendahl, D. J., & Crocq, M. A. (2022). Neurodevelopmental disorders—the history and future of a diagnostic concept. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience.

Richard Davis SOCW 6301

Keywords: Adult ADHD, Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Outpatient

1) Russell A. Barkley, Kevin R. Murphy, & Mariellen Fischer. (2008). 
ADHD in Adults : What the Science Says. The Guilford Press.

This article explained the significant impairments produced by the disorder of ADHD and how it effects adults in everyday life. This article will help the reader get a full understanding of the origin of ADHD and when it was first clinically practices in 1902 amongst 43 children at Royal College of Physicians. This article overviews many different studies which prove that this disorder exist in adulthood beyond developmental years.

2)
Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. (2022). Adult-Onset ADHD: A Critical Analysis and Alternative Explanations. 
Child Psychiatry & Human Development
53(4), 635–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01159-w

This article explains characteristics of the neurodevelopmental disorder. It breaks down how symptoms cannot be noticed in childhood but are more prevalent in adulthood due to higher environmental demands, possibility of not properly being assess, or failure to come to clinical attention at an earlier age.

3) Taylor, L. E., Kaplan-Kahn, E. A., Lighthall, R. A., & Antshel, K. M. (2022). Adult-Onset ADHD: A Critical Analysis and Alternative Explanations. 
Child Psychiatry & Human Development
53(4), 635–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01159-w

This article follows a sample size of 805 adults seek outpatient psychiatric care completing a self-reporting assessment. This article is important to my research as it provides a variety of information on co-occurring disorders that are paired with ADHD, which may have overshadows ones ability to be assessed for ADHD at an earlier age.

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