Week 10 project

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THIS IS A POWER POINT ASSIGNMENT FOLLOWING THE TEMPLE THAT IS UPLOADED TO THIS POST. 

PLEASE FOLLOW EXACTLY WHAT THE TEACHER WANTS, USING THE TEMPLET AND THE PROJECT THAT I UPLOADED AS WELL. 

Week 10 Project – MSN Capstone Proposal PowerPoint Poster

For this last project assignment you will create an academic poster based on your MSN Capstone Project Proposal. Using the information from your Project Proposal form, you will use the South University PowerPower Capstone Poster Template to complete this assignment. Use the instructions below and review the Exemplar MSN Capstone Poster.

How to use the template to complete this assignment:

  • Open the template and save on your computer. Rename the PowerPoint file with your First and Last Names.
  • Refer to the Exemplar Capstone Poster Example.
  • Using your MSN Capstone Project Proposal Form complete the sections on the PowerPoint:
    • Abstract – In this section provide an abstract of your proposal. This is only a proposal and is not a project to be implemented. Only provide the information you have actually completed on your MSN Capstone Project Proposal Form.
    • Background Information – In this section provide the background information on the problem. Why is this project important?
    • PICOt Question – In this section provide your PICOt question from Week 5 section on the MSN Capstone Project Proposal Form.
    • Literature Review – In this section provide a review of the literature. What were the themes?
    • Evidence-Based Intervention – In this section describe the evidence-based intervention. What will be done?
    • Outcome Measures – In this section provide your outcome measures and definition. What do you plan to measure to demonstrate success.
    • References – In this section provide no more than two (2) top references you used in the literature review to support your proposal.

I have attached my project and a sample of the power point she wants. please follow the instructions because this teacher is very meticulous when it comes to any work being turned in. 

MSN Capstone Project Proposal Form

Student Name

Patricia Marrero

MSN Program

Family Nurse Practitioner

Project Title

Childhood obesity

Week 1

State Your Clinical Question

[100 to 150 words]

· State your clinical question or topic for your capstone project proposal.

· What issue is the question/topic addressing?

· What are the reasons you selected this question/topic?

The selected clinical question for the capstone project

The capstone project addresses the clinical question associated with overweight or obesity.

The issue of focus using the developed clinical question

Based on the proposed capstone project, the selected clinical question is focused on addressing the issue of childhood obesity. This is an area of focus due to the adverse effects caused by this clinical problem. Childhood obesity exposes individuals to more severe health issues when they become adults. Individuals above 35 years of age who had previously been exposed to childhood obesity are likely to report high cases of chronic illnesses. At this age, the rate at which individuals are diagnosed with cardiovascular problems like heart disease is higher. The overall impacts of these issues are the increased incidences of comorbidities and mortality cases.

Why the topic is selected

Obesity is a condition that is characterized by the presence of excess fat in the body. It is reported that approximately 4 percent of children or adolescents are diagnosed with Obesity in the United States (Varness et al., 2009). This condition affects the health and well-being of children as it affects their regular physical and psychological. Poorly managed body weight leads to children’s exposure to the risk of being diagnosed with common conditions in adults. A child can be diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or heart disease at a tender age due to a poorly managed body weight. The topic, therefore, is of more interest since it forms the basis of research work aimed at determining some of the practical approaches that can be adopted to help prevent the increased risk and rate of obesity amongst children. It also helps in understanding the role played by the parents through health education in protecting and preventing the risk of obesity among their children. The analysis of this research work forms the foundation for promoting health education to reduce childhood obesity in the community.

Week 2

Background Information

[200 to 250 words]

Address the following questions/bullets in completing this section:

· Start at the starting point – What, Where, When, Why, and How?

· What is known about this topic or what is the evidence on this topic
(Scoping Search)?

· What is the outcome of interest?

· What are the gaps in our understanding or knowing related to this topic?

Start at the starting point – What, Where, When, Why, and How?

Child obesity is among health conditions that affect their health due to poor management. This leads to increased exposure of these children to other comorbidities such as severe metabolic and heart illnesses, high blood pressure conditions, and diabetes
(Kim & Lim, 2019). The problem or issue of concern is the lack of an effective management process. There is a need to reduce the cases of obesity among children to have a more productive future generation and a healthier population. The present clinical guidelines recommend that parents put their children on an appropriate growth curve chart, the body mass index (BMI) chart. The BMI plot will show the child’s weight compared to other children of the same age
(Kim & Lim, 2019). When these children are obese, there is a need to evaluate and develop a suitable management plan. The management of this condition requires efforts from both providers are patients.

What is known about this topic, or what is the evidence on this topic (Scoping Search)?

The management of this condition requires a collaborative process between patients, family members, and healthcare providers. The successful management of this condition also requires evidence-based interventions that involve healthy lifestyles. Health education helps prevent and succeed in obesity conditions (Weihrauch-Blüher & Wiegand, 2018). Therefore healthcare providers play an essential role in providing health education to parents and patients to ensure that children are from obese conditions.

·
What is the outcome of interest?

The successful management process of obesity requires the adoption of effective management obesity education program to help in the prevention and successful management process—the WHO proposes counselling to the parents and caregivers on nutrition and physical activity. Motivational interviewing helps promote healthy behaviours such as supportive parenting, regular physical activities, healthy food selection, minimal watching time, and maximum sleeping.

What are the gaps in our understanding or knowledge related to this topic?

For children already diagnosed with obesity, several evidence-based practices can be adopted to help them, for example, healthcare providers working with the parents or families to help mitigate the effects. Nevertheless, the weight issue is not occasionally discussed in clinical practice. This indicates a gap in promoting the role of the parents in supporting their children when handling the problem of childhood obesity. A positive relationship between providers and patients is necessary to successfully manage childhood obesity
(Kim & Lim, 2019).

Week 3

Literature Search Strategies

[150 to 200 words]

Provide details of your exhaustive search process. Be certain to list:

· Databases searched.

· All the keywords or search phrases used.

· How many articles in total that were found?

· List the inclusion/exclusion criteria.

· Provide the number of articles that were retained and a description on why those articles were retained.

· Consider using a flowchart to outline the search process.

Databases Search

The relevant articles to guide the study process were based on using important databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, the Medline, and the PsycINFO, among others.

Keywords

The search for relevant articles was also based on the keywords. The search process was guided by keywords like education, lifestyle, overweight, children, attitude, practice, knowledge, obesity, parental education and counselling support, anti-obesity, and complications. The keywords were limited to the interventions involved in obesity amongst children, parental education and counselling support, health education to parents, and the role of parents in promoting healthy lifestyles among their children.

Total Number of Articles Found in the Initial Search

Approximately 400 articles were produced based on the search procedure, which included keying in the keywords on the site search box. Among the articles available, the inclusion and exclusion criteria helped remain with the most relevant and applicable sources of information. The research structure inclusion criteria considered full-text articles published within the last five years, presented in English and had important information on the research topic.

The total number of articles after the duplication and exclusion process was 100.

The inclusion and exclusion Criteria

The search for the relevant data was limited to obesity amongst children, parental education and counselling support, obesity amongst children, health education to parents, and the role of parents in promoting healthy lifestyles amongst their children. The search was also limited to articles published less than five years from the current date. The exclusion criteria include the publication of more than five years from the current date, non-full texted, non-English, and articles on adult obesity. The exclusion criteria also included articles that presented the abstract only and were written in languages other than English.

Articles Retained

The scanning process based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria s resulted in 40 articles. The scanning was also conducted using the research methods adopted by each study, resulting in the generation of 10 relevant articles. Therefore, about 10 papers were retained based on the systemic review and the experimental randomized control studies.

Flow Chart



Databases Searched

· PubMed

· Science Direct

· Medline

· PsycINFO




Key Terms

Education, lifestyle, overweight, children, attitude, practice, knowledge, obesity, parental education and counseling support, anti-obesity, and complications.




Number of Articles Generated from the Initial Search

400 articles generated and after duplication, about 100 are generated.




Exclusion and Inclusion Criteria

The search for the relevant data were limited to obesity amongst children, parental education and counseling support, health education to parents, and the role of parents to promoting healthy lifestyles amongst their children. The search was also limited to the articles published less than five years from the present date. The exclusion criteria include the publication of more than five years from current date, the non-full texted, non-English, and articles on adult obesity.

Number of Articles Retained

The scanning process based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria s resulted to 40 articles. The scanning was also conducted using the research methods adopted by each study and this resulted to the generation of 10 relevant articles. Therefore, about 10 articles based on the systemic review and the experimental randomized control studies were retained.

Week 4

Literature Review

[500 to 1000 words]

Conduct a review of the literature. Include at least five (5) research articles and/or evidence-based guidelines. Address the following questions/bullets in completing this section:

· Conduct a review of the literature.

· Provide the highlights from the research.

· Synthesize the literature on the topic.

· Summarize how the project will contribute to knowledge by filling in gaps, validating, or testing knowledge.

· Cite references in this section per APA and list the reference in the References section at the end of the form.

Childhood obesity is an international health concern; therefore, early intervention to help parents adopt best practices for infant feeding and physical activity is important in maintaining a healthy weight. According to Anderson et al. (2019), one in three children in the United States between the ages of two and five years old meet the criteria for being overweight or obese, making childhood obesity a significant problem for the public’s health. Ronan et al. (2020) assert that the critical need to turn the tide of childhood obesity has resulted in a substantial expansion of the scientific literature that analyzes interventions designed to combat childhood obesity. Since most reviews include children of varying ages and from different countries, report further assessment and management, or are limited to a specific intervention environment, existing studies have offers limited guidelines regarding methods for lowering the rates of childhood obesity among preschool-age children in the United States aged  1.5–12. The conditions under which therapies for childhood obesity are most effective are typically overlooked in traditional meta-analytic analyses, which tend to focus narrowly on the effectiveness of the treatment as a whole.

It is important to ensure that children between 1.5–12 years who visits primary care facilities are assessed based on the weight or height. This is an important approach that needs to be done adequately. Study by Morales Camacho et al. (2019) proposes that there should be general counseling to the families or their caregivers on the nutrition and physical activities. When determining how a child’s weight compares with their length for children younger than 2 years old, physicians use weight-for-length charts rather than BMI to make this determination. Based on the current guidelines related to the treatment of childhood obesity, children under the age of 1.5 – 12 who have a body mass index that is at or above the 95th percentile are considered to be overweight. The providers should help in identifying the suitable management plans at the primary healthcare level to promote healthy weight amongst these children. This can be done through calculating the weight and BMI at every health visit as frequent as possible to see whether parent involvement towards eradicating the problem is effective (Williams et al., 2018). The physical examination also needs to be led by the presentation of symptoms, hypotheses, and differential diagnoses that the doctor is contemplating based on history gathered from the patient and the family. The study is important for the capstone project since it reveals the importance of including the parents in the management plans to ensure that they acquire knowledge important in promoting the healthy eating and physical activities.

Childhood obesity is a complicated issue and it is considered as an epidemic in the entire world. The incorporation of the primary care-based obesity solution into the clinical practice help in the reduction of the childhood overweight and obesity. Ronan et al. (2020) indicate in their study that primary care nurses play an important role in influencing the family members and children. The early identification process, the implementation of these interventions, and the encouragement of the family members using education and supporting counseling helps in the promotion of the healthy lifestyle changes. It also assists in the prevention of comorbidities and reducing the long-term complications associated with the poor management of overweight and obesity amongst children. Also, among the components of the current standard of care for the management of children’s weight include significant obesity prevention interventions in early care and education settings were related with healthy eating and anthropometric results, which were further improved by parental engagement (Smith et al., 2020). The study is important for the capstone project since it points out about the importance of parental education and counseling on the reduction in childhood obesity.

Research shows that the school system in the United States lacks time for physical activity. Therefore, the system is not held liable to teach health education to the students. It is clear that parents, staffs, and students have to be educated to enable children benefit more from the childhood obesity interventions. These finds clearly indicates the need to have the occupational therapists to ensure successful implementation of the school wide programs (Anderson et al., 2019). The study is important since it shows the importance of having programs that can be used to intervene with the educators, staffs, learners, and the parents to ensure a reduction in childhood obesity.

Parents with children considered to be positive defiant are at higher chances of promoting healthy eating and physical activity participation. These parents are more likely to implement rules and limiting the time spent by children on the television as compared to the parents whose children have higher weight status. Smith et al., (2020) assert that particular parenting feeding behaviors as well as health associated practice impact on the weight status of a child especially for the families living in the low income and racialized families. The study is important for the capstone project since it shows that parenting practices and approaches are considered as the positive deviant and must be communicated as the effective interventions.

Week 5

PICOt Question

State your PICOt question here. Use the elements of the PICOt in separate sections below to describe each component.

· Population – Provide the description of the targeted population.

· Intervention – Describe your evidence-based intervention.

· Comparison – What is currently happening?

· Outcomes – List at least two (2) measurable outcomes.

· time – What duration of the study for the project? (e.g., usually 6 months or 3 months)

PICOT QUESTION: For parents of children of age 1.5 to 12 years, does parental education and counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and physical activities compared to no intervention results in the reduction of the risk to childhood obesity and effective control or management of childhood obesity within 3 months?

Population (P): The selected population in this case are parents or the caregivers who are considered to be responsible for caring for children or infants or are still breastfeeding (1.5 to 12 years).

Intervention (I): Parental education, counseling on physical activities and breastfeeding

Comparison (C): No intervention

Outcomes (O): effective control of the childhood obesity and preventing the risk of being diagnosed with obesity

time (t): A period of three months

Week 6

P (Target Population)

[75 to 100 words]

Address the following questions/bullets in completing this section:

· Who is your target population?

· Describe your population, i.e., age, ethnicity, gender, condition/diagnosis, etc.?

· Describe the setting where this project be implemented?

The targeted Population

Parents of children belonging to the age bracket of 1.5 to 12 years are targeted as the population sample.

Description of the Population

The selected parents will be those who lives within Texas city and have their children who are yet to join school, are in the elementary school, and are in the primary or junior secondary school. The population will be narrowed to Hispanic families whose children have been confirmed to be having obesity or at risk of developing obesity disease.

In the United States, Latinos have one of the highest rates of obesity prevalence overall. The prevention and treatment of obesity are now included in the activities that are being taken to improve the health of Latinos in the United States. It is recommended that community-based, culturally significant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials, and promotera-led interventions all be included in the category of interventions for encouraging behavioral changes in diet or physical exercise that have sufficient or strong evidence.

Describing the Setting

The targeted parents are from Texas region most in the rural areas where majority of the population are from the low-income families.

Week 7

I (Intervention)

[100 to 200 words]

Address the following questions/bullets in completing this section:

· What are you planning to investigate or implement as a policy/process or program?

· What are you doing that is different than what is currently happening?

· List


2-3 potential

actions that will be applied in this practice change.

NOTE: Be very specific in your description.

The policies for managing childhood obesity include parental education, counseling on physical activities, and breastfeeding. Children are not old enough to make their own decisions about what they eat, so parents need to get involved with their children’s eating habits and keep them active. One way is by ensuring the kids have access to various healthy foods at home and keeping snacks out of plain sight. Parents should also be aware of their child’s activity level and ensure they receive physical activity even when they are not feeling it. Parents can make a difference in the health of childhood obesity by encouraging children to participate in moderate physical activity regularly and starting a healthy diet early on. What is outstanding about this intervention is that it targets what parents do instead of focusing on what the child does. Individualized physical activity plans will then focus on each child’s type of activity and duration to improve their overall health as a group. Potential actions that will be applied in this practice change include individualized support and follow-ups.

Week 8

O (Outcomes to be measured)

[100 to 150 words]

Every project is required to have an evaluation plan. Address the following questions/bullets in completing this section:

· Which


2-3 outcomes

are expected for your project?

· What outcomes will be measured?

· How do you plan to do this?

· What tool will you be using to measure your outcome(s)?

· What data will be used to validate success of the project?

Be sure your outcomes link to the identified problem.

· How will you know if your intervention resulted in change?

The expected outcomes

It is anticipated that the proposed intervention, once successfully implemented, will lead to successful control of obesity among children. This prediction is based on the assumption that the intervention will be successfully implemented. It is reasonable to expect parents to have a higher level of knowledge regarding the management of their children’s obesity and the reduction of the risks of being exposed to the disease or the complications that come along with it.

Measuring the Outcomes

The outcome to be measured is the how well parents are able to prevent and control obesity amongst their children. The growth and development of children will be measured in terms of the presence of any disorder, their weight, and height. The outcome is also measured based on the levels of body mass index (weight and height values).

The Plan

The baseline data on the incidences of the reported case childhood obesity which will be compared with the information generated or outcomes from the implementation of the proposed evidence-based practice. The improvement in the outcome will be an indication that children are actively involved in the physical exercise, taking part in consuming healthy diet, and that mothers are exclusively breastfeeding their children.

Tool for the measurement of the outcomes

The tape measure or stadiometer will be used to take the height of children. Other tool is the spring hanging scale (SALTER) will be used to take weight of children for children between 1.5 to 12 years and weighing scale for children weighing up to 25 kg. The findings from the measurements of the height and body weight will be used to get the body mass index (BMI) to determine whether the child is obese or not.

Data for the validation of the project’s success

The lower values of BMI will show that the project is successful. Nevertheless, when the values of BMI remain unchanged or increased for the children diagnosed with obesity, then the project is confirmed to be unsuccessful.

How to determine whether the project led to changes

The reports on the lower values of the BMI is an indication that parents have understood their roles in promoting the healthy eating, physical activity, and the exclusive breastfeeding to promote health development and growth of their children. Also, checking the rate and improvement of childhood obesity cases reported.

Week 9 & References

9.1 Conclusion

[200 to 250 words]

· Provide a summary for your MSN Capstone Project.

· Select and provide the rationale for three (3) competencies or specialty standards that you would expect to use in implementing this project [
List of your specialty competencies are listed in the Week 9 Reflection Post]

9. 2 References

[Minimal of 5 research articles and references are paged on the last page.]

· Add your references in APA formats on the last page.

The poor management process that exposes children to complications and risk of new diagnosis with the condition for those who have not yet confirmed to be having the disease is associated with the rise in the rates of childhood obesity, which has been linked to the increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. A child’s obesity can be successfully prevented and managed, in large part due to the involvement of the child’s parents. However, the topic of a child’s weight is not tackled in an adequate manner during the clinic visits. As a result, children develop without the knowledge of their parents regarding some of the risk factors that put their children at risk of becoming overweight. In order for children to have a healthy development and growth, it is essential for their parents to have knowledge on the importance of regular physical activity, the consumption of foods with a low-calorie count or healthy foods, and the practice of exclusive breast feeding.

The successful implementation of the proposed intervention requires some basic competency. One of the competencies is the good relationship. It is important to ensure that a good relationship is developed between healthcare providers and parents to support effective learning process. The other competency required is the understanding to ensure conducive learning environment. Lack of understanding makes it hard to know some challenges experienced by the parents in dealing with their children. It is also important to be culturally competent to create a successful learning environment. Culturally competency is important in overcoming common cultural barriers such as language barriers.

References in APA format should begin on the next page.


18


References

Anderson, P. M., Butcher, K. F., & Schanzenbach, D. W. (2019). Understanding recent trends in childhood obesity in the United States. 
Economics & Human Biology
34, 16-25.

Henderson, N. N. (2021). Childhood Obesity: Improving Outcomes Through Primary Care-Based Interventions. 
Pediatric Nursing
47(6), 267-300.

Kim, J., & Lim, H. (2019). Nutritional management in childhood obesity. 
Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome
28(4), 225.

LeRouge, C. M., Hah, H., Deckard, G. J., & Jiang, H. (2020). Designing for the co-use of consumer health technology in self-management of adolescent overweight and obesity: mixed methods qualitative study. 
JMIR mHealth and uHealth
8(6), e18391.

Morales Camacho, W. J., Molina Díaz, J. M., Plata Ortiz, S., Plata Ortiz, J. E., Morales Camacho, M. A., & Calderón, B. P. (2019). Childhood obesity: Aetiology, comorbidities, and treatment. 
Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews
35(8), e3203.

Nasiri, A. (2022). Parental care challenges in childhood obesity management: A qualitative study. 
Evidence Based Care
11(4), 7-15.

Ronan, L., Alexander-Bloch, A., & Fletcher, P. C. (2020). Childhood obesity, cortical structure, and executive function in healthy children. 
Cerebral Cortex
30(4), 2519-2528.

Smith, J. D., Fu, E., & Kobayashi, M. A. (2020). Prevention and management of childhood obesity and its psychological and health comorbidities.
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,
16(1), 351–378.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-100219-060201

Varness, T., Allen, D. B., Carrel, A. L., & Fost, N. (2009). Childhood obesity and medical neglect. 
Pediatrics
123(1), 399-406. doi: 
10.1542/peds.2008-0712

Weihrauch-Blüher, S., & Wiegand, S. (2018). Risk factors and implications of childhood obesity. 
Current Obesity Reports
7(4), 254-259.

Williams, A. S., Ge, B., Petroski, G., Kruse, R. L., McElroy, J. A., & Koopman, R. J. (2018). Socioeconomic status and other factors associated with childhood obesity. 
The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
31(4), 514-521.

World Health Organization. (2017, October 3). Guideline: Assessing and managing children at primary health-care facilities to prevent overweight and obesity in the context of the double burden of malnutrition.
https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241550123

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CHART or

PICTURE

CHART or

PICTURE

Type Your Title Here

John Smith, MD1; Jane Doe, DNP2; Frederick Smith, APRN, PhD1,2

1South University, 2Medical Center of Affiliation

Abstract

In this section provide an abstract of your proposal. This is only a proposal and is not a project to be implemented. Only Provide the information you have actually completed with is the MSN Capstone Project Proposal Form.

Background Information

In this section provide the background information on the problem. Why is this project important?

In this section provide a review of the literature. What were the themes?

Theme

xxxxx

xxxxx

Theme

xxxxx

Literature Review

References

Population (P):

Intervention (I):

Comparison (C):

Outcomes (O):

time (t):

PICOt Question

In this section describe the evidence-based intervention. What will be done?

Evidence-Based Intervention

© 2021 South University. All rights reserved.

In this section provide your outcome measures and definition

Outcome 1 – Survey – used to measure….

Outcome 2 – Compliance Rate is the percent…

Outcome 3 – Fall rate is the overall falls within the last ….

Outcome Measures

NP Adherence to Practice Protocol:
Management of Persistent Pain in Older Adults

George Peraza-Smith, APRN, DNP, FAANP1; DNP Chair2, GNP, DNP, FAANP
1South University, 2Case Western Reserve University

Abstract
Even though persistent pain is highest among
older adults, they have been insufficiently
represented in clinical trials and studies on the
management of persistent pain. Agism has had
a negative impact on the adequate assessment
and management of pain in older adults.
Evidence has emerged indicating serious risk for
cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal
dysfunction with consistent use of NSAIDs and
COX-2 analgesics. Other evidence supports the
efficacious use of opioid analgesic in the
treatment of moderate-to-severe persistent pain
in older adults. Updated guidelines recommend
more reliance on opioid analgesia.. This
proposal aim is to implement an evidence-based
practice protocol on the pharmacological
management of persistent pain in older adults.

Background Information
An estimated 25% to 50% of older adults living
in the community and up to 80% of those in
nursing homes experience significant pain at
least some of the time. Undertreated persistent
pain in older adults has been linked to
depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment,
delirium, sleep disturbances, functional decline
and increased healthcare utilization and cost.
This project will implement a best practice so
that each older adult in a clinic will be assessed
and treated more effectively.

Persistent pain is a personal emotional and physical
experience.
Untreated or Inadequate Pain Management
• Persistent pain is under-recognized and under-treated
in older adults in many settings.
• Those with dementia have a greater risk for
inappropriate and inadequate pain treatment.

Pain Assessment with Older Adults
• Many older adults under-report their pain so as not to
be a burden.
• Numeric Rating Scale (1-10) has been shown
ineffective with older adults.
•IPT has high validity and reliability.

Opioid Use with Older Adults
• Guidelines support for persistent pain.
• Prescribing practice of opioids in older adults is mixed.

Literature Review

1.GSA. (2009). Pharmacological management of
persistent pain in older persons. Pain
Medicine, 10(6), 1062-1083.

2. Flaherty, E. (2021). Pain assessment for older
adults. ConsultGeri, 7.
https://hign.org/consultgeri/try-this-series/pain-
assessment-older-adults

References

Population (P): NP providers who make rounds in a 50-
bed skilled nursing facility
Intervention (I): Implementation of an evidenced-Based
Protocol on the management of persistent pain in adults
50 years and older
Comparison (C): Current practice of no protocol
Outcomes (O): 20% improvement in self-report pain
relief, 90% compliance rate of providers with protocol,
50% reduction on the use of NSAID with adults 50 years
and older
time (t): 60-days

PICOt Question
Implementation of a best practice protocol from
the American Geriatrics Society on the
pharmacological management of persistent pain
in older adults.
• Standardized pain assessment tool
• Initial treatment – Acetaminophen
• NSIDs and COX-2 used rarely
• For pain scores at moderate or greater, opioid

therapy is considered.

Evidence-Based Intervention

© 2021 South University. All rights reserved.

Outcome 1 – Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) self
report on pain intensity related to a thermometer.

Outcome 2 – NP compliance rate with
implementing protocol.

Outcome 3 – Filled NSAIDs per day compared
to prior to implementation of protocol.

Outcome Measures

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