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 Read EACH Students Response

Provide THREE references to support your answer to the student

I dont care of you use the same references to respond to all three students but each answer MUST have three PEER REVIEWED references to support your response on if you agree or dont agree with the students answer to this weeks questions



ORIGINAL QUESTION- Porter (1996) argued, “Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value. But the essence of strategy is in the activities – choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals. Otherwise, a strategy is nothing more than a marketing slogan that will not withstand competition.” Does this 20+ year-old concept offer an effective understanding of the relationship between strategy and decision making in today’s organizations? Why or why not?

Student 1- KARE

Differentiation is crucial for success in today’s fiercely competitive business world (Khalid & Nusari, 2020). It is imperative to stand out from the crowd with unique selling points that set organizations apart. One of the significant issues organizations face is the inability to differentiate between operational effectiveness and strategic planning (Porter, 1996). Not distinguishing between operational effectiveness and strategic planning can lead to confusion and hinder progress toward achieving long-term goals (Porter, 1996; Khalid & Nusari, 2020). By developing a solid plan that considers the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, and competition, organizations can stay ahead of the game and make informed decisions that drive their organization forward ‌(Khalid & Nusari, 2020). The competitive strategy involves intentionally selecting a distinct set of actions to provide a unique blend of values that sets the organization apart from others in the same industry ‌(Khalid & Nusari, 2020). By doing so, industry leaders can attract and retain customers looking for something different and gain an advantage ‌(Khalid & Nusari, 2020). In this sense, being different is not just about being unique; it is about delivering value in a way others cannot match.

Porter (1996) does offer a practical understanding of the relationship between strategic planning and operational effectiveness in today’s organizations. Merely having a strategy is not sufficient to achieve success. The key lies in executing the activities that are part of the plan with precision and skill (Porter, 1996). After all, action speaks louder than words when making strategies work. Only then can organizations genuinely differentiate themselves and establish themselves as industry leaders.


I believe this concept does offer an effective understanding of the relationship between strategy and decision making in today’s organizations. However, the caveat is there are so many other variables that have impacted this narrative that it may seem like things strategy is nothing more than a marketing slogan. For example, I used to work in the print media business. When I worked in this industry, there was a phrase that swept through the newsroom and it was “journalistic integrity”. Today, with the onslaught of social media, the strategy is to not get scooped and we’ll worry about the details and facts later. There is no more journalistic integrity or investigative reporting. We’ve become a society that wants information yesterday and at any expense. If they get something wrong, they’ll run a correction at the end of a 60-inch story in small print, just to avoid any liability. So, the question is what kind of organization are you running and more importantly, does your leader lack or exude integrity. When leaders allow their personal convictions and morals to guide their decision-making, this usually leads to positive outcomes for both the organization and its employees alike (Oke et al., 2019). In my opinion, operating with integrity is a strategy of its own as it will guide your decision-making in whatever industry you serve.


Strategy and decision-making in today’s organizations might not have changed, but how leadership goes about implementation has changed. Management’s understanding of the external of the industry and internal of their stakeholders and buy-in from them is essential to the strategy that needs to be implemented. The organization’s size is vital to achieving the goals that the management of an organization needs to comprehend. If the organization according to Houser et al. (2020), management in smaller to medium size organizations will take a different approach to their competitive strategy that is built on the personal and not on the economic goals. The concept is the same; the implementation of it has changed due to the change in the culture of the workforce. The understanding is still there between strategy and decision-making, but the process cannot be top-down like it was. Employee involvement in the decision-making process gives the organization a competitive advantage that is long-term to the economic growth of the organization (Li et al., 2019). What was done in the 1990s and early 2000s when organizations like Continental Airlines tried to copy Southwest but simultaneously tried to keep its luxury brand under the same name became detrimental. Instead of copying a competitor, organizations need to be forward-thinking and creative in their products and processes; implement them onto the main street.


Hauser, A., Eggers, F., & Güldenberg, S. (2020). Strategic decision-making in SMEs: effectuation, causation, and the absence of strategy. Small Business Economics, 54, 775–790. 

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