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From textbook, end of chapter 6.
Focus on Sound: Nashville
The director Robert Altman is known for his complex sound mixes that present a realistic soundscape. Unlike most directors, Altman does not highlight dialogue over effects and music; indeed, he often overlaps dialogue (from one or more conversations) and uses sound to place the viewer inside the purportedly real space of the film.
Review his technique here from a short scene from the film, Nashville.
Analyze how the basic elements of sound recording, editing, and mixing contribute to the story content of a film.
Begin by thinking about the overall effect of the sound design, and then focus on individual components.
- What do you learn about the story and characters from the sound design alone?
- What emotional effect does the sound design have on you?
1 Sound and Image
- Notice all the distinct sounds you hear. Play the video back again and do not look at the image (close your eyes).
- Which sounds originate from the world of the film (diegetic)? Which sounds are nondiegetic?
- How do the nondiegetic sounds affect your view of the scene? How might you read the scene differently if the sound were diegetic only?
- Do any sounds originate off-screen? If so, how do they affect your reading of the scene?
- Do any sounds extend from an earlier or later scene? How does that sound bridge connect story elements from the two scenes?
2 The Voice Track
- Note all of the individual voice tracks, especially dialogue and voice-over.
- How do the actorsâ€™ line readings affect your reading of the scene?
- Is there a moment of direct address? If so, how does it affect the tone and meaning of the scene?
- Is there any voice-over? What sort of commentary does it provide?
- Notice any instances and sources of music.
- Describe the general qualities of the musical score. How does the score affect your reading of a specific scene? Of the film as a whole?
- Are musical motifs used in the telling of the film story? If so, how?
- Do you recognize any previously recorded music in the film? If so, how is it used? Does it comment on the action in any way? What does it contribute to the mood and tone?
4 Sound Effects
- Notice the distinct sound effects.
- Do these effects (taken together) contribute to your impression of the setting as real?
- Are sound effects used to build suspense or provide cues?
- Are there instances of distorted or muffled sound effects? How are these used in the telling of the story?
5 Sound Editing and Mixing
- Which component of the sound mix is most prominentâ€”voice, music, or effects? Why?
- How do the dynamics of the sound mixâ€”the range of highs and lowsâ€”affect your experience of the action?
- Is silence used at any time in the film?
After you have analyzed this clip on your own, complete the following assignment and post your results (a cue sheet with video file) to discussion board.
Choose at least 15 seconds of sound from a Film clip of your choice.
Avoid film trailers. Embed the video.
I recommend choosing a quieter scene — less audio tracks to find.
- For full credit you must also respond to at least one other student, further stimulating discussion.
â€¢ Discussion must be focused on subject.
â€¢ Film vocabulary and concepts introduced in this class are used.
â€¢ Response contains complete sentences.
â€¢ No spelling errors.
|TRACKS (feel free to add more tracks, if necessary)||IDENTIFY THE SOUND (character’s name, the foley sound, etc)||TIME CODE IN (Sound is heard on the clip at this min/sec.)||TIME CODE OUT (Sound is no longer heard on the clip at this min/sec.)||SCRIPT: If a character is speaking, what do they say here?|
|Dialogue (DX) or Voice over|
|Ambience (AMB) or Room Tone|
|Sound Effects (SFX)|