There are three parts to this essay assignment. Check attachment to access the organizational chart for California’s Department of Corrections (DOC) and Rehabilitation. Second, check attachment for th

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There are three parts to this essay assignment. Check attachment to access the organizational chart for California’s Department of Corrections (DOC) and Rehabilitation. Second, check attachment for the organizational charts on pp. 251, 252, 267, and 272 from the textbook (Tables 10-1, 10-2, 10-4, and 10-6). In essay format, compare and contrast the organizational chart examples from the textbook and the organizational chart for California’s DOC by addressing the areas listed below.

  • How might the differences in models contribute to each agency’s overall organizational effectiveness?
  • Argue the value of having numerous organizational models for corrections as opposed to having a universal organizational model.
  • Consider what you have learned about the roles and functions of corrections personnel. How might the roles and functions of corrections personnel vary given differing organizational structures? Give specific examples.

For the third and final part of this essay assignment, address the questions below.

  • If you had to choose an organizational structure for corrections that would be universally applied in the United States, regardless of demographic, population, or location, which would you choose for maximum organizational effectiveness, and why? What specific factors do you believe would lead to greater organizational effectiveness?

Your essay should start with a brief introduction. Each part of your essay should be one page in length; therefore, your essay should be at least three pages in length, not counting the title page and references page. You must use at least two sources to support your essay, one of which may be your textbook. All sources used should be properly cited. Your essay, including all references, should be formatted in APA Style.

There are three parts to this essay assignment. Check attachment to access the organizational chart for California’s Department of Corrections (DOC) and Rehabilitation. Second, check attachment for th
Page 251-252 Attached to the warden’s office are (possibly by some other title) an institutional services inspector and the institutional investigator who deal with inmate complaints against staff. As mentioned in the earlier section on central office, prisons also need personnel who deal with labor contracts and the media, and who collect and provide this information to the central office. A computer services manager maintains the management information systems. Also reporting to the warden are deputy or associate wardens, each of whom supervises a department within the prison. The deputy warden for operations will normally oversee correctional security, unit management, the inmate disciplinary committee, and recreation. This is typically the largest unit in terms of number of employees, as approximately 66 percent of all correctional employees are in the role of correctional officer, line staff, or supervisors in direct contact with inmates.33 The deputy warden for special services will typically be responsible for functions that are more treatment oriented, including the library, mental health services, drug and alcohol recovery services, education, prison job assignments, religious services, and prison industries. Note that a large percentage of federal and state correctional facilities provide inmate work programs (88%), educational programs (85%), and counseling programs (92%).34 Finally, the deputy warden for administration will manage the business office, prison maintenance, laundry, food service, medical services, prison farms, and the issuance of clothing.35 It is important to note that custody and treatment are not either-or in correctional organizations; rather, they are complementary. Although custody overshadows treatment in terms of operational priorities—treatment programs are unable to flourish if security is weak and staff and inmates work and live in chronic fear and danger—prisons without programming options for offenders are nothing more than warehouses, being amenable to violence, disruption, and the continuation of criminally deviant behavior. Correctional staff, regardless of their job function, does not support such volatile conditions. Most often, the overriding concern in a prison or jail is and should be security. Security must be maintained so that programs can be implemented. Programs are generally supported by staff, especially those that address inmate deficiencies such as lack of education and job skills as well as substance abuse. Keep in mind that according to a recent report, only a low percentage of offenders actually receive treatment: just 11 percent of all jail and prison inmates receive the proper level of treatment prescribed by the judiciary.36 Prison administrators must decide which programs they will allow to be introduced into their facility; this is not often an easy task, especially when much of the public perceives that programs only “coddle” inmates.37 Next, we discuss several related aspects—correctional security, unit management, education, and penal industries—in more detail. The correctional security department supervises all of the security activities within a prison, including any special housing units, inmate transportation, and the inmate disciplinary process. Security staff wear military-style uniforms, a captain normally runs each 8-hour shift, lieutenants often are responsible for an area of the prison, and sergeants oversee the rank-and-file correctional staff. Missteps by this department, in particular, can have dire consequences for officer and prisoner safety and institutional integrity, such as recently when a group of inmates at a Delaware maximum-security prison took several officers hostage and engaged in a standoff with police that lasted several hours.38 The unit management concept originated in the federal prison system in the 1970s and now is used in nearly every state to control prisons by providing a “small, self-contained, inmate living and staff office area that operates semiautonomously within the larger institution.”39 The purpose of unit management is twofold: to decentralize the administration of the prison and to enhance communication among staff and between staff and inmates. Unit management breaks the prison into more manageable sections based on housing assignments; assignment of staff to a particular unit; and staff authority to make decisions, manage the unit, and deal directly with inmates. Units are usually comprised of 200 to 300 inmates; staff are not only assigned to units, but their offices are also located in the housing area, making them more accessible to inmates and better able to monitor inmate activities and behavior. Directly reporting to the unit manager are case managers, or social workers, who develop the program of work and rehabilitation for each inmate and write progress reports for parole authorities, inmate classifications (discussed in Chapter 12), or inmate transfers to another prison. Correctional counselors also work with inmates in the units on daily issues, such as finding a prison job, working with their prison finances, and creating a visiting and telephone list.40 The education department operates the academic teaching, vocational training, library services, and sometimes recreation programs for inmates. An education department is managed similarly to a conventional elementary or high school, with certified teachers for all subjects that are required by the state department of education or are part of the General Education Degree (GED) test. In federal and state prisons, 90 percent of facilities offer formal educational programs, the most common of which is a secondary education or a GED program.41 Vocational training can include carpentry, landscaping or horticulture, food service, and office skills.
There are three parts to this essay assignment. Check attachment to access the organizational chart for California’s Department of Corrections (DOC) and Rehabilitation. Second, check attachment for th
Page 267 Podular/Direct Supervision Jails Rationale and Expanding Use As noted previously, in the past, the federal courts have at times become more willing to hear inmate allegations of constitutional violations ranging from inadequate heating, lighting, and ventilation to the censorship of mail. One of every five cases filed in federal courts was on behalf of prisoners, 109 and 20 percent of all jails were a party in a pending lawsuit.110 Court-ordered pressures to improve jail conditions afforded an opportunity for administrators to explore new ideas and designs; therefore, over the past several decades and in response to the deluge of lawsuits concerning jail conditions, many local jurisdictions constructed what is now known as the podular direct supervision (PDS) jail, where inmates’ cells are arranged around a common area—in podular fashion, with no physical barriers between the officer and the inmates, having an open dayroom area—and inmate management style is direct in nature, with officers moving about the pod and interacting with the inmates to manage their behavior. PDS jails also typically offer more amenities in the living areas, including visiting areas, books, and telephones.111 The PDS jail (formerly known as “new-generation” jail) represents a comparatively new approach for addressing many of the earlier problems found in local jails.112 According to the National Institute of Corrections (NIC), the number of PDS jails increased in the United States from approximately 199 in 1995 to about 350 at present. Today, approximately one-fifth of medium- to large-sized jails use the podular architecture.113 This growing number, the NIC stated, “suggests that direct supervision continues to be adopted as a design style and management philosophy in large and small jurisdictions across the United States.”114 Departing from Tradition PDS jails differ from traditional jails in several ways. First, the physical environment is different (See Figure 10-5). In traditional jails, cells are arranged linearly along a corridor, with officers being separated from inmates by bars, glass, or other physical barriers. Officers must patrol halls where their line of sight into each cell is severely restricted, and officers can observe what is happening inside a cell only when they are almost directly in front of it. In the PDS jail, inmates are separated into relatively small groups (usually 50 or fewer), housed in self-contained living units including several one- to two-person cells, a day room, and recreation space. These units, or “pods,” usually are triangular or wedge shaped so that jail officers have a direct line of sight into all areas of the pod at all times. The furnishings in the living units also differ and generally include carpeting, porcelain lavatories, moveable furniture that may be padded or plastic, and other “soft” fixtures. The direct supervision philosophy has officers stationed within the living area with no physical barriers to separate them from inmates. In these units, officers maintain a constant physical presence, but they also interact extensively with inmates.115

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