The paper should be two parts. The first part is where students should offer details on the extent of the chosen problem of the sexual exploitation of children: TOPIC: Reported data versus the unknown

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The paper should be two parts.


The first part

is where students should offer details on the extent of the chosen problem of the sexual exploitation of children:

TOPIC: Reported data versus the unknown data within sexual exploitation of children

In

Part 2

, students should include what the government currently does to address the identified problem AND policy recommendations that include some ideas/guidance on how to reduce the prevalence of the crime that is being discussed.


Number of Pages: 13

Students should have a minimum of 5 to 7 peer reviewed sources to support the arguments in theirpaper.


MUST USE ATTACHED ANNOTADED BIBLIOGRAPHY

APA citation is an absolute MUST!!

100% Original

The paper should be two parts. The first part is where students should offer details on the extent of the chosen problem of the sexual exploitation of children: TOPIC: Reported data versus the unknown
Reported data versus the unknown data within sexual exploitation of children Sexual exploitation of children is a form of sexual abuse whereby a child is given money, gifts, among others, in exchange for doing sexual activities. In this case, the children are misled into thinking they are in a consensual and loving relationship and hence may end up trusting their abuser and thus not understand that they are being abused. The issue of sexual exploitation has gained much attention especially with the evolution of the internet which has elevated child trafficking across the globe. However, the true scale of the issue is unknown. This is because centralized data is lacking and also reporting bodies are inadequate. This is further contributed by the culture of shame, stigma, and silence, and also the expansion of information technology all of which are risk factors for the issue. Hence the relevance of the research topic is to assess the available resources regarding the issue to understand the scale of the problem. Boyd, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2014). “Understanding the role of technology in the commercial sexual exploitation of children: the perspective of law enforcement”. In this article, Boyd & Mitchell (2014), conducted an exploratory study to evaluate how technology could be utilized in investigating child trafficking. According to the authors, commercial sexual exploitation of children, also known as child sex trafficking constitute a wide context of sexual victimization because, in addition to the victims being sexually assaulted and abused, they are treated as commodities and used for economic and financial gain. It is now obvious that many types of social activities involve the use of technology. However, criminal and child protection investigators are always struggling to use technology effectively to assess the underlying issues. Also, empirical research on the issue is almost non-existence, and hence media stories and legal reports offer guidance on summaries of case characteristics and the use of technology in such cases. The use of technology to investigate the issue is seen to offer both benefits and drawbacks. The drawbacks lean more towards the offender which includes giving them more opportunity to widen their activities. Hence, the investigators instead feel overwhelmed to deal with what they do not have control over and hence turn to analog means. This, in turn, contributes to the lack of data for research on the issue. Franchino-Olsen, H. (2019). “Vulnerabilities relevant for commercial sexual exploitation of children/domestic minor sex trafficking: A systematic review of risk factors. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 1524838018821956”. In this article, Franchino-Olsen (2019) conducted a review of the reviewed publications to identify the risk factors for commercial sexual exploitation for children. According to the author, the issue has become widespread across the United States, violating the health and the rights of many children and youth. Also, the author identifies that those researchers trying to understand the issue face several barriers. For example, the united states do not have a common database for statistics collection and hence most agencies use their databases leading to double counting hence overlap and widening the gap for identification. The area on the identification of risk factors has numerous gaps with little focus placed on exploited boys. The main identified risk factor in the reviewed literature includes the role of childhood abuse. Wurtele, S. K., & Miller-Perrin, C. (2017). “Sex trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Women & Therapy, 40(1-2), 123-151”. In this article, Wurtele & Miller-Perrin (2017) conducted a comprehensive review to assess what is known concerning the issue of child sex trafficking. According to the authors, the associated problem of human trafficking has become an area of major concern and of international discussion. Despite this recognition, the attention of social workers, psychologists, and other legal and mental health professions towards the issue is seen as being relatively limited up to the present. Several factors contribute to the true number of victims not accurately being identified. The first is the covert nature of the crime due to the effect of law enforcement and mainstream culture. Also, there is a lack of uniform reporting system on victims. These factors, among others, contribute to underreporting of cases hence creating a gap between the known and the unknown. CCAN, Crawford-Jakubiak, J. E., & Greenbaum, J. (2015). “Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims. Pediatrics, 135(3), 566-574”. In this article, Greenbaum et al. (2015) provide a detailed view on the issue of human trafficking and barriers that pediatricians encounter while assisting the victims. Although large numbers of youths and children are affected there many challenges are prevalent which contribute to inadequate data available to pediatricians concerning the issue. According to the authors, the limited research regarding the issue is a common challenge contributed by various factors. An example is the victim identification challenge associated with misidentification of youth as criminals instead of identifying them as victims of child exploitation and abuse. Other challenges include variations in the definition of terms, mixed populations, and small sample sizes. Also, the underlying social factors, family-related factors, and also identification of possible victims make it difficult for the pediatricians to understand and tackle the underlying consequences. Takaoka, K., Aoyama, I., Tanaka, M., MacMillan, H. L., & Suzuki, Y. E. (2017). “Child sexual abuse in Japan: A systematic review and future directions. Child abuse & neglect, 66, 31-40”. In this article, Suzuki et al. (2017) conducted a systematic review to review non-clinical studies that estimate the prevalence of child sexual abuse in japan. According to the authors, although data on the issue is available in many countries, very little is known in japan concerning the epidemiology of child sexual abuse. Paradoxically, rape which is a very serious sexual offense is not often considered a crime. Also, devotion to traditional gender roles may act as a hindrance to the victims not acknowledging victimization. This is seen in japan where men are expected to have male characteristics hence not judged for their actions. Also, the culture of Japanese places emphasis on group harmony. This introduces the context of shame, stigma, and acknowledging sexual victimization. Also, the responsibility for sexual contact lies in women and girls and thus the issue of sexual abuse revolves around children under 13 years especially in Japan. References Franchino-Olsen, H. (2019). The Vulnerabilities relevant for commercial sexual exploitation of children/domestic minor sex trafficking: A systematic review of risk factors. Trauma, Abuse & Violence, 1524838018821956. Crawford-Jakubiak, J. E., & Greenbaum, J., Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. (2015). Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims. Pediatrics, 135(3), 566-574. Wurtele, S. K., & Miller-Perrin, C. (2017). The commercial sexual exploitation of children and Sex trafficking. Women & Therapy, 40(1-2), 123-151. Boyd, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2014). “Understanding the role of technology in the commercial sexual exploitation of children: the perspective of law enforcement”. Suzuki, Y. E., Tanaka, M., Aoyama, I., MacMillan, H. L., & Takaoka, K. (2017). Child sexual abuse in Japan: A systematic review and future directions.  Neglect & Child abuse, 66, 31-40.

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