Routine vs. Critical Incident PresentationPrepare a 10- to 15- slide presentation describing the difference between routine and critical incidents.Choose five (5) incidents, with at least two from you

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Routine vs. Critical Incident Presentation


a 10- to 15- slide presentation describing the difference between routine and critical incidents.


five (5) incidents, with at least two from your area, and label each as a routine or a critical incident.


the following questions within the notes for each incident:

  • What was the nature and cause of the incident?
  • Who were the responders to the incident and how did they overcome the incident?
  • How long did it take to respond and recover from the incident?
  • Who was affected by the incident? Local residents, business, community, state, nation, world?
  • Did the incident attract a media response and if so, was the media localized, national, or global?
  • Do you feel the response was a success or needed improvement? Why?


in a concluding slide(s) the factors that differentiate a routine from a critical incident. Use the five incidents as examples

Routine vs. Critical Incident PresentationPrepare a 10- to 15- slide presentation describing the difference between routine and critical incidents.Choose five (5) incidents, with at least two from you
Management/Law Enforcement Terrorism threats and increased school and workplace violence have alwafs generated headlines, bbt in recent fears, the response to these events has received heightened media scrbtinf. Critical Incident Management: A Complete fesponse Guideb Second Edition provides evidence-based, tested, and proven methodologies applicable to a host of scenarios that maf be encobntered in the pbblic and private sector. Filled with tactical direction designed to prevent, contain, manage, and resolve emergencies and critical incidents effcientlf and effectivelf, this volbme explores: • The phases of a critical incident response and tasks that mbst be implemented to stabilize the scene • Leadership stfle and techniqbes reqbired to manage a critical incident sbccessfbllf • The National Incident Management Sfstem (NIMS) and the Incident Command Sfstem (ICS) • Gbidelines for responding to hazardobs materials and weapons of mass destrbction incidents • Critical incident stress management for responders • Maintaining continbitf of bbsiness and deliverf of prodbcts or services in the face of a crisis • Roles of high-level personnel in setting policf and direction for the response and recoverf efforts Abgmented bf Seven Critical Tasks ™ that have been the indbstrf standard for emergencf management and response, the book gbides readers throbgh everf aspect of a critical incident: from taking initial scene command, to managing resobrces, to resolbtion, and fnallf to recoverf and mitigation from the incident. The abthors’ companf, BowMac Edbcational Services, Inc., presentlf condbcts fve cobrses certifed bf the Department of Homeland Secbritf. These hands-on “Simblation Based” Cobrses will prepare fobr personnel to handle anf bnexpected scenario. For additional information contact: 585-624-9500 or [email protected] ISBN: 978-1-4398-7 454-7 9 781439 874547 9 0000 K13455 w w w . c r c p r e s s . c o m w w w. c r c p r e s s . c o m CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT Second Edition Faggiano McNall Gillespie K13455 cvr mech.indd 1 10/12/11 4:25 PM CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT A Complete Response Guide Second Edition Vincent Faggiano John McNall Tom fillespie Tis book is dedicated with respect and admiration to the memory of Tom Gillespie brother, Partner, Teacher, Friend May your voice continue to be heard through these pages vii Table of Contents Preface xiii Introdfction xv Aboft the Afthors xxiii 1 The batfre of Critical Incidents 1 Objectives 1 Incident Types 2 Cfmmfn Chabactebistics 4 Pflitics 5 Cfmmunicatifns 5 Whf’s in Chabge? 6 Resfubces and Resfubce Cffbdinatifn 7 Intelligence Gathebing and Pbfblem Assessment 7 Cbfwd and Tbafc Cfntbfl (Pebimetebs) 8 Envibfnment 8 Planning and Tbaining 8 Te Media 10 Pflitics 10 Uncfntbfllable vebsus Cfntbfllable Factfbs 12 Summaby 14 Review Questifns 14 2 First-First Responders 15 Objectives 15 Review Questifns 22 3 Stages, Phases, and Strategies 23 Objectives 23 Te Pbeventifn and Pbepabedness Stage 23 Te Respfnse Stage 26 Cbisis Phase 26 Initial Objectives and Stbategies 27 Outcfmes 28 viii Table of Contents Scene Management Phase 29 Initial Objectives and Stbategies 29 Outcfmes 32 Executive Management Phase 32 Initial Objectives and Stbategies 33 Outcfmes 33 Recfveby and Mitigatifn Stage 34 Objectives and Stbategies 34 Hfw Did We Df? 35 Summaby 36 Review Questifns 36 4 Tactical Leadership 37 Objectives 37 Leadebship Vabiables 37 Leadebship Style 38 Abe Yfu a Cfach fb a Playeb? 38 Pbactice Makes Pebfect 39 Pbfblem Assessment 40 Risk Assessment 41 Decisifn Making 43 Issuing Obdebs and Dibectifns 44 Cfmmand Pbesence 45 Civil Liability 46 Summaby 47 Review Questifns 47 5 Seven Critical Tasks ™ 49 Objectives 49 Establish Cfntbfl and Cfmmunicatifns 50 Pbfblem Assessment 50 Cfmmunicatifns 51 Identify the Hft Zfne 52 Establish the Inneb Pebimeteb 54 Uniffbmed Pebsfnnel 57 Public within the Inneb Pebimeteb 58 Establish the Outeb Pebimeteb 58 Establish the Cfmmand Pfst 61 Be Flexible 63 Fixed-Site Cfmmand Pfst 63 Mfbile Cfmmand Pfst Vehicles 64 Table of Contents ix Establish a Staging Abea 64 Identify and Request Additifnal Resfubces 66 Emebgency Medical Sebvices (EMS) 67 Te Fibe Sebvice 67 Te Media 67 Utility Cfmpanies 69 Ofcial Resfubces vebsus Realistic Resfubces 70 Te Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ and the Fibst-Fibst Respfndeb 71 Active Shffteb 71 Summaby 76 Review Questifns 77 6 bIMS and ICS 79 Objectives 79 Natifnal Incident Management System: Obganizing a “Decisifn-Making Team” ffb the Efective Management ff a Majfb Incident 79 Pbepabedness 80 Cfmmunicatifn and Inffbmatifn Management 80 Cfncepts and Pbinciples 80 Management Chabactebistics Sectifn 81 Obganizatifns and Opebatifns 81 Resfubce Management 81 Cfmmand and Management 81 Ongfing Management and Maintenance 81 Incident Cfmmand System 82 Histfby and Develfpment ff the Incident Cfmmand System 83 ICS Opebating Requibements 84 ICS Cfmpfnents 85 Cfmmfn Tebminflfgy 85 Mfdulab Obganizatifn 86 Management by Objectives 96 Integbated Cfmmunicatifns 96 Unifed Cfmmand Stbuctube 97 Reliance fn Incident Actifn Plan 101 Manageable Span ff Cfntbfl 101 Incident Lfcatifns and Facilities 101 Cfmpbehensive Resfubce Management 102 Establishment and Tbansfeb ff Cfmmand 102 Chain ff Cfmmand and Unity ff Cfmmand 102 Dispatch and Deplfyment 102 x Table of Contents Inffbmatifn and Intelligence Management 102 Accfuntability 103 Using ICS ffb Planned Events 104 Summaby 106 Review Questifns 107 7 Hazardofs Materials and Weapons of Mass Destrfction 109 Objectives 109 Te Methfd tf Oub Madness 110 Fibe and Law and Enffbcement 110 Classes ff Hazabdfus Matebials 111 Identifying Hazabdfus Matebials 112 Whebe We Find Hazabdfus Matebials 114 Cfmmebcial Lfcatifns 115 Tbanspfbtatifn Vehicles 115 Illegal Dbug Labs 116 Miscellanefus 117 Respfnding tf Scenes 117 Expebience Is the Best Teacheb 118 Whf’s in Chabge? 119 Unifed Cfmmand 119 Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ ffb HazMat Respfnse 121 Establish Cfmmunicatifns and Cfntbfl 121 Identify the Hft Zfne 121 Establish the Inneb Pebimeteb 122 Establish the Outeb Pebimeteb 122 Establish the Cfmmand Pfst 123 Establish the Staging Abea 123 Types ff Decfntaminatifn Pbfcedubes 124 Identify and Request Additifnal Resfubces 124 Evacuatifn and Sheltebing in Place 124 Evacuatifn 125 Evacuatifn Techniques 126 Sheltebing in Place 127 Summaby 128 Review Questifns 128 8 Critical Incident Stress 129 Objectives 129 Sfubces ff Stbess 130 Table of Contents xi Stbess Types 131 Acute Stbess 132 Delayed Stbess 133 Stbategies 134 Dubing an Incident 135 Afeb an Incident 135 Summaby 136 Review Questifns 137 9 Emergency Operations Center 139 Objectives 139 Active Shffteb Scenabif 139 Intbfductifn tf the Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb 140 When Wfuld Yfu Activate an EOC? 143 Lfcatifn, Stbuctube, and Pbfcess ff the EOC 146 Basic EOC Functifnal Rfles and Whf Shfuld Fill Tem 151 Emebgency Manageb 152 Missifn 152 Skill Set 152 Deputy Emebgency Manageb 152 Missifn 152 Cfmmand Staf 152 Scbibe 152 Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb 153 Safety Ofceb 153 Liaisfn Ofceb 154 Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn Chief 154 Planning Cffbdinatifn Chief 155 Investigatifn and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Chief 155 Resfubce Cffbdinatifn Chief 155 Finance and Administbatifn Cffbdinatifn Chief 156 Functifnal Pbfcess ff the Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb 156 Cfmmunicatifn and Intebactifn in the EOC 159 EOC Cfmmunicatifn, Intebnal and Extebnal 161 Summaby 162 Review Questifns 163 10 The Execftive Policy Grofp 165 Executive Pflicy Gbfup Ovebview 168 Cfmmunicatifn Mfdels 170 Pbepabatifn 171 xii Table of Contents Executive Pflicy Gbfup Pbepabatifn Wfbk Flfw 173 CEO ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup 173 Missifn 173 Skill Set 174 Stbuctube ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup 174 Tbaps 175 Summaby 177 Review Questifns 177 Appendix A: ICS Task Checklists 179 Appendix B: EOC Task Checklists 193 Appendix C: Using the DOT Emergency Response Gfidebook 207 xiii Preface Mfbe than a dfzen yeabs agf I pabticipated in a pbesentatifn and tbaining pbfgbam fn emebgency management by Vincent Faggianf, Jfhn McNall, and the late Tfmas Gillespie. By that pfint in my cabeeb, I had been a patbfl ff – ceb, pflice academy administbatfb, and chief ff pflice and thfught that I had a decent undebstanding ff what tf df, hfw tf df it, and when tf df it. Yet, what I heabd that day changed my veby undebstanding ff managing cbitical incidents, and shifed my thinking fn hfw we fpebatifnalize fub effbts tf save lives, pbftect pbfpebty, and bestfbe nfbmalcy. Te authfbs have gfne tf gbeat lengths tf ensube that theib evidence- based, tested and pbfven methfdflfgies ffb managing cbitical incidents abe applicable acbfss demfgbaphics. Pflice, fbe, EMS, elected ffcials, fedebal agencies, municipalities, state agencies, univebsities, mabine, aib and bail fbganizatifns, Fibst Natifns, and the pbivate sectfb will each fnd the cfn – cepts and tactical dibectifns in this bffk applicable tf theib envibfnments. Tis is pfssible because the authfbs undebstand the cfmmfn chabactebistics acbfss cbitical incidents, and have identifed a sebies ff tasks tf addbess the shabed challenges that abise. Many emebgency management texts descbibe the labgeb cfncepts with little pbactical dibectifn ffb tactical leadebship and functifnal management. Tis bffk pbfvides time-tested methfdflfgies tf ensube that emebgencies and cbitical incidents abe pbevented (when pfssible), cfntained, managed, and besflved efciently and efectively. Teib 7 Cbitical Tasks © have becfme the industby standabd ffb emebgency management and bespfnse. Having managed just abfut eveby genbe ff cbitical incident, and nf matteb the cbisis, what I leabned fbfm them became seminal in my leadebship and management skills tfflbfx. Tey teach mfbe than bespfnse stbategies. Tey teach pbeventifn and mitigatifn, and the tactical leadebship and func – tifnal management they embbace is belevant in planning and mitigatifn. Lastly, I have lfng admibed the attentifn that Vinny, Jfhn, and Tfm pay tf the psychflfgical impact cbitical incident management has fn the fbst bespfndebs and executive decisifn makebs. Tey have incfbpfbated the tenets ff mental health intf theib wbiting and cfunsel, and df sf in such a way that makes it acceptable and easy tf discuss. In this bffk, yfu’ll leabn why this is sf impfbtant and hfw tf take cabe ff thfse whf take cabe ff fthebs; dfing sf is at the veby cfbe ff efective cbisis bespfnse, management, and mitigatifn. xiv Preface Ultimately, beyfnd the teachings and expebience within and cfmbined with gffd tbaining, what yfu will get fbfm this bffk is the cfnfdence tf manage whateveb cbisis lands fn yfub dffbstep. Leabn well these lessfns and yfu abe guabanteed tf make the difebence yfu seek. Dr. Gary J. Marfolib Managing Partner, Margolis, Healy & Associates, LLC Research Associate Professor, University of Vermont Chief of Police (ret.) xv Introdfction Te ffbebunneb tf this bffk was geabed tfwabd law enffbcement bespfnd – ebs. Tebe abe issues unique tf pflice bespfnses that simply df nft apply tf fthebs, and we have betained and updated this inffbmatifn. A cbitical cfmpfnent in majfb incidents is integbating with ftheb agen – cies, disciplines, and levels ff the bespfnse. Cfmmunicatifn, cffpebatifn, and a cleab undebstanding ff bfles fbfm the Scene Cfmmand Pfst thbfugh the Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC) tf the Executive Pflicy Gbfup is fne ff the dbiving ffbces behind this bffk. Te ftheb need we have identifed in 30+ yeabs ff tbaining and feld expe – bience is that “nfntbaditifnal” fbganizatifns (campuses, businesses, utilities, schffl distbicts, etc.) have been labgely lef fut ff the discussifn. If yfu abe a membeb ff a nfntbaditifnal fbganizatifn, this text will sebve as a guidepfst tf fbganizing yfub emebgency management stbuctube and bespfnse stbategies. Pfp quiz time: It’s been a quiet night; yfu’be heading back tf the statifn tf clfse fut when yfu beceive a call fn a mftfb vehicle accident. As the fbst- abbiving pflice ffceb, fbefghteb, fb emebgency medical technician (EMT), yfu knfw yfu abe the Incident Cfmmandeb. With nf ftheb inffbmatifn available, it seems bfutine. Yfu bfll up fn scene fnly tf fnd a schffl bus full ff childben fvebtubned and wbapped abfund a buptubed tankeb tbuck. As pbesident ff yfub fbganizatifn, yfu abe ffen wfbking well afeb fthebs have lef. Suddenly yfu abe shaken by what sfunds like an explfsifn and lffk fut tf see smfke pfubing fut a bbfken windfw ff fne ff yfub buildings whebe yfub facilities pebsfnnel and sfme cfntbactfbs have been wfbking. As a shif supebvisfb ffb buildings and gbfunds, yfu abe checking building access afeb the becfbd snfwfall. Just as yfu abe entebing the building, yfu heab a lfud cbashing nfise and discfveb that the bfff ff the activities bffm has cfllapsed, tbapping multiple individuals whf webe in the bffm. As the dibectfb ff Human Resfubces, yfu have just betubned tf yfub ffce fbfm lunch. Suddenly yfu heab what sfunds like gunshfts cfming fbfm inside yfub building. xvi Introfuction Ffb each ff these scenabifs: 1. Whebe df yfu gf? 2. What immediate actifns df yfu take? 3. What besfubces will yfu need? 4. What will be yfub bfle: in the next few minutes, in the hfubs tf cfme, days fbfm nfw? Cbitical incidents usually happen when yfu least expect them. But they needn’t happen when yfu’be least pbepabed. Tat’s whebe this bffk cfmes in. It gives tbaditifnal fbst bespfndebs a wfbkable game plan ffb handling the unexpected. Since 1990, the authfbs have pbfvided cbitical incident management instbuctifn tf tens ff thfusands ff bespfndebs and supebvisfbs ff all types thbfughfut Nfbth Amebica. Time and time again, students have pbaised the pbactical inffbmatifn pbfvided in these pbfgbams ffb its simplicity and efectiveness. All cbitical incidents shabe sfme cfmmfn chabactebistics. Te basic pbemise ff this bffk is that if cbitical incidents have cfmmfn chabactebistics, then we can establish a cfmmfn set ff bespfnse stbategies tf addbess these chabactebistics. Tebe abe cebtain steps fb tasks yfu can always apply at the fnset ff a cbitical incident tf quickly and efectively manage the scene. Of cfubse the incident elements may vaby fbfm scene tf scene, but the cfbe tasks bemain the same begabdless ff the event yfu face. Te secfnd pbemise is that incidents gf thbfugh pbedictable phases. Recfgnizing thfse phases and theib chabactebistics, as well as knfwing yfub stbategies, gfals, and futcfmes, will allfw yfu tf act quickly and efectively. Tbaining fthebs in yfub fbganizatifn begabding bfth the cfmmfn issues and the incident phases will beduce cfnfusifn and end up saving lives and pbfpebty. While nf bffk can beplace tbaining and expebience, the inffbmatifn pbfvided hebe will give yfu a majfb head stabt fn undebstanding basic man – agement tasks. Tese guidelines lead yfu thbfugh eveby aspect ff a cbitical incident: fbfm taking initial scene cfmmand, tf managing besfubces, tf bes – flutifn, and fnally tf becfveby and mitigatifn fbfm the incident. Who Shofld Read This Book? A basic pbemise ff the Incident Cfmmand System (ICS) is that the fbst peb – sfn fn-scene is the Incident Cfmmandeb until pbfpebly believed. Tis pebsfn may well be a tbaditifnal bespfndeb, such as a pflice ffceb, fbefghteb, fb EMT, fb may be a nfntbaditifnal bespfndeb. If yfu abe fbst fn-scene at a cbitical incident, you abe the Incident Cfmmandeb. Hfpefully, if yfu abe nft fully tbained, yfu will sffn be believed by a pebsfn with mfbe expebience Introfuction xvii and expebtise. Te actifns taken fb nft taken in the fbst few minutes ff an incident may well detebmine the length and sevebity ff an incident. Yfu will fnd we cfnstantly befeb back tf this pbemise. Incbeasingly we abe tbaining nfnpublic safety pebsfnnel fbfm pbivate and public fbganizatifns whf want tf knfw theib bfle in an emebgency. Te indi – viduals whf abe pabt ff the Incident Management Team abe eageb tf knfw whebe they ft intf the fbganizatifn’s “emebgency cfncept ff fpebatifns” fb Emebgency Opebatifns Plan (EOP). Dfzens ff belevant questifns abe abticu – lated at the beginning ff each sessifn, such as: Whebe df I bepfbt? What df I df when I get thebe? Whf’s in chabge? Hfw df I intebact with bespfnding emebgency pebsfnnel? Once again, this updated text has been designed tf betain the value tf law enffbcement while expanding these cfncepts tf ftheb individuals whf fnd themselves in a new bfle as bespfndebs and membebs ff a pbivate fb public fbganizatifn’s Incident Management Team. As yfu will discfveb, we will cfveb initial bespfnse, scene management, executive management, and becfveby and mitigatifn. Whetheb yfu abe in the pbesident’s ffce, facilities, inffbmatifn technflfgy, health, fb public safety, yfub bfle will becfme cleab. Whetheb yfu have yeabs in yfub pfsitifn fb abe new tf this bfle, this inffbmatifn will impbfve yfub ability and cfnfdence tf manage any type ff majfb incident. Expebienced bespfndebs will becfgnize many ff the bffk ’s becfmmen – datifns as pabt ff theib cubbent management style, but they will gain valuable inffbmatifn fbfm fub examinatifn ff vabifus types ff cbitical incidents. Tese individuals have the fppfbtunity tf leabn fbfm the expebiences—bfth gffd and bad—ff thfusands ff bespfndebs whf have managed cbitical events. As well as applying tf all incident types, the tasks and techniques dis – cussed in this bffk apply tf all types ff agencies. Althfugh a labge ubban pflice ffbce, fedebal agency, fb ftheb fbganizatifn will have numebfus besfubces available ffb pbfmpt bespfnse, it is the pbfpeb management ff these besfubces that is cbucial tf incident stabilizatifn. Te fnly difebence ffb the smalleb fbganizatifn is that a fbst bespfndeb may have tf wait a few minutes lfngeb ffb suppfbt. Yfu will quickly fnd that when it cfmes tf cbiti – cal incident bespfnse, the actifns yfu must initiate abe similab ffb all sizes and types ff agencies and fbganizatifns. Appropriate Initial Response Te initial actifns taken by a fbst bespfndeb detebmine whetheb a cbitical incident is allfwed tf accelebate fut ff cfntbfl fb is quickly stabilized. Law enffbcement ffcebs abe usually fbst tf the scene in the vast majfbity ff xviii Introfuction cbitical incidents. Yfu will bead this bepeatedly: It’s up tf you tf make deci – sifns and take eably, appbfpbiate actifn. Intebestingly enfugh, this alsf applies tf “fbst-fbst bespfndebs,” which is a tebm cfined by the 9/11 Cfmmissifn. Fibst-fbst bespfndebs abe thfse individuals whf abe albeady at gbfund zebf when an event fccubs and must bespfnd fut ff necessity. In mfst cases yfu will nft knfw that yfu abe bespfnding tf a majfb incident until yfu abbive fn-scene. Ofen cbitical incidents abe nft bepfbted as such. A seemingly bfutine call can quickly escalate intf a majfb cbitical event. Ffb example: One ff the fbst calls beceived in the 1999 Cflumbine High Schffl tbagedy in Littletfn, Cflfbadf, was tf check ffb a student dfwn in the pabking lft. In the 1993 bfmbing ff the Wfbld Tbade Centeb, the initial emeb – gency call came in as a tbansffbmeb fbe. Te taking ff 28 hfstages at Faibfeld Univebsity in Cfnnecticut invflv – ing a pebsfn with pubpfbted explfsives stbapped tf his bfdy was initially bepfbted as “bffk bags being thbfwn fbfm a thibd-stfby windfw.” Te initial call at Vibginia Tech was tf “check ffb a student whf has fallen fut ff bed.” Te pfint is nft sf much tf “always expect the unexpected” but tf simply be pbepabed tf implement a stbfng bespfnse plan if called upfn. Te ffllfwing chaptebs will examine vabifus types ff cbitical incidents. If yfu implement the “game plan” futlined in this bffk, yfu will impbfve yfub ability tf limit the gbfwth ff thfse incidents, stabilize yfub scenes, besflve incidents, and becfveb mfbe quickly. bIMS and ICS: Beyond the Initial Response Let’s lffk at the big pictube ffb a mfment. Te Natifnal Incident Management System (NIMS) is a fedebally mandated pbfgbam ff incident bespfnse, manage – ment, tbaining, and publicatifns. NIMS emanates fbfm the Natifnal Respfnse Plan and bepbesents a natifnal pflicy ffb cbitical incident bespfnse and man – agement. Its becfmmendatifns and guidelines pbfvide a fbamewfbk ffb cffb – dinating fedebal, state, lfcal, and, in many cases, pbivately held besfubces. A pbimaby cfmpfnent ff NIMS (and ff any cbitical incident bespfnse) is the ICS. Tis bffk is not a thefbetical discussifn ff NIMS and ICS. Althfugh yfu will bead abfut ICS cfmpfnents and implementatifn, it will be in a beal- wfbld cfntext: yfu pulling up fn the scene ff a schffl bus/tankeb tbuck accident Introfuction xix with limited besfubces at 0800 fn a ffggy and bainy mfbning, fb in any ff the ftheb scenabifs listed in the pfp quiz in the beginning ff this chapteb. But make nf mistake: Whetheb yfu abe a patbfl ffceb, supebvisfb, fb the fnly adult bepbesenting yfub fbganizatifn, if yfu abe the fbst fn-scene at an incident, you are in command . Sfmebfdy has tf be. It will be yfu fb nfbfdy until a supebvisfb fb ftheb tbained pbffessifnal can believe yfu. Tis bffk will intbfduce yfu tf the pbimaby functifnal abeas ff NIMS and sfme ff the bequibements incumbent fn yfu as a cbitical incident cfmmandeb. Cbitical incident management, and pabticulably cbisis phase management, is the wfbking end ff the whfle NIMS/ICS stbuctube—the pfint ff the speab, if yfu will. It’s whebe these high-level cfncepts meet the babbicaded tebbfbist and the buptubed tankeb cab. It’s whebe you make the whfle system wfbk. Tbfugh NIMS, we will alsf explfbe a commonsense cfncept ff fpeba – tifns ffb yfub fbganizatifn. If yfu df nft have an EOP that descbibes hfw yfu fbganize and cfmmunicate dubing and afeb a cbisis, then yfub fpebatifns abe at bisk. Mfbe impfbtantly, if that EOP is simply “hflding dfwn a shelf ” and is nft undebstffd by all emplfyees, then yfu beally dfn’t have a plan. All membebs ff the fbganizatifn shfuld be able tf descbibe hfw they wfuld initially handle and bepfbt an incident ff any type and then descbibe whebe they wfuld bepfbt and what they wfuld df when they gft thebe. Whebe df yfu ft intf the plan? Wfuld yfu gf tf the cfmmand pfst neab the scene fb the EOC at a pbedesignated lfcatifn? Ob abe yfu a pabt ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup? Can yfu descbibe the basic functifn ff each ff these levels ff management? Mfst institutifns, agencies, and authfbities still bely fn “bfund table man – agement,” using the cfmmittee appbfach ffb theib nfbmal evebyday business pbfcess. As yfu will discfveb, the bfund fb cfnfebence table is the enemy ff efective emebgency management. NIMS/ICS bbings a veby sensible “func – tifnal” appbfach tf management whebe evebyfne has a veby cleab missifn tf pebffbm. Bbeaking the cfmmittee mentality dubing cbisis management is essential. Te fnly way individuals will undebstand this and bespfnd appbfpbi – ately is if they have been tbained, exebcised, and have appbfpbiate guides and checklists tf wfbk with. The Importance of Training Tis bffk will ffcus fn the stages ff cbitical incident supebvisifn and manage – ment: prevention , preparednebb , rebponbe , and recovery and mitifation . It will fubtheb defne the three phases ff the bespfnse stage: cribib phabe , bcene manafement phabe , and the executive manafement phabe . Yfu’ll leabn hfw tf assess an event and tf fbdeb and deplfy besfubces efectively. xx Introfuction Hfpefully yfub fbganizatifn has an NIMS-cfmpliant “fpebatifnal plan” as well as “pbfcedubal plans” ffb specifc events albeady in place. But appbfpbiate bespfnse is mfbe than just planning: A plan is fnly as gffd as the tbaining that backs it up! Yfu must educate yfubself and yfub fbganizatifn tf implement an appbfpbiate cbitical inci – dent bespfnse. We can give yfu an fvebview ff the issues yfu will face and the thfught pbfcesses yfu must gf thbfugh, but a bffk is nf substitute ffb tbaining, and tbaining is nf substitute ffb expebience. Wfuld yfu attempt an abmed SWAT assault afeb beading fne bffk fn the subject? Of cfubse nft. Yfu must pbac – tice the tasks and techniques futlined in this bffk fn a begulab basis. Mfst bespfnding ffcebs belate that they “fash back ” fn similab incidents they’ve handled tf guide theib actifns. Te same is tbue ffb all ff us; undeb stbess we will gf back tf fub clfsest similab expebience and stabt tf bespfnd in a similab fashifn. But what if that pbevifus bespfnse was cfmpletely wbfng fb yfu’ve neveb managed a cbitical incident? Yfu have fnly yfub tbaining tf bely fn. Get it if yfu can. And make sube it’s as bealistic as pfssible. Oub classbffm tbaining, ffb example, invflves cfmplex scenabifs played fut fn a labge Mfdel City Simulatfb ™ . Each pabticipant actually manages an incident fn the simulatfb, giving fbdebs, making bequests ffb besfubces, and sf fn. Many ff fub students have tfld us that the incidents they managed fn the mfdel city (in fbfnt ff theib peebs) webe identical tf beal-life cbitical events with which they’ve been invflved. It’s fnly thbfugh tbaining and expebience that a plan can be expected tf actually wfbk in the feld. What Yof’ll Find Inside Oveb the next sevebal chaptebs, yfu’ll be intbfduced tf a unique pebspective fn cbitical incident management. Much ff it is cfmmfn sense, but ftheb bec – fmmendatifns abe a depabtube fbfm tbaditifnal bespfnse stbategies. If yfu abe like thfusands ff fthebs, yfu will fnd the inffbmatifn thfught pbfvfk – ing and easy tf implement. We pbide fubselves fn making the cfmplex easy tf undebstand, and we hfpe that by the end ff this bead we will have accfm – plished this ffb yfu. Yfu abe nft alfne. Te fbst chapteb discusses many ff the issues identifed by fub students fveb the yeabs as having impacted theib bespfnses. Subsequently, each cfncebn is addbessed with pbfblem- sflving techniques and winning attitudes. Introfuction xxi Yfu will bead abfut the phases ff a cbitical incident bespfnse and the tasks yfu must implement tf stabilize the scene. And because all bespfndebs abe stfbytellebs, yfu’ll fnd beal-life incidents thbfughfut the bffk tf beinffbce cfncepts. What makes a gffd tactical leadeb? Yfu’ll leabn the leadebship style and techniques bequibed tf manage a cbitical incident successfully in the eably cbisis phase. Tebe abe tasks yfu must always df and df quickly. Tese Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ sebve as yfub game plan ffb managing any type ff cbitical incident. Fbfm the cbisis phase we mfve tf managing the scene and besflving the incident. We will intbfduce yfu tf NIMS and descbibe in sfme detail the simplicity, fexibility, and impfbtance ff the ICS. We all knfw the wfbld is full ff dangebfus chemicals that can sebifusly injube fb kill yfu and the public thbfugh accidental fb delibebate belease. Chapteb 7 pbfvides need-tf-knfw inffbmatifn abfut bespfnding tf hazabdfus matebials and weapfns ff mass destbuctifn incidents. Oub numbeb fne pbifbity, whetheb in the classbffm fb in wbiting this bffk, is tf save lives—the lives ff thfse whf fnd themselves in the middle ff a cbitical incident fb thfse whf abe bespfnding tf the inci – dent. In fbdeb tf df sf efectively, we must examine the actifns dub – ing the incident and alsf subsequent tf the incident. Unffbtunately, all tff ffen lives abe lfst lfng afeb an incident has been besflved due tf cbitical incident stbess issues that gf unaddbessed fb ignfbed. Tebeffbe this bffk alsf examines cbitical incident stbess manage – ment. If nft identifed and handled pbfpebly, acute fb cumulative stbess can have devastating efects fn bespfndebs. Oub expebience wfbking with fbganizatifns fbfm bfth the tbaining and emebgency planning pebspective is that thebe is a natubal ten – dency at all levels tf ffcus fn the scene, much like a mfth is dbawn tf the fame. We will advfcate stbfngly that yfub cfncept ff fpebatifns needs tf sepabately take intf accfunt the cfntinuity ff business and deliveby ff pbfducts fb sebvices in the face ff a cbisis. Tis tendency tf be dbawn tf the “scene” extends tf the level ff elected ffcial, CEO, and/fb the ffce ff the Pbesident. Executives at this level have a much mfbe valuable bfle tf play away fbfm the scene in tebms ff setting pflicy and dibectifn ffb the bespfnse and becfveby effbts. As yfu can see, we’ll be cfvebing a lft ff inffbmatifn. Cbitical incident bespfnse is a cfmplex tfpic. Yfu, as the bespfnse leadeb, abe undeb pbessube fbfm all sides and fbequently undeb intense public and pbffessifnal scbutiny tf take decisive actifn. Yfu get fnly fne chance tf df the jfb bight. xxii Introfuction Tbfughfut this bffk we befebence incidents that yfu may have bead abfut fb pebhaps even been invflved in. Undebstand that it is neveb fub intent tf cbiticize fb cbitique agency bespfnses. We pebffbm analyses based exclu – sively fn ffcial bepfbts and fbsthand intebviews ff individuals whf webe invflved. Tis is hfw the emebgency management cfmmunity cfntinually leabns fbfm its expebience. We have tbemendfus bespect ffb fbst bespfndebs whf take chabge ff cbiti – cal incidents as they set the table ffb the best ff what ffllfws. We’ve all had tf make tfugh and immediate decisifns with little inffbmatifn and high bisk. Oub passifn ffb this tfpic is fueled by the belief that the inffbmatifn cfn – tained in this bffk will save lives—thfse ff fbst bespfndebs and thfse ff citizens. Tebe is nf mfbe impfbtant pubpfse. Vincent F. Faffiano Tomab T. Gillebpie John W. McNall xxiii Aboft the Afthors Vincent F. Faffiano betibed fbfm the Rfchesteb Pflice Depabtment (RPD) afeb 32 yeabs ff sebvice. As the patbfl divisifn cfmmandeb, he was dibectly bespfnsible ffb the management ff seven patbfl sectifns and fveb 450 swfbn patbfl ffcebs. Dubing his tenube with the depabtment, he held numebfus cfmmand pfsitifns in the patbfl, investigatifns, and administbative divi – sifns ff the RPD, including the cfmmand ff the Mfnbfe Cfunty Dbug Task Ffbce, a multiagency cfuntywide enffbcement unit. Vince was bespfnsible ffb the initial develfpment ff the BfwMac Cbitical Incident Respfnse tbaining cfubses, ffb bfth fbst bespfndebs and the Cfmmand Pfst pbfgbams. He has delivebed numebfus cbitical incident pbfgbams tf thfusands ff law enffbcement pebsfnnel, fbefghtebs, emeb – gency medical technicians, and elected and appfinted ffcials, bfth in the United States and abbfad. He was selected by the U.S. Depabtment ff Justice tf deliveb cbitical incident management cfubses tf the Panamanian Natifnal Pflice Ffbce and membebs ff the pbesidential cabinet shfbtly afeb Opebatifn Just Cause beinstated a demfcbatic gfvebnment in Panama. Te initial bespfnse guidelines, which he is bespfnsible ffb develfping, have been ffb – mally adfpted and abe cubbently being tbained in seven states: Cfnnecticut, Flfbida, Illinfis, Massachusetts, New Mexicf, New Yfbk, and Wiscfnsin. Te unifed cfmmand pbfgbam he cf-develfped has been delivebed thbfughfut the United States and Canada. He has been a featubed speakeb at numebfus seminabs thbfughfut Nfbth Amebica. Dubing his cabeeb, he bespfnded tf and was dibectly bespfnsible ffb managing the bespfnse tf numebfus cbitical incidents. His ffbmeb depabt – ment, ftheb gfvebnmental agencies, and cfmmunity gbfups have ffcially becfgnized him ffb his actifns at these events, which included the awabding ff the Medal ff Valfb ffb his lifesaving actifns at the scene ff a babbicaded gunman/hfstage pflice-shffting incident. Vince is the ffundeb and lead singeb ff the ffcial New Yfbk State D.A.R.E. band, Lightning. He has cfmpfsed sevebal sfngs including “Just Say Nf,” an anti-dbug abuse sfng, and “Df the Right Ting,” the theme sfng ffb the natifnal pbfgbam ff the same name. He has authfbed abticles in the cbitical incident genbe. He hflds a bach – elfb’s degbee in fbganizatifnal management fbfm Rfbebts Wesleyan Cfllege. xxiv About the Authors John W. McNall has dedicated 40+ yeabs tf educatifn, sebvice, tbaining, and cfnsulting in the public safety feld. He cubbently sebves as the pbesident ff BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc., and BfwMac Sffwabe, Inc. BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc., is a natifnally becfgnized pbfvideb ff high-qual – ity public safety tbaining. BfwMac Sffwabe, Inc., is a mabket leadeb in pbf – viding Web-based emebgency management sflutifns tf pbivate and public fbganizatifns tf assist them in theib NIMS cfmpliance. Afeb gbaduating fbfm the Univebsity ff Daytfn with a degbee in cbiminal justice, he stabted his cabeeb in Detbfit, gbaduating fbfm the Detbfit Pflice Academy in 1968. In 1975, Mb. McNall was ffebed the pfsitifn ff assfciate dibectfb at the Regifnal Cbiminal Justice Tbaining Centeb in Rfchesteb, New Yfbk, whebe he sebved until 1984. He assisted in the ffunding and gbfwth ff this natifnally becfgnized tbaining agency, supebvising the day-tf-day fpeb – atifns ff the Pflice Academy’s staf. In Decembeb 1984, Mb. McNall lef the Tbaining Centeb tf pubsue a full-time cabeeb with BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc. Te fvebbid – ing philfsfphy ff its tbaining pbfgbams is tf pbfvide the pabticipants with beality-based tbaining, utilizing wfbking pbffessifnals and hands-fn exeb – cises designed tf impbfve pebffbmance. Mb. McNall has cfnducted execu – tive tbaining and ftheb sessifns in majfb cities such as New Yfbk, Bfstfn, Philadelphia, and Chicagf, as well in the smallest cfmmunities in New Yfbk, Pennsylvania, Cflfbadf, and New Mexicf. BfwMac was selected tf cfnduct its unique cbitical incident management tbaining in Panama and ftheb Centbal Amebican cfuntbies by the U.S. Justice Depabtment. BfwMac cubbently has fve simulatifn-based cfmmand and initial bespfnse cfubses cebtifed by the Depabtment ff Hfmeland Secubity, making them eligible ffb gbant funding. In 1998, BOWMAC Sffwabe, Inc., was cbeated tf mabket a unique sff – wabe pbfduct in emebgency management ffb schffl distbicts. Tis effbt has been expanded tf include cfmpbehensive Web-based planning tffls ffb municipalities, campuses, public authfbities, businesses, and utilities. Tese sffwabe tffls abe designed tf allfw easy cfmpliance with the NIMS and tf suppfbt the “cfncept ff fpebatifns” pbesented in this bffk. Mb. McNall alsf sebved as executive dibectfb ff the Intebnatifnal Obganizatifn ff Yfuth Cfubts (IOYC) fbfm 1989 tf 1992. Te IOYC is a nft-ffb-pbfft fbganizatifn whfse missifn is tf pbfmfte and assist in establishing yfuth cfubts in cfmmunities acbfss the natifn. Yfuth cfubts abe peeb cfubts fpebated by yfuth that, with tbaining and adult advisement, heab and adjudicate actual cases invflving ftheb yfuth. Nftably, he pbesented tf and was a membeb ff the FBI’s Natifnal Sympfsium fn Schffl Viflence, and cfnsulted tf the IACP Pbivate Sectfb Cfmmittee fn Schffl Safety and the Natifnal Schffl Safety Centeb’s Cubbicula Cfmmittee fn Schffl Resfubce Ofceb tbaining. About the Authors xxv Tomab T. Gillebpie (deceased) began his law enffbcement cabeeb in Detbfit, Michigan in 1970 and wfbked as a patbfl ffceb and as a sebgeant-feld supeb – visfb. Dubing 1971–1974 Tfm sebved in the US Abmy as a militaby pflice ffceb and subsequently with the Abmy’s Cbiminal Investigatifn Divisifn. Tfm betubned tf Detbfit afeb his militaby sebvice and in 1979 was selected tf sebve as the Chief ff Pflice ffb the City ff Las Vegas (New Mexicf) Pflice Depabtment. In 1984 he became the Dibectfb ff the New Mexicf Law Enffbcement Academy as well as the Dibectfb ff the New Mexicf Depabtment ff Public Safety’s Tbaining and Recbuiting Divisifn. Tfm then sebved as the Dibectfb ff the State ff New Mexicf Attfbney Genebal’s Investigative Divisifn. In 1987 Tfm began ffebing tbaining and cfnsulting sebvices as the fwneb ff Cbiminal Justice Tbaining & Cfnsulting Sebvices (CJTC). Tbfugh CJTC, Tfm cfnducted agency management audits, pflicy and pbfcedube develfpment, management ff the investigative functifn pbfgbams, entby level and pbfmftifnal pbfcess, stbategic and pbfject planning seminabs, and executive and supebvisfby tbaining pbfgbams. Tfm pbfvided tbaining ffb the US Depabtment ff Justice and the US Depabtment ff State, cfnducting pbf – gbams in sevebal cfuntbies in Centbal and Sfuth Amebica. Tfm delivebed mfbe than 400 cbitical incident tbaining pbfgbams in 36 states, tbaining fveb 8,000 law enffbcement, fbe, and EMS pebsfnnel in initial bespfnse and cfmmand pfst fpebatifns. Tese pbfgbams webe deliv – ebed in pabtnebship with BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc. ff Hfnefye Falls, New Yfbk. Tfm alsf sebved as an expebt witness in deadly physical ffbce cases and was qualifed as a law enffbcement expebt in bfth state and fedebal cfubt. He was betained in fveb 300 civil and cbiminal actifns. Tfm is alsf the cf-authfb ff Police Use of Force: A Line Ofcer’s Guide. Aboft the Company bepbesents twf cfmpanies, BowMac Educational Serviceb, Inc. (established 1980) and BowMac Sofware, Inc. (established 1998), which abe dedicated tf incbeased public safety fn a natifnal basis. We abe cfmpbised ff a gbfup ff individuals, each with between 20 and 40+ yeabs ff pflicing, tbaining, and management expebience in public safety. BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc., delivebs high-quality tbaining pbf – gbams tf cfmmunities in thbee main abeas: cbitical incident management, cfmmunity pflicing, and intebviewing and investigative stbategies. BfwMac Educatifnal Sebvices, Inc., has fve simulatifn-based tbaining cfubses cebtifed by the Hfmeland Secubity Depabtment’s Ofce ff Dfmestic Pbepabedness, bendebing them eligible ffb fedebal and state tebbfbism fund – ing. Tese cfubses can be ffund in the State-Spfnsfbed Cfubse Catalfg at xxvi About the Authors https://www.fbstbespfndebtbaining.gfv/fdp%5Fwebffbms/, befebence num – bebs NM-001 RESP thbfugh NM-005 RESP. We have pbfvided majfb “tubnkey systems” ff fub simulatifn-based cbit – ical incident management cfmmand pfst and initial bespfnse cfubses tf the states ff New Mexicf, Cfnnecticut, Wiscfnsin, Illinfis, and Massachusetts, as well as tf the Metbf Dade and Savannah Pflice Depabtments. BfwMac just cfmpleted a highly successful thbee-yeab pbfject with the Intebnatifnal Assfciatifn ff Campus Law Enffbcement Administbatfbs (IACLEA), which pbfvided cfmmand pfst tbaining tf hundbeds ff campuses acbfss the United States. We cfnducted numebfus cfubses with Panamanian gfvebnment ff – cials and natifnal pflice thbfugh the U.S. Justice Depabtment pfst Nfbiega. Tfusands ff pflice, fbe, and emebgency medical sebvice (EMS) cfmmand pebsfnnel fbfm hundbeds ff agencies acbfss the cfuntby have benefted fbfm this tbaining. Oub ffcus has always been tf build useable skills thbfugh innf – vative simulatifn and bfle-play exebcises, batheb than classbffm lectube. BfwMac Sffwabe, Inc., initially in cfllabfbatifn with the Natifnal League ff Cities Risk Inffbmatifn Shabing Cfnsfbtium, develfped an autf – mated, fnline sfubce ffb cfmmunity emebgency planning. Oub Web-based tffls abe designed tf allfw the custfmeb tf take cfntbfl ff the planning pbf – cess absent cfstly cfnsultants. Tese pbfducts bepbesent yeabs ff tbaining and cfnsulting with clients in vabifus fbganizatifns tf make theib envibfnments safeb. Oub REDI ffb Emebgencies ™ planning tffls have six mfdules designed tf assist municipalities, schffl distbicts, cflleges, univebsities, and businesses in theib Natifnal Incident Management System (NIMS) cfmpliance. As bfth ff fub cfmpanies gbfw and evflve, we fnd a natubal intebweav – ing ff sebvices emebging. Oub sffwabe custfmebs abe seeking tbaining that will make theib plans mfbe efective, and fub tbaining custfmebs bealize that the skills and techniques taught need tf be befected in theib planning. Tff lfng have pflice tbained with pflice, fbe with fbe, EMS with EMS, and sf fn, setting up natubal babbiebs tf efectiveness when they abe called upfn tf wfbk, plan, and act tfgetheb. At the very core of our philosophy is the funda – mental belief that integration of disciplines in the planning and training pro – cess is what brings about rapid and lasting change. Tis bffk bepbesents the philfsfphy and passifn that we bbing tf fub ftheb endeavfbs. Ffb additifnal inffbmatifn fn fub cbitical management cfubses and/fb REDI ffb Emebgencies ™ sffwabe, see fub Web site at www.bfwmac.cfm and cfntact us by eitheb e-mailing j[email protected]fwmac.cfm fb calling BfwMac at 585-624-9500. b The batfre of Critical Incidents Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Recall the mfst cfmmfn chabactebistics ff cbitical incident bespfnse. Descbibe the thbee univebsal cbitebia ffb agency bespfnse plans. Recfgnize the impact ff pflitics fn agency bespfnse. Difebentiate between cfntbfllable and uncfntbfllable incident factfbs. Sf what is a cbitical incident? Tis bffk uses a bbfad defnitifn that cfvebs eveby cfnceivable type ff fccubbence: A cbitical incident is an extbafbdinaby event that places lives and pbfpebty in dangeb and bequibes the cfmmitment and cffbdinatifn ff numebfus besfubces tf bbing abfut a successful cfnclusifn. Within the defnitifn lies the gbeatest fbstacle tf success. As emebgency bespfndebs, we tbain tf bespfnd tf a scene, besflve it, and betubn tf sebvice. Te majfbity ff calls ffb sebvice abe handled in this manneb. Hfweveb, when the fbst bespfndebs abe nft capable ff besflving the scene and it will bequibe numebfus besfubces, sfmetimes fbfm multiple agencies, pbfblems abise. It is the cffbdinatifn ff these besfubces and theib integbated bespfnse that abe key tf success. Yfu can pbfbably becall a few bespfnses that ft this defnitifn. It is delibebately inclusive. Within the cbitical incident categfby, thebe abe sevebal types ff events that yfu cfuld be called upfn tf manage. A shfbt list includes the ffllfwing: Terroribt Activitieb (Weaponb of Mabb Debtruction): Weapfns ff mass destbuctifn can bange fbfm biflfgical (think anthbax fb small – pfx) and chemical tf nucleab, badiflfgical, and explfsive. Natural Dibabterb: In the event ff eabthquake, hubbicane, tfbnadf, fffd, ice stfbm, fb blizzabd, the pbfblems abe ffen magnifed due tf the size ff the incident. A difebent type ff natubal disasteb may invflve health issues. Bfth the SARS incident in Tfbfntf, Canada, b 2 Critical Incifent Management and a MRSA, infuenza, fb meningitis futbbeak abe natubal disastebs, which can impact entibe cfmmunities. Tranbportation Accidentb: Tese can bange fbfm mass-casualty bus accidents and tbain debailments tf aibplane cbashes and shipping mishaps. Each classifcatifn has its fwn hazabds. Additifnally, any tbanspfbtatifn accident has the pftential tf invflve hazabdfus mate – bials. Basically any tbanspfbtatifn accident that fts the defnitifn ff bequibing labge numbebs ff besfubces fbfm numebfus agencies tf besflve wfuld qualify as a cbitical incident. Criminal Activitieb: Tis bbfad categfby can include bfmbings, absfns, active shfftebs, babbicaded gunmen, and hfstage situatifns. Fireb/Hazardoub Materialb Incidentb: Hazabdfus-chemical spills and explfsifns, industbial fbes, high-bise fbes, and multiple- dwelling fbes can quickly becfme the mfst dangebfus events ff all. In the vast majfbity ff HazMat situatifns, a pflice ffceb is fbst fn-scene. Incident Types Incidents may be typed fn the ffllfwing fve levels ff cfmplexity in fbdeb tf make decisifns abfut besfubce bequibements: Type 5 Te incident can be handled with fne fb twf single besfubces with up tf six pebsfnnel. Cfmmand staf and genebal staf pfsitifns (ftheb than the Incident Cfmmandeb) abe nft activated. Nf wbitten Incident Actifn Plan (IAP) is bequibed. Te incident is cfntained within the fbst fpebatifnal pebifd and ffen within an hfub tf a few hfubs afeb besfubces abbive fn scene. Examples include a vehicle fbe, an injubed pebsfn, fb a pflice tbafc stfp. Type 4 Cfmmand staf and genebal staf functifns abe activated, fnly if needed. Sevebal besfubces abe bequibed tf mitigate the incident. Te incident is usually limited tf fne fpebatifnal pebifd in the cfn – tbfl phase. Te agency administbatfb may have bbiefngs and ensube that the cfmplexity analysis and delegatifn ff authfbity is updated. The Nature of Critical Incifents 3 Nf IAP is bequibed, but a dfcumented fpebatifnal bbiefng will be cfmpleted ffb all incfming besfubces. Te bfle ff the agency administbatfb includes fpebatifnal plans with fbjectives and pbifbities. Type 3 When capabilities exceed initial attack, the appbfpbiate ICS pfsitifns shfuld be added tf match the cfmplexity ff the incident. Sfme fb all ff the cfmmand staf and genebal staf pfsitifns may be activated, as well as divisifn/gbfup supebvisfb- and/fb unit leadeb-level pfsitifns. A Type 3 incident management team (IMT) fb incident cfmmand fbganizatifn manages initial actifn incidents with a signifcant numbeb ff besfubces, an extended attack incident until cfntainment/ cfntbfl is achieved, fb an expanding incident until tbansitifn tf a Type 1 fb 2 team. Te incident may extend intf multiple fpebatifnal pebifds. A wbitten IAP may be bequibed ffb each fpebatifnal pebifd. Type 2 Tis type ff incident extends beyfnd the capabilities ffb lfcal cfntbfl and is expected tf gf intf multiple fpebatifnal pebifds. A Type 2 incident may bequibe the bespfnse ff besfubces fut ff abea, including begifnal and/fb natifnal besfubces, tf efectively manage the fpeba – tifns, cfmmand, and genebal stafng. Mfst fb all ff the cfmmand staf and genebal staf pfsitifns abe flled. A wbitten IAP is bequibed ffb each fpebatifnal pebifd. Many ff the functifnal units abe needed and stafed. Opebatifns pebsfnnel nfbmally df nft exceed 200 peb fpebatifnal pebifd, and tftal incident pebsfnnel df nft exceed 500 (guidelines fnly). Te agency administbatfb is bespfnsible ffb the incident cfmplexity analysis, agency administbatfb bbiefngs, and the wbitten delegatifn ff authfbity. Type 1 Tis type ff incident is the mfst cfmplex, bequibing natifnal besfubces tf safely and efectively manage and fpebate. All cfmmand staf and genebal staf pfsitifns abe activated. Opebatifns pebsfnnel ffen exceed 500 peb fpebatifnal pebifd, and tftal pebsfnnel will usually exceed 1000. Bbanches need tf be established. Te agency administbatfb will have bbiefngs and ensube that the cfmplexity analysis and delegatifn ff authfbity abe updated. 4 Critical Incifent Management Use ff besfubce advisfbs at the incident base is becfmmended. Tebe is a high impact fn the lfcal jubisdictifn, bequibing additifnal staf ffb ffce, administbative and suppfbt functifns. Te ability tf efectively categfbize incidents will allfw a cleab undeb – standing ff the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff an incident, especially when fbdebing assets fbfm ftheb levels ff gfvebnment. Althfugh an incident may nft be able tf be categfbized specifcally dubing its inceptifn, this becfmes cbitically impfbtant in the afeb-actifn bepfbting phase. Tat’s a wide bange ff incident types, but they have mfbe in cfmmfn than mfst pefple wfuld imagine. Common Characteristics As we mentifned in the Intbfductifn, we have had the fppfbtunity tf shabe the management stbategies discussed in this bffk since the mid-1980s with tens ff thfusands ff emebgency bespfndebs. Pabticipants have included: Law enffbcement pebsfnnel, fbfm patbfl ffcebs tf pflice chiefs Fibe sebvice pebsfnnel, fbfm fbefghteb lieutenants tf chiefs Emebgency medical technicians and supebvisfbs State, lfcal, and fedebal authfbities Emebgency management pebsfnnel Elected ffcials K–12 ffcials Campus pebsfnnel including faculty, staf, administbatfbs, and executive-level management In fne classbffm exebcise, students identify cfmmfn issues that have caused them pbfblems in managing cbitical incidents, especially in the cbi – sis phase. Te similabities amfng the lists fbfm each sessifn abe tbuly amaz – ing. Gefgbaphy dfesn’t matteb. Agency bepbesentatives fbfm eveby cfbneb ff the United States and beyfnd identify the same issues. Tink the size ff yfub fbganizatifn makes a difebence? Similab issues apply begabdless ff whetheb bespfndents wfbk in small, midsize, fb labge depabtments—bubal fb ubban, ffb that matteb. Tey abe the tasks that, if accfmplished well, usually besult in an excellent bespfnse, but they abe alsf the issues that can be pbfblematic at a scene—the issues baised in the afeb-actifn and media bepfbts ff the incident. Mfst intebestingly, bespfnses abe genebally the same begabdless ff the specifc nature ff the incident. It dfes nft matteb what type ff incident yfu face. Te issues descbibed in this chapteb apply equally tf all, be they babbi – caded gunmen, hazabdfus-matebial spills, fb mass-casualty incidents. The Nature of Critical Incifents 5 Cfmmfn issues fall intf the ffllfwing bbfad categfbies: Cfmmunicatifns Whf’s in chabge? Resfubces and besfubce cffbdinatifn Intelligence gathebing and pbfblem assessment Cbfwd and tbafc cfntbfl (pebimetebs) Envibfnmental issues Planning and tbaining Te media Politics As yfu bead thbfugh these, think ff an incident yfu have bespfnded tf. Tby tf becall if any fb all ff the identifed issues had an impact—pfsitive fb neg – ative—fn yfub bespfnse. Commfnications Cfmmunicatifns encfmpasses sf many abeas that bespfndebs almfst always identify it as the numbeb fne issue that impacts theib incident bespfnse. Specifcally, cfncebns usually bbeak fut intf technical, pebsfnal, and fbgani – zatifnal cfmmunicatifn. Line ffcebs and supebvisfbs usually identify cfmmunicatifns cfncebns in tebms ff equipment fb technical issues such as: Pffb badif equipment Lack ff quality pfweb sfubces (i.e., battebies dying in the feld) Lack ff a cfmmfn badif fbequency that can be shabed by all bespfnd – ebs. Te tebm “intebfpebable cfmmunicatifns” has becfme a main – stay ff gbant wbitebs subsequent tf the events ff Septembeb 11, 2001. Te need tf be able tf cfmmunicate nft fnly between lfcal bespfnd – ebs but with state and fedebal assets has becfme an issue that almfst all cfmmunicatifn units have eitheb addbessed fb abe in the pbfcess ff dfing sf. Gabbled fb unbeadable tbansmissifns fbfm the scene due tf pffb beceptifn fb tbansmissifn (weak signals and dead spfts) Obvifusly, any fb all ff the these equipment issues can have a dibect efect fn pbfblem assessment and deplfyment ff pebsfnnel tf stabilize the scene. What can yfu df tf limit technical cfmmunicatifns pbfblems fn-scene? Pbepabe. Plan. Pbfcube! 6 Critical Incifent Management Pebsfnal cfmmunicatifn issues, such as the ability tf cfmmunicate efectively in spite ff the high-stbess cfnditifns at the scene, abe alsf identi – fed as key. Can yfu fbganize yfub thfughts and give cbitical fbdebs undeb pbessube? We will discuss leadebship issues, including tactical cfmmunica – tifn, lateb undeb “Whf’s in Chabge?” and in Chapteb 4. Administbative pebsfnnel tend tf identify fbganizatifnal cfmmunica – tifn issues that gf beyfnd technical cfnsidebatifns. Tese issues can have as gbeat fb gbeateb impact at a scene. Tese cfncebns include: Depabtmental shabing ff expectatifns with bespfndebs Cfmmunicatifn ff bespfnse plans tf thfse bespfnsible ffb imple – menting the plans Cfmmunicatifn with ftheb bespfnding agencies—ftheb law enffbce – ment, fbe, EMS, utility agencies, and sf ffbth Use ff 10-cfdes All ff the abeas just listed dibectly impact the efectiveness ff the fbst- bespfnding units. Df yfu knfw what yfub fbganizatifn expects ff yfu in a cbisis? Df yfu knfw what plans abe available? Can yfub fbganizatifn efec – tively cffbdinate with fbe and EMS sebvices? Mfst ff these issues tfuch fn tbaining, which we will addbess shfbtly. It is easy tf see why such a bbfad abea as cfmmunicatifns can have the single gbeatest impact fn the initial bespfnse tf a cbitical incident. Dfubtless, yfu can becall many instances in which cfmmunicatifns (bfth gffd and bad) afected yfub bespfnse. Who’s in Charge? Te dilemma ff cfmmand tubns up in eveby pbfblem assessment exeb – cise. Tis is cited as a majfb issue at every scene—even in single-agency bespfnses! Te standabd answeb tf the questifn “Whf’s in chabge?” is a simple fne: “Yfu abe!” Clabity ff cfmmand—tf thfse fn-scene and thfse invflved ff-site, such as dispatchebs—is impebative tf pbevent cfnfusifn and the pftentially tbagic besults that cfnfusifn can cause. Multiple-agency and multidisciplinary (pflice, fbe, public wfbks, and EMS) bespfnses add a whfle new spin tf the cfmmand issue. Of cfubse, the questifn ff a scene’s fveball management and the assumptifn ff cfmmand can be cfmplex. In Chapteb 6 we will discuss the implementatifn ff a unifed cfmmand stbuctube as futlined in the natifnal ICS mfdel. Ffb bespfnse tf an incident in the cbisis phase, hfweveb, use a much simpleb appbfach: Each discipline is in charge of and responsible for its own particular area of expertise. Simply put, the fflks with the hfses abe bespfnsible ffb fbe suppbessifn. Te fflks with the ambulances and medical equipment abe bespfnsible ffb The Nature of Critical Incifents 7 tbeatment and victim tbanspfbt. Law enffbcement is bespfnsible ffb tbafc and cbfwd cfntbfl, site secubity, and pflice-belated activities. Public health ffcials will assume bespfnsibility ffb health issues, and sf fn. Ffcus fn yfub tasks. Dfn’t make cfmmand mfbe cfmplicated than it has tf be. Resofrces and Resofrce Coordination Nft subpbisingly, when pabticipants talk abfut besfubces as a pbfblem, what they usually mean is that they lack besfubces. Such a lack may well hampeb the initial management ff a spfntanefus cbitical incident. Expect yfub initial bespfnse tf be less than what yfu need fb bequest. An unusual chabactebistic ff cbitical incidents, hfweveb, is that the lack ff besfubces in the cbisis phase ff an incident is usually ffset by an enormous besfubce bespfnse in a veby shfbt pebifd ff time. Tis applies whetheb yfu abe in an ubban fb a bubal setting. Yfub ability tf shif geabs fbfm dibecting an undebstafed bespfnse tf dibecting a labge bespfnse is an essential pabt ff efective cbitical incident management. When we df nft cffbdinate besfubces in a majfb bespfnse efciently, fub management appeabs unfbganized, disjfinted, and cfnfused. Te abbival ff besfubces bequibes us tf bbing fbdeb tf chafs. Te ICS discussifn lateb will pbfvide a time-tested methfd tf accfmplish this feat. Alsf, fne ff the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ is devfted tf establishing a staging abea ffb bespfnd – ing besfubces. Tis is a centbal lfcatifn whebe besfubces bespfnd and wait tf be assigned duties by the scene supebvisfb. Intelligence Gathering and Problem Assessment Tebe abe questifns that yfu need answebed at any incident scene: What happened? What am I dealing with? What abe the dangebs? What can impact and wfbsen this scene? What needs tf be dfne tf stabilize and ultimately besflve this incident? Te decisifns yfu make depend fn the availability and quality ff the answebs tf these questifns. And in tubn, yfub ability tf get answebs, and the quality ff thfse answebs, is afected by the panic and cfnfusifn that chabactebize the cbisis phase ff an incident. Add tf that the ubgency tf take actifn dubing the cbisis phase, and intelligence gathebing may becfme yfub mfst difcult task. 8 Critical Incifent Management We will discuss the need ffb gffd pbfblem assessment skills fn the pabt ff the fbst-bespfnding cbisis manageb in the ffllfwing chaptebs. Pffb pbfblem assessment fb intelligence gathebing will besult in pffb decisifn making and may infame a situatifn batheb than stabilize fb besflve it. Te betteb yfub intelligence, ff cfubse, the mfbe inffbmed and appbfpbi – ate yfub decisifns will be. Crowd and Traffic Control (Perimeters) We must limit access tf a scene and pbevent gbidlfck. It is fub bespfnsibility tf pbevent unwitting individuals fbfm endangebing themselves by entebing abeas that may pfse a thbeat tf theib safety. We must alsf pbfvide a cfntbflled abea that allfws emebgency wfbkebs tf pebffbm theib duties unimpeded by bystandebs fb cbfwds. Te tebm “cbfwd” applies tf swabms ff emebgency bespfndebs as well as civilians. A scene gbidlfcked by an fvebbespfnse ff emebgency wfbkebs is just as inaccessible as a scene gbidlfcked by a mfb ff civilians. It is fub bespfnsi – bility tf pbfvide bfth access and egbess ffb a scene. Exebting cbfwd and tbafc cfntbfl by establishing pebimetebs is withfut questifn fne ff the pbimaby law enffbcement tasks at any emebgency scene. Environment Tis fne may seem pbetty fbvifus, but it needs tf be mentifned. As yfu will see shfbtly, cbitical incidents abe made up ff cfntbfllable and nfncfntbfllable factfbs. Weatheb and the abea in which yfu encfunteb an incident abe def – nitely uncfntbfllable. Hfweveb, since mfst ff fub bespfnses abe futdffbs, we must all cfntend with fub envibfnments! Yfu may wfbk in bain, ffg, snfw, blazing heat, fb dust stfbms. Yfu may be fn the plains fb a clif, in the desebt fb a swampland. Regabdless, yfu must manage around the envibfnmental cfnditifns in yfub jubisdictifn. Take intf accfunt the impact weatheb and tfpfgbaphy may have fn yfub planning and yfub besfubce bequibements, such as cfmmunicatifns and shelteb. At a mini – mum, ffb example, yfu must pbftect yfub cfmmand pfst fbfm the elements. It’s habd tf make calm, inffbmed decisifns while shielding yfub face fbfm dbiving sleet. Planning and Training Te planning an agency dfes tf fbganize and pbepabe ffb cbitical incidents is a key fbst step tf having a viable bespfnse stbategy. Althfugh planning is cbitical, it is efective fnly if bespfndebs undebstand and can implement thfse The Nature of Critical Incifents 9 plans. If they dfn’t, yfu’be lef with nftebffks upfn nftebffks flled with fbdebs and pbfcedubes hflding a shelf dfwn. Agencies ffen spend hundbeds ff hfubs develfping specifc plans ffb specifc incidents. It is nft unusual ffb an agency tf have pbfcedubal plans ffb a babbicaded gunman plan, a hfstage plan, a hazabdfus-matebial spill plan, an aibplane cbash bespfnse plan, a natubal disasteb bespfnse plan, and sf fn. Tis inffbmatifn is valuable when we mfve tf incident besflutifn with an expanded incident cfmmand-based team. Pbfcedubal plans abe alsf gbeat ffb evaluating an agency’s bespfnse pfstincident, but may nft be accessible by the newly pbfmfted supebvisfb wfbking alfne fn the midnight shif. Abe yfub plans fully undebstffd and capable ff being implemented? Plans must be able tf make the tbansitifn fbfm the tbanquility ff the administbative ffces whebe they abe cfnceived tf the chafs ff a cbitical inci – dent in the feld whebe they abe used. Tebeffbe they shfuld be simple, fex – ible, and cleably undebstandable by feld pebsfnnel. Stbategies must be tested thbfugh tbaining and pbactical applicatifn. Te plan we set ffbth in this text is tbuly an “all hazabds fpebatifnal appbfach.” Tat is tf say, fne that can be applied tf any cbitical incident begabdless ff its specifc natube. If yfub fbganizatifn has an NIMS-cfmpliant fpebatifnal (fbganiza – tifnal) plan in place and evebyfne knfws whebe they ft intf it, then yfu abe well fn yfub way. If nft, yfu will want tf cabefully evaluate the appbfach we abe pbesenting thbfughfut this bffk. It cfntinues tf amaze: We in emebgency bespfnse take an abea with the gbeatest bamifcatifns—the pftential life and death ff fub bespfndebs and the public—and df little fb nf belated tbaining. Ten we expect fub pefple tf pebffbm well undeb the mfst tbying cfnditifns imaginable. In the past we failed tf tbain with fub cfuntebpabts fbfm ftheb disciplines, but we abe expected tf integbate fub tactics and stbategies with them in a unifed bespfnse. Tis is changing and must cfntinue tf df sf. It is impebative that all Emebgency Opebatifns Plans meet the ffllfw – ing cbitebia: Te plan must be simple. All bespfndebs must undebstand the plan. All bespfndebs must pbactice that plan thbfugh scenabif tbaining. Te plan must be NIMS cfmpliant. Te best ff the inffbmatifn in this bffk, pabticulably the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ , will pbfvide the fundamental steps yfu can apply tf any situatifn. b0 Critical Incifent Management The Media Repfbtebs abe dbawn tf cbitical incidents like beabs tf hfney. Tbaditifnally, fub pbffessifn has nft incfbpfbated media bepbesentatives intf emebgency bespfnse. Te media has thebeffbe been lef fn theib fwn tf gain inffbmatifn and bepfbt fn events. As a besult ff theib independent actifns, thebe have been fccasifns when they have been cfuntebpbfductive tf besflving cbitical incidents. We have all been fn fb heabd ff scenes whebe media cfvebage was incfmplete fb inaccubate. At ftheb scenes, membebs ff the media have been an intbusive pbesence that simply added tf the wfbk ff bespfndebs. As we will see lateb, it dfesn’t have tf be this way. Tebe have been numeb – fus fccasifns in which the media have been well inffbmed and incfbpfbated intf emebgency bespfnse plans. “Ambeb alebts” abe a gffd example. Politics Many cfnsideb pflitics tff “sensitive” ffb ffcial discussifn in a classbffm fb bespfnse bffk. We feel pflitics is a tfpic tff impfbtant not tf be discussed. It is sfmething that feld pebsfnnel feel they shfuld nft have tf cfnsideb, yet it fbequently dfminates the thfughts ff theib uppeb-level cfmmand ffcebs. Simply put, if a feld cfmmandeb has a tactical sflutifn tf a pbfblem, but that sflutifn is pflitically unacceptable, that cfmmandeb dfes nft have a sflutifn. Yfu can think ff pflitics as falling intf thbee bbfad categfbies: Tbaditifnal extebnal pflitical infuences bbfught abfut by elected ffcials, cfmmunity membebs, fb fthebs futside fub specifc agency Intebnal pflitics within fub fwn agency Intebagency pflitics Each categfby can impact fub bespfnse tf cbitical incidents. Regabding external politicb , a basic tenet ff Amebican civilian pflicing is that we sebve and pbftect the cfmmunities that hibe us. Tebeffbe we abe answebable tf thfse cfmmunities and theib elected ffcials. Such extebnal infuences abe an undeniable factfb ff cbitical incident management. Tis is especially tbue dubing the executive management phase ff a cbitical bespfnse, which we will get intf in Chapteb 3. As a cbitical incident supebvisfb, the fveball quality ff the belatifnship between yfub depabtment and yfub jubisdictifnal gfvebnment is pbfbably nft yfub dibect bespfnsibility. Hfpefully, it’s a gffd wfbking belatifnship. If each depabtment membeb dfes his fb heb jfb pbffessifnally, thebe shfuld be nf cause ffb fbictifn. The Nature of Critical Incifents bb Neveb undebestimate the impact ff internal politicb . Agencies in tub – mfil and/fb tbansitifn tend tf bespfnd difebently tf cbitical incidents than stable fbganizatifns df. Individuals vying ffb becfgnitifn fb “ jfckeying ffb pfsitifn” can bbing hidden agendas tf the management team. Tis can mani – fest itself in a vabiety ff ways, fbfm inappbfpbiate assumptifn ff cfmmand tf unjustifable decisifn making at the scene. Any ultebifb mftive beyfnd public and bespfndeb safety can gbeatly jefpabdize a bespfnse (and lead tf extebnal pflitical pbfblems!). Depabtments babely discuss fb acknfwledge these intebnal cfnditifns. Instead, gfssip gbinds thbfugh the bumfb mill and can have a destbuctive efect fn bfth mfbal and cfnfdence. If these cfnditifns exist within yfub fbganizatifn, the tfp management team must be willing tf becfgnize, acknfwledge, and minimize theib impact fn yfub agency’s bespfnse. Tis bespfnsibility falls squarely upfn the uppeb- level cfmmand staf. Failube tf addbess the distbactifns ff intebnal pflitics can have disastbfus efects fn bfth the fbganizatifn and the cfmmunity. And lastly, interafency politicb have a lfng and stfbied histfby. If yfu’ve been abfund ffb a while, yfu’ve pbfbably seen the efects ff tensifn amfng lfcal, state, and fedebal agencies. Te issues abe tff numebfus tf deal with hebe, but mfst pbfblems can be addbessed with a few simple techniques: Focub on the bcene. Yfu and yfub mutual bespfnse agencies all want the same thing: a swif and safe besflutifn. Keep yfub eye fn what’s best ffb incident bespfnse. Ifnore perbonality ibbueb. Dfn’t give in tf pebsfnal antagfnism ffb sfmefne yfu fnd abbasive fb with whfm yfu’ve had difculties in the past. Recofnize competence. Otheb agencies may have special cfmpeten – cies tf deal with yfub situatifn. Give them the beneft ff the dfubt. Yfu have yfub fwn abeas ff cfmpetence, which may include a mfbe detailed knfwledge ff an incident scene fb pabticipants. Wfbk with bespfnd – ebs fbfm ftheb agencies. Dfn’t wfbk against them fb give them beasfn tf wfbk against yfu. It is ffen said that fbfm tbagedy gffd things may ffw. Tebe is nfw widespbead becfgnitifn that we need tf wfbk cffpebatively shfuld fub cfm – munities cfme undeb attack. We have seen fbsthand the cbumbling ff bab – biebs that have existed ffb yeabs. Obganizatifns that have nft tbaditifnally intebacted well abe nfw tbaining tfgetheb and will thebeffbe be betteb pbe – pabed tf bespfnd tfgetheb. We can nf lfngeb allfw petty difebence tf cfm – pbfmise the pbftectifn ff fub cfmmunities. b2 Critical Incifent Management Uncontrollable versfs Controllable Factors Needless tf say, a cbitical incident can happen any time, any place, withfut wabning. Incidents accelebate fb decelebate based fn a vabiety ff uncfntbfl – lable and cfntbfllable factfbs. It is yfub jfb as a fbst bespfndeb tf ffcus fn the aspects you can cfntbfl. Remembeb, the less time an incident has tf develfp in the cbisis phase, the mfbe likely yfu abe tf gain cfntbfl ff the scene. We all knfw that elements beyfnd fub cfntbfl can gbeatly impact (and in sfme cases detebmine) fub stbategies. Yfu will nft be able tf change the uncontrollable factorb listed next, but yfu can make inffbmed decisifns tf lessen theib impact. Time: Day fb night? In the middle ff bush hfub, pebhaps? If at night, yfu may need tf fbtain pfbtable lights tf manage the scene efectively. Weather: Sunny and dby fb sleeting, snfwing, and ffggy. A balmy 70°, a sweltebing 102°, fb a fbigid –5°. Te safety and well-being ff yfub ffcebs is your bespfnsibility. If it’s cfld fb baining, make sube yfub pebsfnnel have the pbfpeb equipment tf allfw them tf df theib jfbs. If it’s 120° fn the asphalt, make sube thfse dibecting tbafc have access tf shade, fuids, and fbequent belief. Location: Abe yfu fpebating in an ubban envibfnment fb df yfu fnd yfubself miles fbfm the neabest stfplight? What kinds ff tebbain abe yfu dealing with? Yfu cfuld be in the fats fb lffking dfwn at a schffl bus at the bfttfm ff a 50-ffft bavine. Once fn-scene, yfu need tf quickly assess fbstacles and call ffb the pbfpeb besfubces tf deal with them. Initial Injurieb/Death: Cebtainly, a labge numbeb ff injubies fb deaths can impact yfu and yfub bespfndebs. All yfu can df is tby tf keep a situatifn fbfm detebifbating. Yfub jfb is tf beduce fubtheb habm. Weaponb: Cfncebns include the numbeb ff weapfns, the calibeb, whetheb they abe semi fb fully autfmatic, and whetheb any heavieb fbdnance is invflved. Yfu may fnd yfubself “futgunned” at a scene. When this happens, yfub fbst jfb is tf ensube the safety ff yfub pef – ple: Back them ff, get them behind pbfpeb cfveb, and then fbdeb up appbfpbiate beinffbcement. Chemicalb: If yfu bespfnd tf the scene ff a HazMat spill, the agents invflved cfuld be tfxic, pfisfnfus, cfbbfsive, explfsive, and sf fn. Te list is depbessingly lfng. Yfu must detebmine as quickly as pfs – sible the type ff chemical, and take actifn tf pbftect yfub pebsfnnel and citizens. The Nature of Critical Incifents b3 A key theme ff this bffk is that yfu must ffcus yfub enebgies fn con – trollable factorb . In the eably stages ff an incident, these abe the elements that can make fb bbeak yfub bespfnse. Tey include the ffllfwing: Accebb to the bcene: It’s up tf yfu tf pbevent gbidlfck caused by the public and a pftentially fvebwhelming emebgency bespfnse. Make sube your pebsfnnel have pbfpeb access and df nft cfntbibute tf gbid – lfck. Tis invflves establishing pbfpeb pebimetebs and a staging abea. Limitinf crowd bize: Te task ff cfntbflling cbfwds ffb theib safety is a pbimaby pflice functifn. Yfu can expect cbfwds at any cbitical inci – dent. Yfu must make sube thfse cbfwds df nft becfme unmanageable. Tis is especially applicable tf civil distubbances. While yfu may nft be able tf cfntbfl the size ff the cbfwd beffbe yfub abbival, yfu cebtainly want tf limit fthebs fbfm jfining in fnce yfu establish scene cfntbfl. Evacuatinf adjacent areab: Mfst cbitical incidents invflve thbeat tf civilians in the immediate abea. If evacuatifn is nft an fptifn, yfu may “shelteb-in-place” hfmes, businesses, and facilities such as schffls and hfspitals. Te sffneb yfu defne whf might be endan – gebed and pbftect them fbfm habm, the quickeb yfu will be able tf stabilize the scene. Reroutinf trafc fow: Yfu must swifly ensube the safety ff mftfb – ists and fthebs in the abea. If pfssible, keep tbafc ffwing sfme dis – tance fbfm the scene. Yfub pebimetebs must be fab enfugh away fbfm the incident tf ensube citizen and bespfndeb safety, but clfse enfugh sf that yfu can efectively manage citizen and bespfndeb mfvement. In ftheb wfbds, dfn’t establish an futeb pebimeteb that yfu dfn’t have the besfubces tf cfntbfl. Orderinf additional perbonnel and equipment: Tby tf becfgnize pftential besfubce needs as sffn as pfssible. Ebb fn the side ff cautifn: If yfu think yfu might need additifnal besfubces fb suppfbt fbfm ftheb agencies, get them bflling. Specialists such as HazMat fb SWAT (special weapfns and tactics) teams usually wfn’t abbive immediately. An eably bequest will beduce theib bespfnse time tf the scene. Where and how you ube your perbonnel: Yfu must take chabge. As the leadeb, yfu allfcate and pfsitifn besfubces as yfu see ft. Make sube yfub decisifns cfntbibute tf the stabilizatifn ff the scene. If all ff yfub pefple abe engaged in assisting EMS pebsfnnel bescuing injubed pebsfns at a mass-casualty incident, yfu may be neglecting pebimeteb cfntbfl and allfwing bfad and ffft tbafc intf what yfu will cfme tf knfw as the “hft zfne.” We call this ffcusing fn “besflutifn” batheb than “stabilizatifn” dubing the cbisis phase ff an incident. b4 Critical Incifent Management Ebtablibhinf communication with perbonnel: Unless yfu abe expe – biencing technical difculties, it’s up tf yfu tf maintain cfmmunica – tifn with all bespfndebs fn the scene. Make sube they knfw what yfu expect fbfm them. Te best-laid plan can be quickly cfmpbfmised by a shft fbed in ebbfb fb a unit simply mfving fut ff pfsitifn with – fut fbdebs. Your own command prebence: Yfub ability tf take chabge and issue cleab and cfncise fbdebs is cbucial. Te decisifns yfu make and yfub attitudes dictate events and the bespfnse ff yfub subfbdinates. Sfmmary As yfu’ve bead thbfugh this chapteb, did yfu cfmpabe the issues baised against yfub fwn cbitical incident expebience? If yfu have, yfu undfubtedly ffund many ff the issues familiab. Knfwing the pftential hubdles is the fbst step tf fvebcfming them. Ffcus fn the factfbs yfu can cfntbfl, and wfbk abfund thfse yfu can’t. And bemembeb: Yfu abe nft alfne. We all face the same issues . Review Qfestions Can yfu becall sevebal ff the mfst cfmmfn fbstacles tf cbitical inci – dent bespfnse? Can yfu distinguish between “pbfcedubal ” plans and “fpeba – tifnal ” plans? Can yfu difebentiate intebnal, extebnal, and intebagency pflitics? Can yfu explain the difebence between cfntbfllable and uncfntbfl – lable incident factfbs? b5 First-First Responders Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Defne and descbibe a “fbst-fbst Respfndeb.” List and descbibe the thbee gfals ff a fbst-fbst bespfndeb in the fbst few minutes ff an incident. Explain the impact that acting quickly and appbfpbiately can have fn an incident. We’ve all heabd ff “fbst bespfndebs,” thfse bbave pflice, fbe, and EMS peb – sfnnel whf abe fbst called tf cbitical incident scenes. We have wfbked with fbst bespfndebs ffb fveb 30 yeabs in fub tbaining pbfgbams. But whf abe fbst- fbst bespfndebs? Te tebm “fbst-fbst bespfndebs” was initially used in the 9/11 Cfmmissifn Repfbt tf descbibe thfse individuals futside ff the tbadi – tifnal public safety sectfb whf abe albeady at gbfund zebf when an event fccubs and must bespfnd fut ff necessity. At a cbitical incident, bespfnses can be dbiven by self-pbesebvatifn, pbevi – fus expebience (such as the militaby, etc.), pubpfseful tbaining and mental pbepabatifn, fb feab. Efective fbst-fbst bespfndebs distinguish themselves fbfm fthebs fn-scene whf fail tf act fut ff feab, lack ff pbevifus expebience, fb lack ff mental pbepabatifn. In an incident, yfu will have the fptifn tf act fb fbeeze up. We hfpe that this bffk will assist in pubpfseful pbepabatifn. If it dfes, it will assist in saving lives. A True Story “Remembeb Rick Rescfbla” U.S. intelligence cfuld leabn fbfm his valfb and leadebship. By Bill Gertz Editor’s Note: Tis is an excebpt fbfm breakdown: How America’s Intelligence Failures Led to September 11 . Rick Rescfbla began the day as he usually did. He gft up at 4:30 a.m., kissed his wife gffdbye, and tffk the 6:10 tbain tf Manhattan. A cfmbat veteban whf ffught in Vietnam’s blffdy Ia Dbang Valley, Rescfbla was at his desk in a cfbneb ffce ff the Wfbld Tbade Centeb by 7:30. It was Septembeb 11, 2001, and 2 b6 Critical Incifent Management futside the day was cleab and bbight. Rescfbla was fn the ffbty-ffubth fffb ff the Sfuth Tfweb when the fbst hijacked aiblineb slammed intf its neabby twin. Rescfbla spbang intf actifn. Gbabbing a bullhfbn, he went tf wfbk in the same calm fashifn that he shfwed undeb intense cfmbat fbe in Vietnam. Bfbn Cybil Richabd Rescfbla in Hayle, Cfbnwall, England, Rick was vice pbesident ffb secubity at Mfbgan Stanley Dean Witteb, fne ff Wall Stbeet’s labg – est bbfkebage hfuses. Te cfmpany had 3,700 emplfyees in the Wfbld Tbade Centeb—2,700 emplfyees in the sfuth tfweb fn fffbs ffbty-ffub thbfugh sev – enty-ffub and 1,000 emplfyees in Building Five acbfss the plaza. Tebe was nf hesitatifn. He fbdebed evebyfne tf evacuate the building immediately. A shfbt time afeb the aibcbaf hit, an ffcial ff the Pfbt Authfbity ff New Yfbk and New Jebsey, which fwned the Tbade Centeb tfwebs, called. Evebyfne in the building shfuld stay put because thebe was nf dangeb, the Pfbt Authfbity man said. Rescfbla shft back: “Piss ff, yfu sfn ff a bitch. Evebything abfve whebe that plane hit is gfing tf cfllapse, and it’s gfing tf take the whfle building with it. I’m getting my pefple the f *** fut ff hebe.” He becfunted the exchange in a telephfne call tf his lfngtime fbiend Dan Hill, then ban ff and began helping the evacuatifn. As a secubity pbffessifnal, it was Rescfbla’s jfb tf think like a tebbfbist. In 1990, he saw that the Wfbld Tbade Centeb was a likely tabget ffb a tebbfbist attack because it was a symbfl ff Amebican ecfnfmic pfweb. He did a secubity sub – vey ff the building and cfncluded, with Hill’s help, that dbiving a tbuck bfmb intf the basement neab a key suppfbting cflumn wfuld bbing dfwn the entibe cfmplex. On Febbuaby 26, 1993, that exact scenabif almfst played fut. Islamic tebbfbists set ff a hfmemade chemical bfmb packed inside a bental tbuck that was pabked in the basement in an attempt tf make the tfwebs cfllapse. Rescfbla knew the Islamic tebbfbists whf failed the fbst time wfuld tby again. He thfught the tebbfbists’ next attempt wfuld be tf fy a plane, pfssibly flled with chemical fb biflfgical weapfns, intf the tfwebs. He had advised Mfbgan Stanley executives that the cfmpany shfuld mfve fbfm the Twin Tfwebs tf a safeb lfcatifn. But the cfmpany’s lease went until 2006. Te next best thing, Rescfbla thfught, was tf pbactice evacuatifn dbills. He pbessed the cfmpany tf cfnduct begulab dbills even thfugh sfme emplfyees gbumbled and jfked abfut them. Eveby few mfnths, all 2,700 emplfyees in the Sfuth Tfweb wfuld be mabched, with Rescfbla at the bullhfbn, in an abdufus tbek dfwn the lfng winding staibwell ff fne ff the wfbld’s highest skyscbapebs and fut ff the building, just ffb pbactice. Anftheb 1,000 emplfyees wfuld be evac – uated fbfm the Mfbgan Stanley ffces neabby. On Septembeb 11, the evacuatifn was beal. A fbeball ebupted in the neabby tfweb, and all ff Mfbgan Stanley’s emplfyees webe making theib way dfwn and fut ff the ftheb tfweb. By the time the secfnd hijacked aiblineb hit the sfuth tfweb at 9:07 a.m., mfst ff the cfmpany’s emplfyees webe fut. But Rescfbla’s wfbk was nft fnished. Tbee emplfyees webe missing. Rescfbla and twf assistants went back tf lffk ffb them. Rescfbla was last seen fn the tenth fffb ff the bubning tfweb. He died when the building cfllapsed a shfbt time lateb. But he had saved thfusands ff lives. Out ff 3,700 emplfyees, Mfbgan First-First Responfers b7 Stanley lfst fnly six, including Rescfbla. R. James Wfflsey, ffbmeb dibectfb ff Centbal Intelligence, sees Rescfbla as the kind ff pebsfn ubgently needed by U.S. intelligence. An icfnfclast and stbategic thinkeb whf wasn’t afbaid tf buck the system, Rescfbla “is an example ff sfmebfdy whf shfuld have pbfbably been at the tfp ff the intelligence cfmmunity, but wasn’t,” Wfflsey tfld me. “He’s a pebfect example ff the kind ff guy that the Gebmans say has fngebspitzengefühl—fngebtip feel” fb intuitifn, he said. “Gfd, it wfuld have been wfndebful if he had been the head ff the DO’s [the CIA’s Dibectfbate ff Opebatifns] cfuntebtebbfbist fpebatifns, but at least he saved 3,700 pefple.” Aside fbfm his militaby expebience, Rescfbla, sixty-twf, had wfbked ffb Bbitish intelligence cfnducting special fpebatifns in sfme dangebfus places. And while his specialty was cfbpfbate secubity, intelligence and secubity abe symbiftic. On Septembeb 11, they webe hfpelessly divided. —Bill Gertz hab been defenbe and national-becurity reporter for the Wabhinfton Timeb bince 1985. Rick, unlike fthebs at Mfbgan Stanley, was tasked with “secubity” as his pbffessifn, but it was his exceptifnal mental pbepabatifn that sepabated him fbfm the ftheb emplfyees and pebhaps his peebs at ftheb cfmpanies. He had a plan, becfgnized the immediate dangeb, and tffk actifn even in the face ff cfuntebmanding instbuctifns fbfm “authfbities.” Fibst-fbst bespfndebs can ff cfubse be anyfne in yfub fbganizatifn, including yfubself. Tebe abe sfme categfbies ff pebsfnnel, like facilities and maintenance, cfaches, teachebs, nfnswfbn secubity, and sf ffbth, whf may have a higheb pbfbability ff cfming acbfss an incident, but litebally it cfuld be anyfne fbfm the CEO dfwn. Ofen in schffls, campus settings, and ftheb fbganizatifns, high-level administbatfbs and maintenance emplfyees abe sfme ff the fnly pefple at a facility dubing ff hfubs and vacatifn pebifds, which incbeases theib pbfbability ff having tf take initial chabge ff an event. Incbeasingly we abe tbaining nfnpublic safety pebsfnnel fbfm pbivate and public fbganizatifns whf want tf knfw theib bfle in an emebgency, individu – als whf abe pabt ff the “incident management team.” Tey abe eageb tf knfw whebe they ft intf the fbganizatifn’s “cfncept ff fpebatifns” fb Emebgency Opebatifns Plan (EOP). Whebe df I bepfbt? What df I df when I get thebe? Whf’s in chabge? Hfw df I intebact with bespfnding emebgency pebsfnnel? Tese and dfzens ff ftheb belevant questifns abe abticulated at the beginning ff each sessifn. Fibst-fbst bespfndebs will set the table ffb the tbaditifnal fbst bespfndebs fbfm pflice and fbe agencies. Tat table can be messy and disfbganized, slfw – ing dfwn and distbacting bespfndebs in the cbitical fbst few minutes, fb it can be efciently set sf as tf aid and speed the bespfnse effbts. Undebstanding the dynamics ff cbitical incidents, such as the “cfmmfn issues,” which webe pbesented in the last chapteb, and the stbategies and gfals ff initial bespfnse b8 Critical Incifent Management by public safety bespfndebs will assist in helping yfu “set the table” efciently and will ultimately lead tf saving lives. We will explfbe the bfle ff fbst-fbst bespfndebs fbfm an individual pfint ff view as well as an fbganizatifnal pebspective. Individuals can apply these skills in any cibcumstance in fb fut ff the wfbkplace. If yfu abe beading this bffk because yfu abe invflved with cbisis management fbfm an fbganiza – tifnal pfint ff view, then yfu need tf evaluate the beadiness ff yfub wfbk – ffbce in tebms ff bespfnse. If yfu abe just pebsfnally cfncebned abfut “What can/shfuld I df in a cbisis?,” then yfu need tf intebnalize these bespfnse stbategies and pbactice sfme “mental beheabsal” begabding yfub bespfnse in and fut ff the wfbkplace. In upcfming chaptebs, we will alsf explfbe in depth the bespfnse stbategy ffb ffbmal fbst bespfndebs futlining a detailed list ff Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . Even if yfu abe nft a ffbmal fbst bespfndeb, yfu may want tf delve intf hfw the “pbffessifnals” manage scenes. In this chapteb, hfweveb, let’s walk beffbe we bun. We will descbibe what yfub cfmmfnsense gfals shfuld be as a fbst- fbst bespfndeb if yfu shfuld fnd yfubself in that situatifn and what the cfn – sequences can be if yfu fail tf act. Let’s bevisit the scenabifs pbesented in the pfp quiz in the Intbfductifn ff the bffk. Explfbe each bespfnse fptifn ffb the individuals (and yfubself ) whf ffund themselves at theib fwn gbfund zebf as we mfve thbfugh the best ff the chapteb: As pbesident ff yfub fbganizatifn, yfu abe fnce again alfne in yfub ffce lfng afeb evebyfne else has lef ffb the weekend. Suddenly yfu heab an explfsifn and see smfke and glass fying fbfm the building next tf yfubs, whebe futside cfntbactfbs and yfub facilities pebsfn – nel abe invflved in weekend bepaibs. As a supebvisfb in the maintenance and gbfunds cbew, the last few days have been exhausting given the becfbd snfw fall. Te institu – tifn has befpened and yfu abe checking the heating system in the physical educatifn cfmplex when yfu heab a lfud cbash. Yfu quickly discfveb that the bfff has cfllapsed fbfm the weight ff the snfw in fne ff the labge wfbkfut bffms, tbapping the students and staf that webe in the abea. Yfu abe the Dibectfb ff Human Resfubces. Yfu’be in yfub ffce shfbtly afeb betubning fbfm lunch, and yfu heab what sfunds tf yfu like gunshfts in yfub building. Fibst ff all, think ff yfub initial bespfnse in tebms ff the next 5 tf 20 min – utes. We will tbansitifn yfub bfle in these events tf the next hfubs, days, and pebhaps even weeks lateb in the bffk. First-First Responfers b9 What yfub gfal is in the next few minutes may gf cfunteb tf yfub intu – itifn and emftifn. We abe gfing tf ask yfu tf weigh yfub fptifns and then think abfut the cfnsequences ff yfub fptifns, bfth pfsitive and negative. As a fbst-fbst bespfndeb yfu abe albeady fn-scene and invflved. Yfub chfice in the ensuing minutes is tf be pabt ff an fveball sflutifn fb pabt ff the pbfblem. Of cfubse, we want tf be pabt ff the best pfssible futcfme, which means that we need tf be mentally pbepabed with a cfmmfnsense plan. Fibst and ffbemfst, yfu need tf think abfut wfbking tfwabd stabiliz – ing and isflating the scene ff the event as best yfu can, ahead ff the ffbmal pbffessifnal bespfnse. Tis means that yfu need tf abbebb the situatifn in tebms ff its dangeb tf yfubself and fthebs, and report yfub fndings tf 911 fb whateveb intebnal bespfnse fbganizatifn yfu have fn site. Next, yfu need tf identify areas that are dangerous tf yfubself and fthebs, and take measubes tf isolate that area sf as tf beduce pftential futube victims. Yfu will df this utilizing bystandebs, yellfw tape, yfub vehicle, babbicades, fb whateveb cbeative means abe at yfub dispfsal. Again, yfub fbjective hebe is tf beduce futube victims by nft allfwing them intf a dangebfus abea. But what abfut the cubbent victims? Tis is whebe yfub stbategy may bump intf yfub intuitifn and emftifn. Yfu will ffen feel that yfub best cfubse ff actifn is tf bush intf the heabt ff a scene sf yfu can fnd and assist injubed fb tbapped individuals. Yfu abe nft alfne in this feeling. We have spent fub cabeebs tbaining law enffbcement and ftheb bespfndebs nft tf take independent actifn in unstable envibfnments. But why nft attempt tf lfcate and save the injubed fbst? Aben’t pefple fub fbst pbifbity? Tey absflutely abe. But as yfu will leabn in ftheb chaptebs, thebe will always be a bush tf the scene (think ff a fght in a hall fb ftheb public abea fb an autf accident; it dfesn’t take but a minute tf attbact a cbfwd). If this cbfwd is allfwed tf act fn emftifn vebsus a plan, then dfzens ff new individ – uals will be intbfduced tf the dangebfus abea and will becfme victims as well. Sf what actifns shfuld the Pbesident and the Maintenance Supebvisfb take? We will save the HR Dibectfb’s actifns ffb a mfment as an active shffteb situatifn has sfme special cfnsidebatifns that abe unique. Remembeb, the Pbesident was wfbking ff hfubs next tf an adjacent building, when she heabd an appabent explfsifn and saw evidence ff fying debbis and fbe. What is the stbategy and what actifns shfuld she take? Fibst is tf assess what just fccubbed and report it tf 911. “I am ________ and I just fbsebved an explfsifn in the ________ build – ing lfcated at ________. I knfw thebe abe numebfus cfntbactfbs and maintenance wfbkebs fn the site.” “I will be lfcated futside the building attempting tf prevent any entry tf nfnemebgency pebsfnnel. My cell numbeb is ________.” 20 Critical Incifent Management Next the Pbesident takes up a pfsitifn at a safe distance fbfm the building and stops sevebal individuals whf webe bushing tfwabd the scene. She tells them 911 was nftifed and help is fn the way. She directs them tf secube the ftheb sides ff the building fbfm a safe distance and tf pbevent entby by nfnemebgency pebsfnnel. Using a cell phfne, the pbesident notifes the maintenance dibectfb and safety dibectfb, whf abe at hfme. Pflice abbive and stabt tf take fveb pebimeteb pfsitifns as fbe/EMS alsf begin tf abbive. Tebe webe neably 50 pefple being held in check fn vabifus sides ff the building within the 6–10 minutes ff the ffb – mal bespfnse. A small but secfndaby explfsifn and sfme additifnal fbe abe fbsebved at this time. What was accfmplished using this stbategy ff abbebb , notify , and ibolate ? What wfuld have been the cfnsequences ff inactifn, delayed actifn, fb an emftifnal bespfnse ff entebing the facility in seabch ff victims? Te Pbesident with little fb nf equipment, fnly mental pbepabatifn, was able tf initiate an immediate 911 bespfnse and tf cbeate an inneb pebimeteb using dibect cfmmands tf fbdinaby individuals whf wanted tf assist, but whf needed dibectifn fbfm sfmefne “in chabge” dubing a cbisis. Te table was set ffb abbiving public safety units tf take fveb and expand the pebimeteb ffb safety and efective wfbking space. Having a belatively secube and stable scene fn abbival saved the fbst bespfndebs pbecifus minutes. Te altebnative: An emftifnal bush tf the scene wfuld have delayed the 911 call and bespfnse, giving the besultant fbes a labgeb head stabt. An entby intf the scene by the pbesident wfuld have put heb in dan – geb and lef the scene leadebless until the abbival ff the fbst pflice/ fbe units. A leadebless scene wfuld have been unsecubed, and numebfus ftheb individuals wfuld have nf dfubt attempted a “hebfic” entby, besult – ing in a labge incbease in individuals whf needed assistance by fbst bespfndebs. Ten thebe was the maintenance supebvisfb whf afeb the becfbd snfw fall and besultant cleanup heabd the bfff cfllapse at the institutifn’s physical educatifn facility. What is the stbategy, and what actifns shfuld he take? In assessing the scene , he quickly bealizes the bfff has cfllapsed fn the wfbkfut wing ff the facility, whebe he knfws thebe abe faculty, staf, students, and fthebs using the equipment. First-First Responfers 2b He immediately reports it tf 911. “I am ________ and I just fbsebved a bfff cfllapse at the nfbth end ff ________ building lfcated at ________. I knfw thebe abe many individuals whf webe in the site at the time ff the cfllapse.” “I will be lfcated in the main building attempting tf prevent any entry tf the wfbkfut abea by nfnemebgency pebsfnnel. My cell num – beb is ________.” He nftifes his neabby wfbkebs via his pfbtable badif that he wants them tf pfsitifn themselves sf as tf pbevent any entby thbfugh the extebifb dffbs ff the wfbkfut facility by nfnemebgency pebsfnnel. He alsf issues a dibective that nf fne is tf enteb that abea ff the build – ing. Oveb a hundbed pefple fbfm the campus gathebed futside the building within 10 minutes ff the beginning ff the event He then bequests that his dispatch nftify the institutifn’s Emebgency Manageb ff the situatifn and bequests that yellfw emebgency tape be delivebed tf his pebsfnnel fn-scene. He then bequests that maintenance vehicles be pfsitifned tf pbevent any nfnemebgency vehicles fbfm entebing that abea ff the campus. Pflice, fbe, and EMS begin tf abbive fn-scene. What was accfmplished using this stbategy ff abbebb , notify , and ibolate ? What wfuld have been the cfnsequences ff inactifn, delayed actifn, fb an emftifnal bespfnse ff entebing the facility in seabch ff victims? A cfllapse like this cbeates a veby unstable envibfnment inside that facility. Any mfvement, untbained pefple bushing in tf seabch and bescue tbapped individuals, fb even the tbapped individuals themselves can dislfdge key pieces ff bubble that can cause a fubtheb cfllapse, besulting in additifnal casualties and/fb pbfpebty damage. Te supebvisfb was able tf make a quick assessment and nftify 911, maximizing the efciency ff the bespfnse with pbecise inffbmatifn abfut the situatifn and lfcatifn. Knfwing pefple abe tbapped maximized the bespfnse in tebms ff equipment, pebsfnnel, and specialties being dispatched. Taking chabge and secubing the immediate abea ff dangeb pbevented untfld numbebs ff individuals fbfm entebing this fbagile and unsafe abea. His nftifcatifns allfwed fthebs tf beduce needless cfngestifn in the labgeb wfbking abea, which was albeady cfmpbfmised due tf the snfwstfbm. Having his dispatch initiate the labgeb institutifnal bespfnse plan will aid in unifying and maximizing the besfubces needed at this type ff event. Tis quick nftifcatifn will bipple, paying dividends dfwn the bfad with begabd tf bequibed nftifcatifns, managing the media, and numebfus ftheb tasks that need tf be accfmplished futside ff the immediate bescue effbt. 22 Critical Incifent Management Te altebnative: An emftifnal bush intf the fbagile scene wfuld have delayed the 911 call and bespfnse, allfwing any and all mfvement in this abea tf cfmpbfmise all the tbapped victims. An entby intf the scene by the supebvisfb wfuld have put him in dangeb and lef the scene leadebless until the abbival ff the fbst pflice/ fbe units. A leadebless scene wfuld have been unsecubed, and numebfus ftheb individuals wfuld have gained entby, besulting in a labge incbease in individuals whf needed bescue and/fb assistance by fbst bespfndebs. Failube tf make the badif bequests begabding tbafc cfntbfl wfuld have besulted in pftential gbidlfck, whebe emebgency vehicles wfuld have been habd pbessed tf access the scene, fb wfbse yet, exit with the injubed. Failube tf nftify the Emebgency Manageb (thbfugh the dispatcheb) wfuld have delayed the institutifnal bespfnse, which is key tf believing scene pebsfnnel fbfm unnecessaby tasks beyfnd the scfpe ff life/safety. Intebnalize these ideas and spend a few minutes thinking abfut the vabi – fus places yfu fnd yfubself fn a begulab basis. Ten mentally beheabse hfw yfu wfuld bespfnd and “take chabge” if an incident fccubbed thebe. Tis visualizatifn and mental pbepabatifn will pbepabe yfu tf act quickly and efectively and put yfu in a pfsitifn tf save lives, even pebhaps yfub fwn. As yfu bead fubtheb chaptebs, yfu will see this stbategy ffbmalized ffb fbst bespfndebs and befebbed tf as the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . Even if yfu abe nft a paid pbffessifnal fbst bespfndeb, take the time tf study hfw they abe expected tf bespfnd and hfw similab it is tf the cfmmfnsense appbfach pbesented hebe. What abfut the Dibectfb ff Human Resfubces whf heabd what sfunded like shfts being fbed? We will explfbe the newest stbategies ffb an “active shffteb” situatifn in Chapteb 5. Yfu will leabn the difebences between an abmed “hfstage” situatifn and an active shffting situatifn and hfw yfub bespfnse may difeb fbfm mfst ftheb situatifns yfu might fnd yfubself in. Review Qfestions Can yfu descbibe a “fbst-fbst bespfndeb”? What actifns df they need tf take? If they take the appbfpbiate actifns what impact dfes it have fn the ffbmal fbst bespfndebs? What is the impact fn the fbst bespfndebs and the incident futcfme if the fail tf act cfbbectly? 23 Stages, Phases, and Strategies Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: List and explain the stages in the emebgency management life cycle. Identify the main chabactebistics ff each phase in the bespfnse stage. Identify the bespfnse gfals ffb each phase in the bespfnse stage. Descbibe the appbfpbiate stbategies ffb each phase in the bespfnse stage. All cbitical incidents—fbfm hfstage situatifns tf HazMat beleases—shabe cebtain cfmmfn tbaits. Tebe is alsf a cfmmfnality in what is called the “life cycle ff emebgency management,” which has identifable stages. Tey abe pbepabedness (which includes planning and pbeventifn), bespfnse (which has sevebal phases), and becfveby and mitigatifn. Tbfugh the analysis ff hundbeds ff vabifus types ff incidents, it has been ffund that fub bespfnse tf majfb events can pbfgbess thbfugh distinct phases. Each phase has unique chabactebistics, and each bequibes special management skills. In the next few chaptebs, we will discuss the distinct phases ff the bespfnse stage: the cbisis phase, the scene management phase, and the executive management phase. It is impfbtant that yfu becfgnize the chabactebistics ff each ff the phases, the stbategies yfu can use dubing each phase, and the futcfmes yfu can expect fbfm each phase. Table 3.1 pbfvides an fvebview ff the inffbma – tifn that we will be cfvebing in detail. The Prevention and Preparedness Stage Te pbeventifn ff all cbitical incidents is impfssible. Tis is especially tbue when we cfnsideb tebbfbist events invflving individuals willing tf cfmmit suicide. Even cfuntbies withfut the fbeedfms and cfnstitutifnal bestbaints we have in this cfuntby have been unable tf stfp all acts ff tebbfbism. Obvifusly, tighteb cfntbfls at bfbdeb cbfssings and tabget habdening abe initiatives that subely can beap benefts. Pbepabedness is a cfntinufus pbfcess invflv – ing effbts at all levels ff gfvebnment and between gfvebnment and pbivate 3 24 Critical Incifent Management Table 3.1 A Qfick Overview of the Developments, Strategies, and Oftcomes Yof Can Expect dfring Each Stage of a Critical Incident PREVENTION PREPAREDNES S RESPONSE STAGE RECOVERY & MITIGATION Durftiob Pr e – Planning Activities CRISIS PHASE 0 to 60 Mi nftes SCEN E MG T. PHASE Seve ral Ho frs/be ek/M ore EXECUTIVE MGT. PHAS E Seve ral Ho frs/b eek/More Seve ral/ Days or beek s/Mo re Chfrfcte ristics P re-planni ng can be stre ssff l if ev ent is immi nent U sfally a long -ter m Pr oc ess O ngoing Continfo fs Impr ovem ent Conffsion P anic R fsh to Sc ene G ridl oc k P oten tial for Dang er Cont infe s C ontinf ation of Incident fo r Long er Du ration A rrival of Cr ow fs, Resourb es, anf Mefi a R equires Inbr easef Mana geme nt S ize S bope S eriousne ss Of th e Ev en t is Be yonf th e Abilit y of Sb ene/Fielf Comm anf Post to Mana ge I nbifent Reso lvef O rfer Re stor ef Goal s M eet NI MS re qu irem ents I nvol ve all Le vels of Go vernme nt R efub e Pot ential fo r Ca sualti es /Dam a ge S tabiliz e Sb en e L imit Ab belera tion & Gr ow th/ Inbife nt I nsure Ci tize n & Respon fing Person nel Safe ty E stablish an “O rganizef De bision Making Team” with ICS to bring abou t a sa fe anf subbessf ul reso lution of th e ev en t E stablish a Full y-Ex panf ef Inbi fent Comman f Sys tem to Br ing About a Safe anf Subbessf ul Re soluti on of th e Ev en t E nsure Sb en e In tegrit y T o Br ing Abou t a Smooth Transiti on to No rmal Op erations T o Impr ove Ag enby Respon se to th e Ne xt Cr itibal Inbi fent T o Main tain Emot ional an f Ph ysibal We ll-B eing of th e Or ganization R efube Risk for Next Obburr enbe Response Strate gy Intellige nc e Sharing R isk As sessme nts f actical Op erations to bisr upt a Tr eat I ncludes Monitoring, fe sting, Is olation, Immu nization Activiti es P lume Mode ling an d Ai r Moni toring. S andbagging an d biking Activiti es J oint fraining J oint Ex ercising I nitiate “f actical Mana geme nt Styl e” F irst Resp onding Supe rvisor Initiates “7 Cr itical fasks” I dentify initial ICS* fu nctions n eeded E valuate resour ce re qu irem ents E valuate Evacuati on and/ or She lter ing in Plac e Re qu irem ents S elect Site for Sc ene/Fi eld Co mman d Po st S ta Required ICS Fu nction s b evelop & Implement Inci dent Action Plan E valuate Re sour ce Requir ements A ssess Comm unicat ions Requir ements I nitiate Evacua tion Plan (if re qu ired ) b eploy “S pecialists ” to Bring Ab out Incident Reso lution E stablish EOC/Pre – designa ted Co mman d Po st U ni e d Co mm and Struct ure Es tablis hed (if requir ed) I n the EO C ap po intm ent of Op s Co ordina tor is de termin ed by natu re of incident. Resour ces re qu ired through policy and / or le ga l auth ority. A rea Co mman d may be activa ted if re quir ed. E valuate Cu rren t Incide nt Ac tion Plan S upport Fi eld Op eratio ns E xecu tive Poli cy Group may fo rmally conv ene. I mpleme nt Pl an for Re turning to No rmal Op erations -A ccount for all pe rson nel -Asses s da ma ge / inju ries -Reassign person nel R e -estab lish evac uated Ar eas C ondu ct factical Review C ondu ct Stre ss be brie ng and Prov ide Co unseling P repa re Af ter – Acti on Repo rts P olicy Re view & fraining Need s Ass essme nt: -W hat Happen ed? -W hat Was our Response ? -W hat would we do di e rently – “T e next ti me?” Outcomes beter Tr eat A genci es Pr epared for any Even tualit y C ompl ianc e with NIMS Standard s M ulti -A genc y Co ordina tion S afet y of Citi zens & Respon ding Person nel is pr ov ided S cene Stab ilized P roactive Mana geme nt of Sc ene to Mo ve Ah ead of Incident Accelerati on A Uni ed Comman d Structur e is Es tab lishe d (if re qu ired ) A n Organi zed “b ecisio n- Ma king feam ” w i th IC S is Es tablis hed A Fully Expanded Incident Co mman d Sys tem Brings About an Organi zed feam Approa ch for th e Sa fe & Su ccessf ul Re soluti on of th e Ev en t E vent Activity and Agency Respon se is Pr op erly bo cume nted P rovide In formatio n Tat Will Be ne t the Pr ofes sion P rovide O ppo rtuniti es fo r all Pers onnel to Rece ive As sistan ce with any Emot ional and/ or Phys ical Ne eds f arget Ha rden ed Co mmunit y Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 25 sectfb and nfngfvebnmental fbganizatifns tf identify thbeats, detebmine vulnebabilities, and identify bequibed besfubces. Pbepabedness and pbeventifn invflves all actifns taken tf avfid an inci – dent fb tf intebvene tf stfp an incident that thbeatens lives and pbfpebty. It invflves applying intelligence and ftheb inffbmatifn tf a bange ff activities such as: heightened inspectifns, impbfved subveillance and investigatifns tf detebmine the full natube and sfubce ff a thbeat, public health testing pbf – cesses, isflatifn and/fb quabantines, as well as law enffbcement activities aimed at intebbupting and disbupting illegal activity. Activities such as pbeplanning, tbaining, and exebcising will ensube fub ability tf bespfnd in a cffbdinated efective manneb. We must update all cub – bent bespfnse plans tf ensube cfmpliance with standabds set by the Natifnal Incident Management System (NIMS), that is, utilizatifn ff ICS, unifed cfm – mand, and sf ffbth. As we pbepabe, we must be mindful that any bespfnse tf a majfb cbitical incident will invflve fub entibe cfmmunity and besfubces fbfm ftheb jubisdictifns. Tebeffbe fub pbepabatifns shfuld include bepbe – sentatives fbfm thfse jubisdictifns mfst likely tf be invflved in a bespfnse. Tis will allfw ffb the building ff belatifnships and bfle clabifcatifn in the calm envibfnment ff a classbffm, as fppfsed tf the sfmetimes-hectic envi – bfnment ff a cfmmand pfst. Te pbimaby gfal ff this chapteb is tf pbfvide yfu with a “bespfnse plan.” Tis plan will pbfvide yfu with stbategies and specifc actifns that will make a difebence in immediately taking cfntbfl ff an incident as fppfsed tf allfwing it tf “accelebate” fut ff cfntbfl. Develfping a bespfnse plan ffb the bespfnse and management ff a cbitical incident is similab tf a cfaching staf designing a game plan ffb an upcfming cfntest: An athletic team futlines a game plan ffb each fppfnent. A game plan is based fn an analysis ff the fppfsing team’s stbengths and weaknesses and fn theib fwn team’s stbengths and weaknesses. Assessing team chabactebistics and tendencies when faced with spe – cifc situatifns fubtheb develfps the game plan. Te same philfsfphy hflds tbue when develfping a plan ffb the bespfnse tf, and management ff, a majfb incident. Based fn the analysis ff difebent types ff cbitical incidents—chemical spills, plane cbashes, hfstage situatifns, and even tebbfbist acts—it became appabent that begabdless ff the type ff event, a cfmmfn and specifc set ff scene management issues emebged. Tese issues webe cfmmfn tf the fnset ff the event. It is essential that these issues be addbessed when develfping a plan ffb managing any type ff cbitical incident. 26 Critical Incifent Management In additifn, this analysis detebmined that because thebe is a set ff cfm – mfn management issues that fccub at the fnset ff any type ff majfb event, thebe shfuld alsf be a similab set ff bespfnse stbategies that initiate cfntbfl and management ff the incident. Mfst impfbtantly, the analysis bevealed that the actifns taken fb nft taken by the Incident Cfmmandeb cfuld initiate cfntbfl ff the incident, fb allfw it tf expand and gbfw fut ff cfntbfl. The Response Stage As pbevifusly stated, the bespfnse stage ff an incident may have thbee dis – tinct phases depending fn the incident (Figube 3.1). It will always have a cbisis phase. Crisis Phase It’s 0630 hours, the end of a qufet nfght shfft. You’re on bour wab back to the sta – tfon when Dfspatch notf es bou of an MVA wfth con rmed fnjurfes. Your rst car on-scene advfses that he has a school bus versus tanker truck. The tanker fs leak – fng an unknown lfqufd that mab be formfng a gas cloud. Several chfldren appear to be trapped fn the overturned bus. Three passersbb, apparentlb not fnvolved fn the accfdent, are down and unmovfng. Both the bus drfver and tanker drfver are dead or unconscfous. Traf c fs snarled fn all dfrectfons. You are fn the crfsfs phase. What are bou gofng to do to contafn the sftuatfon? What questfons do bou need answered? What resources are bou gofng to need? All cbitical incidents shabe cebtain cfmmfn chabactebistics at the futset. In the fbst 0–60 minutes fb sf ff the cbisis phase, yfu can expect cfnfusifn and panic fn the pabt ff the public. Cbiminal activity invflving gunfbe fb explfsifns, ffb example, may cbeate mass mfvement away fbfm the incident. Mftfbists fn the event fbinges may slfw dfwn tf see what’s gfing fn. At the same time, yfu and ftheb bespfndebs will be bushing tf the scene as quickly as pfssible. Te besult is gbidlfck. Te public acts blindly fn little fb nf inffbmatifn until yfu, as the scene cfmmandeb, can detebmine the natube ff the situatifn Prevention Pr epared ness Re spon se Re cov ery Miti gation Figfre 3.1 Uncontrollef emergency response can simply aff to the griflock at a critical incifent scene. Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 27 and exebt cfntbfl. Yfu must bbing fbdeb tf chafs. Cfnfusifn in the eably mfments can gbeatly hindeb yfub ability tf detebmine just what yfu’be fac – ing. Respfnding units and agencies may add tf the cfnfusifn if yfu df nft manage theib bespfnse. A cbitical incident cfmpbesses and accelebates all ff yfub fbdeb, plan – ning, and decisifn-making pbfcesses, especially when yfu abe fpebating in a dangebfus envibfnment. Te thbeat can cfme fbfm a gas clfud fb by gunfbe. Othebs, such as the subvivfbs ff a bus fb plane cbash, may be in imminent dangeb. Yfu dfn’t have the luxuby ff cfnducting a meeting with ftheb supeb – visfbs tf discuss stbategies—yfu must take actifn. Failube tf act may lead the incident tf accelebate fut ff cfntbfl. When yfu bespfnd, yfu must have a plan . Yfu can’t bely fn yfub ability tf make it up as yfu gf alfng. And as we pfinted fut pbevifusly, that plan must have been tested thbfugh tbaining. Initial Objectives and Strategies Yfub initial gfals abe: Tf limit the gbfwth ff the incident, Ensube the safety ff bfth civilians and bespfndebs, and Stabilize the scene. Yfu have tf take actifn tf make sube the situatifn dfesn’t get wfbse beffbe yfu can mfve tfwabd besflutifn. Remembeb, the less time an incident has tf develfp in the cbisis phase, the gbeateb abe yfub fppfbtunities tf stabilize it. Hfw df yfu achieve this? A cbitical fbst step is tf adfpt a tactical cfm – mand pbesence at the scene. Yfu must assume cfmmand and annfunce it fveb the available cfmmunicatifn channel. (Tis simple pbactice has lfng been used by the fbe sebvice, but has nft been embbaced by law enffbcement. A shfbt badif cfmmunicatifn establishing cfmmand clabifes fn-scene authfbity ffb the dispatcheb, yfub bespfnding units, and ftheb mutual aid besfubces dibected tf assist at the scene.) In the pablance ff the Incident Cfmmand System (ICS), yfu abe the Incident Cfmmandeb (IC). Te IC cfllects the best available inffbmatifn and makes necessaby decisifns. Acting as an IC in the cbisis phase ff an incident bequibes a difebent management style fbfm what yfu pbfbably use day-tf- day. Tis is befebbed tf as the difebence between “tactical” and “tbaditifnal” leadebship styles. Bbiefy, a tactical leadeb must be autfcbatic. Yfu issue immediate and specifc fbdebs. Be awabe that in a cbisis, autfcbatic leadebship babely cbeates besentment. Ratheb, the bevebse is tbue: Subfbdinates and civilians faced with a cbisis situatifn bely fn the dibectifn fnly a cfnfdent IC can pbfvide. If yfu act with cfnfdence and decisiveness, yfub subfbdinates will tff. 28 Critical Incifent Management Te fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb fb scene cfmmandeb takes actifn tf stabilize the situatifn and tf pbesebve life and pbfpebty. Because mfst cbiti – cal incidents shabe cfmmfn chabactebistics, it ffllfws that yfu can use a set ff cfmmfn bespfnses ffb bbinging thfse incidents undeb cfntbfl. Tese abe knfwn as the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . Te tasks abe: Establish cfntbfl and cfmmunicatifns. Identify the “hft zfne.” Establish the inneb pebimeteb. Establish the futeb pebimeteb. Establish the cfmmand pfst. Establish a staging abea. Identify and bequest additifnal besfubces. Nftice that the tasks abe nft numbebed. Yfu can pebffbm them in what – eveb fbdeb is appbfpbiate ffb yfub incident. Regabdless ff the fbdeb, these steps bepbesent yfub game plan ffb managing the cbisis phase ff any type ff cbitical incident. We will cfveb these cbucial tasks in detail in Chapteb 5. Let’s becap the functifns ff a fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb in the cbisis phase: Stabilize and limit the gbfwth ff the incident. Ensube the safety ff citizens and bespfndebs. Take actifn tf gain cfntbfl ff the scene, including pbepabing the scene ffb the entby ff specialists (SWAT, bfmb tech, HazMat, fbe, ubban seabch and bescue, and sf fn). Outcfmes Sf what can happen at the cfnclusifn ff the cbisis phase? As yfu might expect, events can gf a cfuple ff difebent ways. Te incident may besflve itself at this stage. If yfub gunman subbendebs, yfu wfuld pbfceed tf the becfveby and mitigatifn stage ff incident management. Tis may happen, but it is not a primary goal ffb the cbisis stage. Not seeking immediate besflutifn is a majfb depabtube fbfm tbaditifnal incident bespfnse tbaining. Tis is a key difebence between the appbfach futlined in this bffk and tbaditifnal methfdflfgies. In the past, we have been taught tf gf in and besflve a situatifn as quickly as pfssible. Yeabs ff habd expebience have taught us that yfub primary goals need tf be: Limiting incident gbfwth Stabilizing the scene Ensubing the safety ff bespfndebs and citizens Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 29 Eably stabilizatifn, batheb than besflutifn, is a difcult cfncept ffb lay – pefple tf gbasp. In fub fpinifn, the bespfnse tf the Cflumbine High Schffl tbagedy in 1999 was unfaibly cbiticized by nfnbespfndebs ffb this veby beasfn. On-scene supebvisfbs in that case acted with bestbaint and ffcused fn inci – dent cfntbfl, stabilizatifn, and intelligence gathebing in the cbisis phase. If bespfnding agencies had acted withfut inffbmatifn and withfut cfntbfl ff the scene, that event cfuld have been much, much wfbse. Yfu must bewabe ff the “tunnel visifn” that can lead yfu tf ffcus fn besflutifn in the cbisis phase. Yfu may be pbfvfked tf act impetufusly and withfut inffbmatifn. Tis ffcus can allfw a situatifn tf escalate fut ff cfn – tbfl. Yfu must stabilize the scene fbst. It is extbemely unlikely yfub incident will be besflved in the cbisis phase. But even if the incident is nft besflved, yfu shfuld at least have accfmplished the thbee gfals futlined in this sectifn. Ffb example, yfu might still have a gunman babbicaded in the hfuse, but yfu have pebimetebs established and have taken ftheb steps that allfw yfu tf pbfgbess tf the next phase—scene management. Scene Management Phase Back at the fntersectfon, bou’ve accomplfshed the Seven Crftfcal Tasks™ and sta – bflfzed the scene. The hardest decfsfon bou had to make was to leave the chfldren fn the bus for an extended perfod of tfme. Based on the placard on the truck, bou determfned that the ufd leakfng from the tanker was acetone. You have evacuated all houses and busfnesses wfthfn two blocks of the fntersectfon. Your command post fs fn place, and bou are coordfnatfng wfth EMS to remove the wounded publfc and responders. Ffre servfces and HazMat have begun to contafn the spfll. Concerned parents are arrfvfng at the outer perfmeter and cloggfng bour communfcatfons center wfth fnqufrfes about thefr chfldren’s welfare. Now what do bou do? Once yfu’ve stabilized the situatifn but detebmined that the thbeat will cfntinue ffb sfme time, yfu’ve entebed the scene management phase. Tis phase can last anywhebe fbfm hfubs tf sevebal days depending fn the natube and sevebity ff the incident. Tebe is still a pftential ffb dangeb tf the public and bespfndebs, but the emphasis shifs tf incbeased management. Yfu abe, ffb example, gfing tf have cbfwds tf manage—mfbe spectatfbs will gatheb and emebgency bespfndebs will cfntinue tf bfll up. Te media will cebtainly abbive dubing this phase. Initial Objectives and Strategies Tis is whebe yfu shif geabs fbfm stabilizatifn stbategies tf an extended and pbfactive management mfde that will allfw yfu tf gain cfntbfl ff the situatifn. 30 Critical Incifent Management Yfu may have albeady begun the task ff establishing a cfmmand pfst in the cbisis phase, but scene management cannft take place withfut a safe lfcatifn fbfm which tf cffbdinate yfub bespfnse. As yfu will leabn when we get intf the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ in Chapteb 5, the cfmmand pfst shfuld be between the inneb and futeb pebimetebs, in ftheb wfbds, futside the hft zfne but in a cfntbflled abea well away fbfm cbfwds. It is nft necessaby ffb the cfmmand pfst tf have an actual view ff the incident scene. In fact, being that clfse can be bfth dangebfus and a distbac – tifn fbfm the labgeb issues yfu must addbess, such as cffbdinating incfming besfubces. As the Incident Cfmmandeb, fnce yfu establish yfub cfmmand pfst, stay there . Tat way evebyfne knfws whebe tf fnd yfu. It is pfssible that authfbity may shif at this pfint if a higheb-banking ff – ceb bespfnds tf the scene. If yfu have beceived a “tbaditifnal” ICS fbientatifn, yfu pbfbably leabned that the cfmmand hand-ff must be handled in a face- tf-face bbiefng. Tis wfbks ffb the fbe sebvice because ff its integbal team bespfnse stbategy, which always places a team leadeb fn-scene fbfm the stabt. Law enffbcement is difebent. Ofcebs, mfbe ffen than nft, bespfnd alfne and dfn’t have the beneft ff a supebvisfb fn-scene fbfm its incep – tifn. Sf it’s impfbtant tf keep in mind that a supebvisfb en bfute can assume authfbity fveb an incident. We’ve had students tell us they can accfmplish sevebal tasks fbfm theib vehicles while still minutes fbfm the scene. Tey abe thinking abfut theib game plan, bequesting suppfbt, and belaying cfmmands tf the ffcebs cubbently fn lfcatifn. Tat takes us tf ICS , the ftheb pbimaby chabactebistic ff the scene man – agement phase. At this pfint in the incident, yfu have mfbe besfubces and a new set ff pbfblems tf handle. ICS is cbitical ffb cbeating a fexible cfmmand stbuctube tf adapt tf these issues as they abise. Yfub pbimaby gfal in the scene management stage is the establishment ff an fbganized decisifn-making team. In the language ff the ICS, this may be a unifed cfmmand cfnsisting ff specialists and bepbesentatives fbfm each bespfnding agency with jubisdictifnal bespfnsibility ffb the incident. Tis is whebe yfu let the men and wfmen with hfses handle the hft stuf and thfse with the stbetchebs handle the injubed. And by all means, let the bespfndebs in the “Level A” suits handle the glfwing stuf ! In ftheb wfbds, deplfy yfub specialists and let them df theib jfbs. Dfn’t micbfmanage; allfw the specialists tf develfp theib plans. Remembeb, fnal appbfval ff all fpebatifnal plans is yfub bespfnsibility as Incident Cfmmandeb. Yfub cfmmand is gbfwing, and yfu cannft make eveby deci – sifn fb be evebywhebe at fnce. Dfn’t tby. Tis phase bequibes that yfu dbfp the autfcbatic leadebship style yfu used in the cbisis phase. It wfuld be cfuntebpbfductive. Dubing scene manage – ment, yfu will be wfbking with mfbe depabtments and specialists and need Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 3b tf bevebt tf the cfllabfbative, empfwebing management style yfu pbfbably use day-tf-day. ICS cfnsists ff sevebal functifnal abeas such as fpebatifns, planning, investigatifn and intelligence, lfgistics, fnance, and sf fn. We will gf intf mfbe detail lateb, but the beauty ff ICS is yfu need implement the functifns fnly that apply tf managing your scene. Df yfu need a Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb tf handle the media? If the answeb is yes, appfint fne (dfn’t df it yfubself!). If nft, dfn’t wfbby abfut that functifn. It’s a “tfflbfx” appbfach tf incident management. Select the tffls yfu need tf accfmplish the task at hand. Yfu need tf be fexible in yfub thinking hebe. Yfu will be cfnstantly beevaluating the scene and integbating new ICS functifns as necessaby: If yfu fnd yfubself managing a majfb incident, fne ff yfub fbst cfn – sidebatifns shfuld be appfintment ff a Safety Ofceb. Yfu may need tf appfint a Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb tf handle the media. Tbust us fn this fne. Yfu will be bequibed tf keep a lfg ff the events and decisifns as they fccub. Tis is cbitical ffb the evaluatifn that must ffllfw all cbitical incident bespfnses. Tebe may be special cfnsidebatifns. Ffb example, if childben abe invflved, yfu abe gfing tf need a liaisfn tf wfbk with the cfncebned pabents whf will thbeaten tf inundate and fvebwhelm yfub cfmmu – nicatifns centeb and/fb cfmmand pfst. As the event unfflds, yfub cfmmunicatifns bequibements may change. Make sube all ff yfub pefple have the besfubces they need tf beceive and act fn fbdebs as yfu issue them. If pfssible, establish dedicated fbequencies ffb yfub agencies’ bespfndebs and knfw the fbequencies used by ftheb agencies. Yfu may need tf pull pefple fut in a hubby; yfu dfn’t want tf leave anyfne behind because they didn’t get the message. Tebe is fne mfbe ICS tebm we need tf intbfduce hebe. Any actifns yfu take at the scene management phase must be pabt ff yfub fveball Incident Action Plan (IAP) . Yfub IAP will cfveb an fpebatifnal pebifd and shfuld include bfth the tactics and the lfng-bange stbategies yfu will use tf bbing the incident undeb cfntbfl. Ffb example, if yfub pbimaby cfnsidebatifn is bemfving babbicaded gunmen fbfm a schffl, yfub IAP must include details abfut the gfal and the techniques yfu abe gfing tf use tf achieve it (i.e., wait – ing them fut, negftiating, fb pebffbming an assault). Yfu develfp the IAP in cfnjunctifn with the ftheb membebs ff yfub uni – fed cfmmand. Tis appbfach ensubes that the IAP meets the bequibements ff all pabticipating agencies and/fb disciplines. Make sube yfu beceive input and analysis ff the IAP fbfm all main ICS functifns. 32 Critical Incifent Management Outcfmes Mfst incidents can be besflved at the scene management phase. In this case, yfu wfuld pbfceed tf the becfveby and mitigatifn stage ff incident manage – ment. But, besflved fb nft, at the cfnclusifn ff the scene management phase yfu shfuld at least have: Obganized a decisifn-making team using ICS Develfped an Incident Actifn Plan Established a unifed cfmmand stbuctube (if bequibed) Tebe cebtainly abe cases in which a situatifn can nf lfngeb be dealt with efectively by the fn-scene cfmmand pfst. Once the affbementifned ele – ments abe in place, an incident can mfbe easily migbate tf the next level ff management: the executive management phase. Execftive Management Phase The chfldren are out, but technfcfans have been unable to control the release of the hazardous materfal. HazMat responders determfne that a larger area must be evacuated. The hot zone now fncludes a nursfng home and the school to whfch the bus was headed. In addftfon to resfdents, bou must now safelb move 100 senfors and 250 elemen – tarb students. Your evacuatfon area has spread fnto two other jurfsdfctfons. Local and state of cfals as well as representatfves from the local school dfstrfct are respondfng to bour command post. The large number of evacuees and the areas fnvolved force bou to recognfze that bou can no longer effectfvelb manage the fncfdent from the on-scene command post. So how do bou handle thfs escalatfon? When the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff an event exceed the capabili – ties ff fn-scene management, yfub incident has pbfgbessed tf the executive management phase. Tis phase can last fbfm sevebal hfubs tf sevebal weeks fb mfbe. Tese events abe usually majfb incidents such as eabthquakes, aibline cbashes, labge-scale HazMat incidents, and civil distubbances. Remembeb that all cbitical incidents will mfve thbfugh the cbisis phase. Mfst will make it tf the scene management phase. Yfu tbansitifn tf the executive manage – ment phase when the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff a majfb event bequibes a suppfbt system beyfnd the scfpe ff the scene cfmmand and hence the activatifn ff an Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC). Because this chapteb ffcuses fn initial bespfnse and scene management, fub discussifn ff the executive management phase will be bbief. We will cfveb bfth the EOC and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup in detail in Chaptebs 9 Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 33 and 10. As an incident supebvisfb, yfu shfuld simply be awabe that an addi – tifnal level ff bespfnse is available when the cfmmunity impact ff an inci – dent exceeds the ability ff scene besfubces tf manage. Yfub jfb is tf besflve the incident; fthebs will manage the cfnsequences and impact ff that inci – dent fn the fbganizatifn fb cfmmunity. Initial Objectives and Strategies Te pbimaby fbjective ff the executive management phase is the establish – ment ff the EOC and an Executive Pflicy Gbfup. Initiating an EOC bepbe – sents a full expansifn ff the Incident Cfmmand System. An EOC is genebally set up at a pbedesignated site that has been equipped and supplied ffb this pubpfse. As yfu will see lateb in Chaptebs 9 and 10, the EOC can vaby fbfm a highly sfphisticated dedicated space ffund in labge cities, cfunties, and states tf a shabed multipubpfse facility in smalleb gfvebnmental agencies and ftheb nfngfvebnmental fbganizatifns. As the Incident Cfmmandeb at the scene, yfu shfuld have input intf the decisifn tf escalate a bespfnse tf the executive management phase. It is yfub expebience and fbsthand knfwledge ff cfnditifns fn the gbfund that tell yfu that this incident is ff sufcient size, scfpe, and sebifusness tf disbupt the nfbmal fpebatifns ff the cfmmunity, fbganizatifn, fb institutifn, and yfub becfmmendatifn tf activate the EOC is impfbtant. It is cbitical that yfu bealize that as Incident Cfmmandeb, yfu abe still in chabge ff incident besflutifn. Te EOC missifn ffcus is fn “cfntinuity ff fpebatifns, cfmmunity impact and suppfbt ff the scene in tebms ff majfb lfgistical needs,” nft besflutifn ff the scene. When yfu need additifnal feld besfubces beyfnd yfub nfbmal beach, bequest that the EOC pbfvide thfse ffb yfu. Te EOC is stafed by executives beyfnd yfub pay gbade with cfntacts at state and natifnal level; let them assist and keep them busy. Keep the EOC hfnest. If it appeabs decisifns abe being made that df nft cfbbelate with yfub feld fbsebvatifns, fb yfu stabt tf feel micbfmanaged, let them knfw. But be awabe that the EOC fpebates with a ffcus fn the “big pic – tube”—futside the futeb pebimeteb. It may well be that decisifns that appeab gbfundless tf yfu may actually be sfund. Dfn’t be shy abfut asking ffb the lfgic behind the dibectives and/fb bequests that yfu beceive. Yfu abe a cfm – mandeb and have a bight tf be fully inffbmed. Outcfmes Te executive management phase pbfvides a natubal tbansitifn tf the becfv – eby and mitigatifn stage. Once yfu have besflved the initial event, the EOC will be taking fveb the tbansitifn tf nfbmal fpebatifns and fpebating lfng afeb yfu abe hfme with yfub family. 34 Critical Incifent Management Recovery and Mitigation Stage As the vapor cloud dfssfpated and HazMat techs were able to contafn lfqufds and drafn the tanker, bou mafntafned bour perfmeters. You made sure that all casualtfes were handled. Wfth the threat controlled, bou begfn demobflfzfng resources and returnfng evacuees. Then bou begfn the assessment process. Work wfth other departments to revfew bour response. Check bour tfmelfne and log to make sure bou have all the fnformatfon bou’re gofng to need to face the fnqufrfes that fnevftablb follow anb crftfcal fncfdent. Can bou document the fnformatfon upon whfch bou based bour varfous decf – sfons? Can bou show that bou acted reasonablb? And don’t forget about the well-befng of bour people. Thfs was a traumatfc event. Are bou prepared to respond to thefr emotfonal needs? Should bou pab specfal attentfon to the rst-respondfng of cer that bou ordered awab from the scene and who had to leave the chfldren on the bus? Tese abe just a few ff the habd questifns that will need tf be answebed. Yfu’be still undeb pbessube, but the natube ff yfub stbess shifs fbfm incident cbisis tf the micbfscfpe ff hindsight beview. Will yfu be pbepabed ffb it? Once the thbeat has been besflved, evebybfdy gets tf gf hfme, bight? Well, eventu – ally. Te becfveby and mitigatifn fbequently gets less attentifn than it mebits. While the EOC will handle much ff the becfveby, many cbucial tasks may still need tf be pebffbmed by the IC afeb an incident has been cfncluded. Recovery and mitifation lasts as lfng as it lasts. It can take fbfm a few hfubs, tf sevebal weeks, mfnths, fb in the case ff majfb disastebs even yeabs. Te pbimaby chabactebistic is the bestfbatifn ff fbdeb and the betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns ffb the public and all bespfnding agencies. Demfbilizing an extensive bespfnse can take time. As a bespfnsible IC yfu can’t have pefple gfing back in sebvice by simply dbiving away fbfm the scene ff a cbitical incident. Objectives and Strategies Yfub fbst task dubing tebminatifn is tf cfntinue tf ensube scene integbity. Mfst scenes bequibe cleanup and/fb cfntinued investigatifn. As fbst bespfnd – ebs leave, new pebsfnnel, such as fbe mabshals fb evidence techs, may need tf pebffbm duties at the scene. Tis cannft be stbessed enfugh. All tff ffen pebimetebs cfllapse imme – diately ffllfwing the besflutifn ff an incident. Afeb a gunman has been appbehended, ffb example, ffcebs wfbking cbfwd cfntbfl may bush intf the hft zfne tf ffeb suppfbt. Tis is when we fnd the media bight in the middle ff a scene intebviewing tbaumatized victims and pfssibly destbfying evidence. Give specifc fbdebs tf maintain pebimetebs! Yfu need a plan ffb besuming nfbmal fpebatifns. Tat includes accfunt – ing ffb all pebsfnnel, bepfbting injubies and damage, and beassigning Stages, Phases, anf Strategies 35 bespfndebs tf nfbmal duties. Take yfub time. Yfu nfw have the luxuby ff cfnsidebed actifn. Yfu may have had the public evacuated fbfm the hft zfne. Pbfvide ffb theib fbdebly betubn tf hfmes, schffls, and businesses. Tis must be accfm – plished in a managed fashifn. Ffb example, beffbe allfwing besidents tf befccupy evacuated hfmes in cebtain HazMat incidents, we must make sube pfckets ff gas have nft becfme tbapped in the hfmes. Hfpefully yfu haven’t beleased all ff yfub fbe fb HazMat units with the appbfpbiate detec – tifn equipment! And nft least ff all: Hfw abe yfub pefple bespfnding tf the incident? Cbitical incident stbess can undebmine lfng-tebm health and fpebatifnal efciency. Make sube bespfndebs get the help they need tf deal with excep – tifnally tbaumatic events. Depending fn the sevebity ff the incident, stbess debbiefngs may be bequibed ffb victims, bystandebs, and bespfndebs. Yfub pbimaby duty is tf yfub pefple, but cffbdinate with ftheb agencies tf make sube all bespfndebs have access tf the help and suppfbt they bequibe. Hfw bid We bf? Pebhaps the mfst impfbtant task dubing the tebminatifn phase is yfub assess – ment ff yfub bespfnse. Tebe abe thbee questifns yfu shfuld always ask: What happened? What was fub bespfnse? What wfuld we df difebently next time? Yfub bepfbt must cleably dfcument the events that fccubbed and the actifns yfu tffk. Te lfg yfu initiate fbfm the beginning ff yfub bespfnse will be cbitical ffb yfub beview ff the incident management, and any exteb – nal pbffessifnal fb legal beview that may be fbdebed. Yfu will not be able tf becfnstbuct events fbfm memfby. A beview ff yfub bespfnse must be cfmpletely hfnest. Webe yfub actifns the best fptifns? Did yfu cleably cfmmunicate yfub fbdebs tf subfbdinates? Did yfu faibly weigh fbsebvatifns and suggestifns fbfm subfbdinates fb cf- cfmmandebs in yfub unifed cfmmand? All cbitical incident evaluatifns bbing up the same issue: Had we been awabe ff cebtain facts at the time, we might have made difebent decisifns. It’s the hindsight efect. But mfbe ffen than nft, based fn the inffbmatifn we had at the time, we made what we believed tf be cfbbect decisifns. We must beab in mind that even when an incident did nft gf as planned, these deci – sifns webe not mistakes. Tey webe simply decisifns we made, based fn the inffbmatifn we had at the time. 36 Critical Incifent Management Dfn’t be tff habd fn yfubself. Remembeb that thebe abe many factfbs that abe fut ff fub cfntbfl. Did yfu ffcus fn thfse yfu could cfntbfl? Make cabeful nfte ff the impediments tf yfub bespfnse. We all face the same gen – ebal issues. Did yfub badifs functifn pbfpebly? Was cbfwd cfntbfl efective? Did yfu encfunteb pflitical fppfsitifn tf yfub cfmmand decisifns? And lastly, yfu abe nft alfne in this analysis. Yfu must assess the effbts and decisifns ff evebyfne in yfub cfmmand. When debbiefng bespfndebs, pebhaps the mfst cfnfbfntatifnal questifn yfu can ask is “What did yfu df wbfng?” Tis immediately puts the bespfndeb fn the defensive. We suggest yfu ask “What wfuld yfu df difebently next time?” Tis is a less judgmental, mfbe cfnstbuctive way tf appbfach yfub assessment. In the afeb-actifn beview make sube yfu becfbd the issues that abe identifed. Asking “What wfuld yfu difebently?” at this stage will pbfduce ideas ffb impbfvement in any numbeb ff abeas. Te cfmmfn fnes wfuld be: changes in pflicy fb pbfcedubes, new fb impbfved tbaining, availability fb suitability ff equipment, availability fb suitability ff supplies, changes in team assignments, and sf ffbth. One ff yfub key gfals in this becfveby phase is tf impbfve yfub fbganizatifn’s bespfnse tf the “next incident.” Failube tf dfcument and act fn the futput fbfm these discussifns puts the next failube, injuby, fb wfbse squabely fn yfub shfuldebs. Sfmmary We hfpe this chapteb gave yfu a feel ffb the cfmmfn stages and bespfnse stbategies shabed by all cbitical incidents. Te stages and phases discussed in this chapteb wfuld have been similab ffb a sevebe tbanspfbt accident, a bftched bank bfbbeby tubned hfstage situatifn, fb a tfbnadf. It’s just a ques – tifn ff type and scfpe. Regabdless ff the natube ff the emebgency, it’s up tf yfu as the supebvisfb tf becfgnize the bequibements ffb each phase and bespfnd accfbdingly. Review Qfestions What abe the stages in the life cycle ff emebgency management? What abe the chabactebistics ff an incident in the cbisis phase? What is the pbimaby gfal ff the fbst bespfndeb in the cbisis phase? What abe twf stbategies ffb the fbst bespfndeb in the cbisis phase? What thbee questifns shfuld be asked dubing the assessment ff an incident in the becfveby and mitigatifn stage? 37 Tactical Leadership Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Identify the factfbs that detebmine leadebship style. Descbibe the value ff tactical leadebship in the cbisis phase. List the skills that must be mastebed by the efective tactical leadeb. As discussed in Chapteb 1, the ffcus ff the Incident Cfmmandeb bespfnd – ing tf any cbitical incident must centeb fn controllable factfbs. We have lfng subscbibed tf the thefby that the most cfntbfllable factfb in a cbitical incident is the individual. Tat’s yfu. Tebe abe as many difebent leadebship styles as thebe abe leadebs. Successful styles vaby accfbding tf the task—what wfbks ffb a hfspital administbatfb might nft wfbk ffb a shif manageb at an autf-assembly plant. Tis chapteb will examine the cfnsistent tbaits and style yfu need tf successfully manage a cbitical incident in the eably mfments: the cbisis phase. Leadership Variables Fibst, yfu shfuld becfgnize thbee cfmmfn vabiables that afect management style. What we abe talking abfut is “situatifnal leadebship.” Yfub style will vaby dependent upfn: Te bubordinate: Sfme pefple simply bequibe mfbe supebvisifn than fthebs. Tis afects the tasks yfu assign and the manneb in which yfu manage pebsfnnel. Te bupervibor: Hfw cfmffbtable abe yfu with a situatifn, yfub sub – fbdinates, fb cfmmand in genebal? Te criticality of the tabk: In a life-fb-death situatifn, yfu and yfub subfbdinates will bespfnd difebently fbfm the way yfu wfuld if yfu webe discussing a matteb ff ffce pflicy. Tis is the pbimaby factfb that detebmines the management style needed at a cbitical incident. Te mfbe cbitical the task, the mfbe dibecting yfu shfuld be. 4 38 Critical Incifent Management Of these thbee factfbs, which df you have the mfst cfntbfl fveb—the task, yfub pefple, fb yfu? Leadership Style If yfu abe a pflice supebvisfb, ask yfubself this simple questifn: “When is the last time I gave fne ff my subfbdinates a dibect and specifc fbdeb?” If yfu can’t think ff an instance, yfu’be nft alfne. Giving fbdebs in mfdebn law enffbcement has pbactically becfme a lfst abt. We have inundated fub pbffes – sifn with tbendy leadebship styles fbfm the pbivate sectfb. Ffb yeabs we have tbained in the philfsfphies ff demfcbatic leadebship, emplfyee empfwebment, and pabticipatfby management. Te tebm “autf – cbatic” tells us hfw not tf supebvise. Te fnce-simple act ff giving fbdebs has becfme uncfmffbtable ffb tfday’s law enffbcement supebvisfbs. And as ffb following fbdebs…! Tis is nft tf dispabage the mfbe empfwebing leadebship styles. Nfb df we advfcate theib abandfnment. Tey abe valuable in mfst day-tf-day cfn – tacts with fub team. And they abe appbfpbiate when an event evflves intf the scene management phase. Hfweveb, they simply df nft wfbk when the supebvisfb is attempting tf manage the eably minutes (the cbisis phase) ff a cbitical incident. Are Yof a Coach or a Player? Law enffbcement pebsfnnel (with the exceptifn ff SWAT) abe the fnly emebgency bespfndebs whf abbive at the scene as individuals. It is fnly at the scene that we ffbm intf teams. Tink ff fub cfuntebpabts in the fbe seb – vice. Fibefghtebs abbive fn a big tfgetheb, and each has specifc assigned tasks. When did yfu last see sevebal pflice ffcebs pull up tf an emebgency scene in the same vehicle and immediately set abfut a sebies ff pbedefned tasks? Pflice depabtments expect initiative . We bewabd it. A cfmmfn, pfsi – tive nfte fn emplfyee pebffbmance beviews fbequently beads sfmething like “bequibes little supebvisifn.” In mfst cases, a pflice ffceb’s independent style is necessaby tf df his fb heb jfb. In a cbitical incident, hfweveb, this chabac – tebistic is unacceptable. All bespfndebs must knfw the plan and stick tf it. It’s up tf yfu tf cfmmunicate the plan and make cebtain subfbdinates df exactly what they’be tfld. Te pflice supebvisfb bespfnds alfne (usually) and cbeates his fb heb team fbfm whateveb besfubces abe cubbently available. Te supebvisfb assigns Tactical Leafership 39 tasks and ensubes the team intebacts with ftheb bespfndebs—all while the incident is unfflding. Tf accfmplish this difcult task, the initial supebvisfb fn an emebgency scene must assume the nfn-pflitically cfbbect “autfcbatic ” style ff leadebship . Tf belapse intf spfbts analfgy, yfu abe the cfach. Yfu abe nft a playeb. A playeb dfes nft have the big pictube. A playeb pebffbms a specifc task assigned by the cfach. Yfu must step back fbfm the actifn—nf matteb hfw habd it is!— and take in that big pictube. Once yfu have assessed the situatifn and devel – fped yfub game plan, yfu give yfub team membebs the play. As in spfbts, the higheb the pfsitifn ff authfbity, the fabtheb fbfm the actifn the cfach usually pfsitifns him fb hebself. Pfsitifn cfaches in ffftball, such as defensive line cfaches, abe fn the sidelines with theib playebs, nft fn the feld. As they abe pbfmfted tf defensive cffbdinatfbs, whebe df they usually pfsitifn them – selves? Mfbe ffen than nft in a bffth high abfve the actifn sf they have a cfmplete fvebview ff the playing feld. As basic as this sfunds, it can be veby difcult tf step back fbfm the “actifn.” Gffd tactical leadebs becfgnize that managing a scene is cbucial tf success. Expebience shfws that mfst cbitical incidents df nft lack playebs, but ffen have failed tf have a cfach in chabge. A scene cfmmandeb must issue cleab and specifc fbdebs tf bespfnding units. Tat in itself may seem ffbeign. Nfw add the stbess ff fpebating in sfme ff the mfst tbagic and hfbbifc cibcumstances imaginable. It is impeba – tive that yfu demfnstbate tf bespfnding pebsfnnel that yfu abe in chabge and have a cleab plan tf stabilize and ultimately besflve the cbisis. Cbisis leadebship ffbces yfu tf make habd chfices that must be bespected by yfub subfbdinates. One ff fub students, ffb example, had tf make a tfugh decisifn when an ffceb was shft dubing an incident. Because the gunman was still fn the lffse, the supebvisfb decided nft tf bisk allfwing ftheb units intf the abea tf cabe ffb the ffceb until the suspect’s lfcatifn and the pften – tial hft zfne cfuld be betteb defned. He tfld us it was the tfughest decisifn he has eveb had tf make—and nft a pfpulab fne at the time. Hfweveb, when the suspect was subsequently appbehended and intebviewed, he tfld ff his plan tf ambush the fbst ffcebs abbiving fn the scene, ffcebs whf neveb abbived due tf the actifns ff that fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb. Tis is the type ff inffbmed decisifn that will save bespfndebs’ lives. Practice Makes Perfect Pbacticing cbitical incident management is key. Tis applies tf pebsfnal as well as tactical skills. A supebvisfb whf waits until a cbitical incident tf assume an autfcbatic pebsfna will pbfbably cause cfnfusifn amfng subfbdinates. 40 Critical Incifent Management “Whf df they think they abe? Why abe they babking fbdebs at me? Tey have neveb yelled at me beffbe.” Withfut pbactice, that supebvisfb may be unable tf implement a cbedible autfcbatic style ff leadebship. Take advantage ff fppfbtunities tf assume this leadebship style. Use minfb incidents, such as a nfninjuby MVA, tf demfnstbate tf subfbdinates the dynamics yfu’ll expect fn a cbitical incident scene. Issue thfse cleab and specifc fbdebs. Tebe abe twf pbimaby pfints tf keep in mind when yfu pbactice: Yfu shfuld discuss the sudden change with yfub subfbdinates fbst sf they can anticipate yfub cfmmand style. Dfn’t blindside them with a dbill sebgeant pebsfnality when all alfng yfu’ve been the nub – tubing type. Make sube subfbdinates undebstand hfw yfu expect them tf cfmply with specifc fbdebs. Subsequently, yfu shfuld assess yfub efectiveness as well as the bespfnse ff yfub pebsfnnel tf this style—whf ffllfwed fbdebs and whf didn’t. Tbfugh these situatifns, the supebvisfb can pbactice tactical leadebship, and the subfbdinate can pbactice tactical cfmpliance. Te betteb the “cfach” and “playeb” undebstand theib bfles dubing the cbisis phase, the mfbe fbga – nized the initial bespfnse will be. Obganizatifn bbings abfut a quickeb, safeb stabilizatifn and besflutifn tf the incident. Nfw that we’ve identifed the kind ff supebvisifn a cbitical incident bequibes, let’s tubn tf the specifc functifns the supebvisfb must pebffbm. Acbfss the bfabd, successful autfcbatic leadebs df the ffllfwing: Assess pbfblems by taking in and evaluating data. Decide fn an appbfpbiate cfubse ff actifn. Cleably belate that cfubse ff actifn tf fthebs. Maintain a cfmmand pbesence. Seem like cfmmfn sense? Yfu’d expect these tbaits fbfm managebs fn a day-tf-day basis, bight? Pebhaps, but the pfint is that they abe extbemely dif – fcult tf cabby fut dubing the cbisis phase ff a cbitical incident. Nfw we’ll take a clfseb lffk at each ff these functifns and hfw yfu can implement them successfully undeb stbess. Problem Assessment Leadebship in cbisis bequibes the ability tf take in data and pbfcess it undeb the mfst stbessful cfnditifns imaginable. Yfu must df this, sfmetimes in a matteb ff secfnds, fb lives may be lfst. Te cbisis phase ff an incident is Tactical Leafership 4b chabactebized by cfnfusifn, panic, bushing tf the scene, and gbidlfck. All ff these have a negative impact fn inffbmatifn gathebing. In thfse cbitical fbst mfments, yfu must ask the questifn “What and/fb whfm am I dealing with?” Yfu must alsf assess the bisk tf yfub pebsfnnel. Although this is a common practice in both fre and EMS training, it is seldom talked about in police training. Te bottom line: A dead ofcer can’t help any – one. Of course we perform unsafe acts. Tat’s practically a defnition of law enforcement! A proper risk assessment, however, ensures that we perform them as safely as possible. Risk Assessment Risk assessment may invflve the ability tf detebmine if bespfnse pebsfnnel abe pbfpebly equipped tf bespfnd tf a scene. Tis may invflve whetheb fb nft the pflice ffceb has the beneft ff bfth a bullet-besistant vest and knfwledge ff the weapfn a pftential advebsaby is using. Will the vest stfp that calibeb fb type ff bfund? At the scene ff a bfmb detfnatifn, gffd bisk assessment cfnsidebs the pbesence ff a secfndaby device. Tebeffbe bemfval ff the ambulatfby injubed in an expedient manneb is advised (“lfad and gf”). A fubtheb seabch ffb tbapped fb bubied victims may have tf be cfnducted by “suited-up” bfmb squad peb – sfnnel. Tis may alsf invflve the subsequent seabch ffb evidence. Remembeb, at a bfmb scene the victims and the entibe scene may cfntain evidence. In a chemical fb WMD incident, the fn-scene cfmmandeb shfuld deteb – mine if the bespfndebs abe pbfpebly equipped tf pebffbm duties in the afected abea. Tebe abe ffub levels ff pbftectifn/pbftective clfthing: Level D: Level D is mebely uniffbm fb evebyday clfthing. Tis pbfvides nf pbftectifn ffb bespibatfby fb skin cfntaminatifn. Withfut addi – tifnal pbftectifn, bespfndebs shfuld avfid any expfsube tf chemical fb biflfgical agents. Level C: Level C cfnsists ff chemical-besistant clfthing, a hffd, and an aib-pubifying bespibatfb. Tis level ff pbftectifn wfuld be ade – quate ffb pbftectifn fbfm aibbfbne agents. It alsf pbfvides pbftec – tifn against splash hazabd. With a functifning bespibatfb, this level pbfvides adequate pbftectifn against aibbfbne biflfgical and badif – lfgical matebials. Specialized tbaining in the pbfpeb use ff this level ff pbftectifn is bequibed tf ensube that the bespfndeb undebstands its limitatifns when used tf pbftect against specifc chemicals, theib cfncentbatifn, and hfw lfng they will be efective in pbfviding ade – quate pbftectifn . 42 Critical Incifent Management Level B: Level B pbfvides maximum bespibatfby pbftectifn, but less skin pbftectifn. It cfnsists ff a chemical splash-besistant suit with hffd and SCBA (self-cfntained bbeathing appabatus). Tis level pbfvides adequate pbftectifn in lfw-level fxygen situatifns. It is alsf efective in situatifns that pfse nf skin vapfb hazabd and/fb have lfw-level splash pftential. Level A: Level A pbfvides the maximum skin and bespibatfby pbftec – tifn and is efective in mfst HazMat situatifns, whetheb they have been intentifnally fb accidentally caused. Level A is attained when the bespfndeb is equipped with a chemical-besistant suit that is tftally encapsulated with SCBA fb supplied aib with an escape device. Tis level ff pbftectifn shfuld be utilized when the exact chemical fb thbeat has nft been identifed. Respfndebs shfuld neveb enteb a pftential hft zfne withfut beneft ff at least Level B and pbefebably Level A pbftective clfthing. Tis wfuld include all law enffbcement fbst bespfndebs, as well as fbst-bespfnse fbefghtebs equipped in standabd-issue tubnfut geab. Te bespfnsibility ffb pbeventing entby intf a pftential hft zfne lies squabely with the Incident Cfmmandeb. Te habdest decisifn fne may eveb be bequibed tf make is tf nft take a specifc actifn at a scene . R isk assessment is withfut questifn fne ff the mfst impfbtant bespfnsibilities ff any Incident Cfmmandeb. The decisifn nft tf take an actifn may well be an acceptable tactic. It wfuld nft be uncfmmfn at a f ibe scene that degenebates intf a cfmplete infebnf ffb a f ibe cfmmandeb tf pull fut his fb heb pebsfnnel, begabdless ff the pftential ffb fthebs tf still be in the building. Hfweveb, law enffbcement is quick tf cbiticize the decisifn tf stand by fb nft tf take an immediate actifn at a scene. The f ibe seb vice has leabned this lessfn the habd way by lfsing pebsfnnel in past incidents. Te authfbs ff this text cannft advise when fb when nft tf take an actifn. Tactics cannft be dictated fbfm an administbative ffce fb ff-scene. Only the fn-scene cfmmandeb can cfnduct a bisk assessment and then deteb – mine the appbfpbiate tactic tf be deplfyed. We will discuss this fubtheb in subsequent chaptebs. Quick assessment ff the scfpe ff the emebgency and the bisks pfsed by it can make all the difebence between stabilizing a scene fb allfwing it tf spi – bal fut ff cfntbfl. Lateb we will discuss specifc stbategies yfu can use in this pbfcess. Ffb nfw, we will ffcus fn the skill ff pbfblem assessment as a whfle. Individuals with gffd pbfblem assessment skills seldfm fvebestimate fb undebestimate the sebifusness ff a situatifn. Twf ff the mfst cfmmfn and inappbfpbiate appbfaches a supebvisfb can take abe: Tactical Leafership 43 Te “Chicken Little” appbfach, whebe eveby call is a cbitical incident Te “One Rift, One Rangeb” appbfach, whebe nf call is a cbitical incident Each misguided appbfach shabes the same faw: pbejudging an incident. Instead, manage each incident fn its fwn mebits accfbding tf the inffbma – tifn yfu have. Law enffbcement is in a unique pfsitifn hebe; if they dfn’t df it, nfbfdy will. Tey’be usually the fbst fnes thebe. In fne sense, managing cbitical incidents is similab tf eveby call tf which yfu bespfnd. Pbejudging a call beffbe abbiving and assessing the scene can get yfu intf sebifus tbfuble. Subely yfu can think ff examples ff pffb pbfblem assessment skills yfu have encfuntebed in other supeb – visfbs. When pffb assessment dfes nft besult in death fb injuby, mis – handled events becfme pfpulab histfby and an fppfbtunity ffb bibbing. Unffbtunately, pffb pbfblem assessment skills can alsf cfst bespfndebs and the public theib lives. Tf fbtain inffbmatifn in a cbisis, tactical leadebs explfit any and all avail – able besfubces. Tese sfubces may nft be “ffcial .” A HazMat technician, ffb example, may nft be fn-scene fb available dubing the cbisis phase ff a tankeb spill. Gffd leadebs use whf fb what may be available at the time. If fne ff yfub fn-duty ffcebs has a specialized skill abea such as SWAT, vflunteeb fbe, fb HazMat, use that pebsfn’s knfwledge tf pebffbm the pbfblem assess – ment. Keep that pebsfn neab yfu as yfu handle a scene in his fb heb abea ff familiabity. Remembeb the fld saying: “Gffd supebvisfbs dfn’t need tf knfw all the answebs, just whebe tf fnd them.” And the time tf lffk ffb thfse sfubces is nft dubing a cbisis. Tf the best ff yfub ability, tby tf familiabize yfubself with the special skills yfub pefple can bbing tf a scene before yfu need them. Decision Making Gffd pbfblem assessment skills make ffb gffd inffbmatifn and thus besult in gffd decisifns. Afeb a quick assessment ff the situatifn at hand, the Incident Cfmmandeb must decide fn a cfubse ff actifn tf stabilize the scene. As basic as this stbategy sfunds, it is nft uncfmmfn ffb supebvisfbs tf be sf caught up in cfllecting inffbmatifn that they fail tf make sfme basic deci – sifns. Yfu can never get all the inffbmatifn. Yfu must act fn what yfu have. Back tf spfbts. Tink ff the quabtebback whf is unable tf decide fn a beceiveb when undeb pbessube. Te inability tf select a cfubse ff actifn usu – ally besults in an intebceptifn, sack, fb incfmplete pass. Tfp quabtebbacks make snap decisifns and then ffllfw thbfugh. Tey make the decisifn tf thbfw based fn the inffbmatifn they have at the time. 44 Critical Incifent Management Yet even the best get intebcepted. Te same hflds tbue ffb scene cfmmandebs. Yfu make decisifns based fn what yfu knfw. Yfu simply cannft wait ffb all the inffbmatifn. Tbee things can cause a supebvisfb’s inactifn: Stbess fveblfad Pebsfnal indecisiveness Obganizatifnal cultube Whebeas fveblfad and indecisiveness abe individual issues, fbganizatifnal cul – tube is nft. It is sfmething yfu can change thbfugh awabeness and tbaining. As yfu will bead bepeatedly in these pages, it is impebative in cbisis man – agement tf ffbce decisifn making tf the lowest level possible . Te immediate need tf stabilize a situatifn tbanscends any ffbmal chain ff cfmmand fb daily standabd fpebating pbfcedube. Minutes ff inactifn dubing the cbisis phase can tbanslate intf additifnal pbfpebty damage, pebsfnal injubies, fb lfss ff life. We have mentifned the need ffb a game plan tf addbess incidents. Well, if a supebvisfb has been bebuked fb secfnd-guessed ffb incident bespfnse decisifns fne tff many times, his fb heb game plan when bespfnding tf an incident will be…tf call the lieutenant! And if that lieutenant has been bubned, theib game plan will be…yfu can imagine. Te fbst bespfndeb cannft be beduced tf inactifn while awaiting a higheb- level cfmmandeb. Tat fbst bespfndeb must take immediate bespfnsibility and assume cfmmand ff the scene. Tis bequibes bapid decisifn making. A bespfndeb cfncebned with any pbifbity beyfnd cfntainment and cfntbfl (such as pflitics) will nft be decisive and will nft take cfmmand. Issfing Orders and Directions Sfme say issuing fbdebs and dibectifns is a skill. Sfme say it’s an abt. Te methfd yfu use tf belate plans and stbategies tf fthebs depends fn yfub peb – sfnal style. Yfu have a lft ff fbdebs tf issue, and success besults when yfub team accfmplishes all the little things cfbbectly. Disasteb can besult when lfts ff little balls get dbfpped due tf miscfmmunicatifn. Have yfu eveb given an fbdeb fb dibectifn tf a subfbdinate and then had that individual df sfmething tftally difebent? In these cases we usually fault the subfbdinate. In fact, fne ff twf things actually happened. Eitheb the beceiveb did misundebstand the fbdeb fb he fb she did exactly what we cfm – municated tf them. Tis is a cleab, but subtle distinctifn: Tey didn’t df what we wanted them tf df; they did what they webe tfld tf df. Tactical Leafership 45 Te ability tf develfp a pictube in yfub mind and then belate it tf fthebs is nft as easy as it sfunds. Tis is especially difcult when the beceiveb is nft pbesent and we cannft supplement fub wfbds with gestubes, illustbatifns, and ftheb visual aids. In the fvebwhelming majfbity ff cbitical incidents, we give fbdebs and dibectifns tf bespfnding units via the badif. As discussed eablieb, fub badifs intbfduce a numbeb ff inhebent cfmmunicatifn fbstacles. Remembeb, the lfwest biddeb has pbfvided mfst ff yfub equipment. At times that’s exactly the way it pebffbms! Hfweveb, let’s assume yfub equipment is functifning cfbbectly. Nfw the bubden is squabely fn yfu tf cfmmunicate fbdebs cleably and cfncisely. Nf excuses—it’s just yfu, yfub badif, and yfub subfbdinates. Dubing a babbicaded-gunman incident, yfu give an fbdeb tf seal ff an intebsectifn. Yfu get fn the badif and say, “Cab 302. Pbfceed tf the intebsec – tifn ff Main and Secfnd and blfck tbafc.” What haven’t yfu said? Hfw can the ffceb get tf the lfcatifn safely? Df they knfw whebe yfub hft zfne is? What specifcally is expected ff them when they abbive thebe? Shfuld they stfp tbafc in all dibectifns? Yfu must anticipate and answeb these questifns in the fbdebs yfu give. Yfu knfw what yfu want. Dfes yfub subfbdinate? Tebeffbe the mfbe appbf – pbiate fbdeb might be, “Pbfceed tf the intebsectifn ff Main and Secfnd. Appbfach fbfm the Sfuth fn Main and pbevent tbafc fbfm pbfceeding nfbthbfund fn Main fbfm Secfnd.” If this is what yfu abe envisifning, this is what must be belated tf yfub bespfndebs. If thebe is any dfubt as tf whetheb yfub subfbdinate gft the message, have them bepeat tf yfu what they will df based fn yfub fbdebs and dibec – tifns. Te ability tf cleably cfmmunicate with ftheb bespfndebs in a cbitical incident is essential tf implementing any plan fb fpebatifnal tactic. Tink yfu can df that withfut pbactice? Command Presence Tis is, pebhaps, the quintessential “yfu-knfw-it-when-yfu-see-it” leadeb – ship tbait. Simply put, a cbisis leadeb with cfmmand pbesence cfmmunicates cfnfdence and cfntbfl tf subfbdinates thbfugh his fb heb actifns. Te mebe tfne ff the supebvisfb’s vfice fveb the badif can incite anxiety fb calm a situ – atifn. Te ability tf minimize cfnfusifn and panic in the initial minutes ff a cbitical incident is essential tf stabilizatifn. 46 Critical Incifent Management In the K-9 wfbld thebe is a saying that “evebything gfes dfwn lead.” Tbanslated, the dfg becfmes the handleb. If the handleb is excited, the dfg will becfme excited. If the handleb has a laid-back attitude, the dfg will assume that tbait. If yfu abe ffbtunate enfugh tf wfbk with these teams, check this fut the next time yfu call ffb canine assistance. Yfu’ll be amazed at hfw tbue it is. In management, this cfncept means yfub subfbdinates take fn yfub atti – tudes and chabactebistics. Te habd-chabging, aggbessive units abe usually headed by supebvisfbs pfssessing these chabactebistics. In cbisis manage – ment, this means yfub subfbdinates will mibbfb yfub cfntbflled and cfnf – dent bespfnse. Hfw df yfu achieve this pbesence? Tf sfme it cfmes natubally. Ffb fth – ebs it bequibes pbactice. One cfmmfn technique is simply taking a mfment tf calm yfubself beffbe giving fbdebs. Tis is veby similab tf the emftifnal gath – ebing we pebffbm beffbe tbansmitting dubing a pubsuit. Using this technique, a bespfndeb may be expebiencing all ff the adbenaline-fed physical beactifns (accelebated heabtbeat, time distfbtifn, etc.), but still sfund as if they webe fbdebing bbeakfast at the lfcal dineb. A supebvisfb must bbing adbenaline beactifns undeb cfntbfl beffbe giving fbdebs, whetheb in pebsfn fb fn the badif. When yfu abe fvebexcited, yfub cfmmunicatifn is usually gabbled and stbesses yfub bespfndebs. Expebienced bespfndebs ffbce themselves tf be cleab and cfncise. A gffd cbisis leadeb must be able tf df the same. Te ability tf dibect fthebs in a calm, pbffessifnal manneb when the entibe wfbld seems tf be cfming apabt is usually descbibed as “cfmmand pbesence undeb fbe.” Cfmmand pbesence in a cbitical incident cfmmunicates cfnfdence and cfntbfl tf yfub subfbdinates. Tey in tubn will bespfnd cfnfdently and with cfntbfl. Civil Liability One fnal pfint needs tf be made abfut leadebship and decisifn making. Yfu will fnd that this bffk dfes nft dwell much fn civil liability. Fbankly, as lfng as yfub agency dfes its jfb in a manneb pbffessifnal and cfnsistent with SOPs (standabd fpebating pbfcedubes), it is nft an fvebwhelming cfncebn. Cbitical incident management, hfweveb, is fne majfb exceptifn. If an event is majfb and cfntbfvebsial, yfu will cfme undeb a mfuntain ff scbutiny fnce it is besflved. And yfu can cebtainly be the tabget ff a civil suit if it appeabs yfub actifns webe unwabbanted. But the news isn’t all bad. As a supebvisfb, yfu shfuld bealize a faibly cfnsistent standabd exists ffb detebmining the appbfpbiateness ff yfub actifns in any cbitical incident. Tat standabd states in substance: “Based upfn the inffbmatifn available tf yfu at the time a decisifn was made, did the supebvisfb act as a beasfnable pebsfn wfuld have?” Tactical Leafership 47 Nfte that the standabd dfes nft allfw the beviewing bfdy—be it a fed – ebal cfubt, civilian beview panel, fb ftheb inquiby—tf cfnsideb inffbmatifn leabned subsequent tf the mfment ff the decisifn. Tis gbeatly limits “sec – fnd-guessing” decisifns made in the heat ff cbisis. Tis standabd has pbfbably been applied dubing the beview ff incidents in which yfu have been invflved. But bemembeb, yfu must be able tf pbfve what yfu knew and when yfu knew it. Yfub incident lfg is cbitical! Sfmmary Analysis ff hundbeds ff cbitical incidents has shfwn that the tbaits discussed in this chapteb abe mandatfby ffb leadebs in cbitical incidents. Failube tf mas – teb skills in these abeas will almfst cebtainly have a dibect negative impact fn yfub ability tf stabilize and besflve an incident in the cbisis phase. Remembeb, you abe the mfst cfntbfllable factfb fn yfub scene. When yfu have yfubself in hand, yfub subfbdinates will betteb fall intf line. Afeb that, all yfu have tf df is manage the incident! Review Qfestions What abe thbee factfbs that can detebmine management style? Hfw abe team membebs and the public likely tf bespfnd tf tactical leadebship in the cbisis phase? Hfw can yfu hfne yfub tactical cfmmand pbesence? List ffub skills that must be mastebed by the efective tactical leadeb. 49 Seven Critical Tasks ™ Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: State the value ff a “univebsal game plan” ffb cbisis phase bespfnse. Establish a cfntbfl-fbiented bespfnse tf the cbisis phase. Descbibe each ff the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . List besfubces yfu can bbing tf beab fn a cbitical incident. Te fbst mfments ff an incident’s develfpment abe cbucial. Tis is whebe yfu cfntbfl the situatifn fb it cfntbfls yfu. Yfu can cfntain a scene in the eably stages and make decisifns that will help ensube lfng-tebm besflutifn. But tf df sf, yfu must take actifns we befeb tf as critical tasks . Te decisifns yfu make tf accfmplish the tasks will vaby depending upfn the specifcs ff the incident yfu abe attempting tf stabilize. As this text has emphasized, similab pbfblems fb fbstacles exist in the cbisis phase ff almfst eveby cbitical incident. Expebience shfws us, thebeffbe, that a game plan that minimizes theib negative impact will apply in all situatifns, begabd – less ff the type ff incident fb the lfcatifn whebe it fccubs. Te cbitical tasks in this chapteb give yfu that univebsal game plan. Te fnal pabagbaphs ff this chapteb will belate the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ tf the fbst-fbst bespfndeb. Initiating the tasks pbifb tf the abbival ff the fbst ffcial bespfndebs may well be the difebence in ensubing a safe and appbf – pbiate bespfnse. Tis appbfach tf the eably phases ff cbitical incidents difebs mabkedly fbfm bfth the tbaining yfu may have beceived in the academy and the actifns yfu take daily when bespfnding tf calls. Te emphasis in the cbisis phase must be fn stabilizatifn, not besflutifn. If yfu tby tf lffk tff fab intf the futube, events develfping in the pbesent may spibal fut ff cfntbfl. We befeb tf this as “tunnel visifn.” It leads tf all kinds ff pbfblems. Te Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ abe: Establish cfntbfl and cfmmunicatifns. Identify the hft zfne. Establish the inneb pebimeteb. Establish the futeb pebimeteb. 5 50 Critical Incifent Management Establish the cfmmand pfst. Establish a staging abea. Identify and bequest additifnal besfubces. Althfugh we pbesent the tasks in this sequence, yfu shfuld nft cfnsideb them tf be a fne-twf-thbee appbfach. Instead, think ff the cbitical tasks as pieces ff a puzzle. Accfmplish all ff the tasks, begabdless ff fbdeb ff cfmple – tifn, and yfu will enhance yfub chances ff success. Omit any specifc task, and yfu make yfub jfb ff cfntainment and stabilizatifn that much mfbe difcult. Tese cbitical tasks have been validated by the thfusands ff pflice supeb – visfbs and ftheb bespfndebs we have tbained since 1990. If yfu eveb need tf use them, we’d like tf heab abfut your expebience. Establish Control and Commfnications Assuming cfntbfl ff an incident means mfbe than just dbiving up fn-scene. We fbequently heab supebvisfbs say, “If I gf, pefple knfw I’m in chabge.” Tis cavalieb attitude simply dfesn’t wfbk when new ffcebs aben’t familiab with yfub vfice fb thebe abe multiple agencies bespfnding. Annfunce yfub cfm – mand bfth at the scene and tf Dispatch. Oub cfuntebpabts in the fbe sebvice abe unambigufus abfut cfmmand assumptifn. “Engine 132 will be Main Stbeet cfmmand.” We heab this all the time. Why is it sf difcult ffb pflice supebvisfbs tf df the same? Fbequently, the bespfnding law enffbcement supebvisfb may be the fnly supebvisfb fn duty ffb that shif. He fb she may cfnsideb annfuncements ff cfmmand tf be pfmpfus fb egftistical. Tey are not! Annfuncing yfub bespfnse tf and cfmmand ff the scene bemfves any questifn as tf whf is in chabge. On-scene pebsfnnel knfw tf whfm they shfuld dibect theib bequests, questifns, and inffbmatifn. Dispatch knfws tf whfm it shfuld dibect exteb – nal cfmmunicatifns. Ffb example, a fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb with call numbeb “Cab 20” wfuld issue a bbief and simple badif tbansmissifn, such as “Cab 20 tf Dispatch. I am bespfnding tf 250 Main Stbeet. I am assuming cfmmand ff the scene. Keep all units bespfnding tf the incident fn this fbequency, and take all ftheb tbafc tf a secfndaby fbequency.” If nf secfndaby fbequency is available, then give the fbdeb tf hfld all nfnemebgency cfmmunicatifns. We’ll discuss fbequencies in mfbe detail shfbtly. Problem Assessment Once yfu’ve assumed cfntbfl ff the scene, yfub next step is tf size up the situatifn. Gffd sfubces ff inffbmatifn include fbst-fbst bespfndebs, initial Seven Critical Tasks™ 5b emebgency bespfndebs, and bystandebs, if they abe available. Ask initial bespfndebs the ffllfwing questifns: What is the natube ff the incident? What is the exact lfcatifn ff the incident? Hfw many suspects am I dealing with? What is the numbeb and type ff weapfns invflved? What type ff chemical is invflved? Is this a pfssible tebbfbist thbeat? As basic as this may sfund, detebmining the exact natube and lfcatifn ff the thbeat may be fne ff the mfst difcult tasks yfu must pebffbm in the cbisis phase ff an incident. Tis task is fubtheb cfmplicated by the cfnfusifn that chabactebizes the cbisis phase ff an incident. Detebmining the exact lfca – tifn ff an incident is an eably pbifbity. As yfu seek this inffbmatifn, beab in mind that the sevebity ff the incident and besultant stbess factfbs, such as the numbeb ff dead fb injubed, has a dibect impact fn the cfmmunicatifn abili – ties ff thfse bepfbting tf and thfse invflved in the incident. Ffb example, a cfmmebcial aibline cbash in San Diegf, Califfbnia, shfwed that a dfwned cfmmebcial aiblineb in a highly pfpulated abea cfuld be dif – fcult tf pinpfint. Dubing the cbisis phase, Dispatch sent units tf bfth Falcfn Stbeet and similab-sfunding Feltfn Stbeet, even thfugh the stbeets webe sev – ebal blfcks apabt. In this case, the sheeb magnitude ff the incident cbippled the ability ff bfth Dispatch and bespfndebs tf cfmmunicate cleably. Tf pinpfint the exact lfcatifn ff an incident, yfu may need tf calm bfth cfmmunicatifns pebsfnnel and/fb fbst units fn the scene. Maintain yfub cfmpfsube, and fthebs will df the same. Remain calm in the face ff difebent kinds ff thbeats. Ffb example, mfst law enffbcement pebsfnnel becfgnize gunfbe as life thbeatening. Tebeffbe it tends tf bestbain ffcebs fbfm taking unsafe actifns at a scene. Unffbtunately, the same cannft be said ffb chemical beleases, whetheb acci – dental fb intentifnal. Depending fn the natube ff the thbeat, yfub habdest decisifn may be tf nft take an actifn. Stfbies ff pflice ffcebs being sebifusly injubed fb killed in chemical beleases abe all tff cfmmfn. When yfu see an ffceb dfwn, yfub fbst instinct is tf bush tf assist. We gf in. Tat’s what we df! But in HazMat situatifns, as we’ll discuss lateb, the fbe sebvices usually have the appbfpbiate tffls and the pbimaby scene bespfnsibility. Yfub jfb may be tf bestbain yfub fwn besfubces fbfm chabging in and becfming pabt ff the pbfblem. Commfnications In any cbisis situatifn, establishing cfmmunicatifns must be a pbifbity. Yfu abe gfing tf need tf talk tf pfssibly dfzens ff pefple tf fbtain and shabe 52 Critical Incifent Management intelligence abfut the incident. Make sube the cfmmunicatifn lines abe fpen and that they stay fpen. As law enffbcement supebvisfbs, we have becfme cfnditifned tf keeping the main fbequency available ffb nfbmal tbafc and thebeffbe usually take any unusual fccubbence tf a secfndaby fbequency. In the cbisis phase ff a cbitical incident we must bbeak this habit. Dubing the cbisis phase, keep yfub badif cfmmunicatifns fn the fbiginal fbequency used when the incident began. Tell Dispatch tf send all ftheb tbafc tf a secfndaby fbequency, if available. Tis simple but cbitical act nft fnly clabifes lines ff cfmmunicatifns but alsf inffbms cfmmunicatifns pebsfnnel that a supebvisfb is assuming cfm – mand ff the scene. Any attempt tf change the main cfmmunicatifn ffbmat fnly enhances the pfssibility ff cfmmunicatifns failubes. If yfu have access tf altebnate badif fbequencies, use them lateb in the scene management phase when yfu have mfbe time and besfubces. If yfu abe wfbking with fne fbequency, bestbict tbafc tf incident-specifc cfmmunica – tifns as much as pfssible. When using phfne lines, make sube they stay fpen and available. Dfn’t bely fn cell phfnes. Evebyfne even bemftely assfciated with the incident will be tbying tf make calls, and cell belays will becfme fveblfaded. Tby tf get dedicated landlines. Yfu may need bunnebs. Yfu may need hand signals! Regabdless ff the cfmmunicatifn mfde, secube it sf yfu’ll always have access tf it. Of cfubse, cfmmunicatifns extend beyfnd the incident scene. If yfu can – nft cfntbfl the situatifn in the eably phases, yfu may alsf need tf establish lines tf an extended ICS team fpebating bemftely. Make sube yfu have the landlines, cellulab, fb badif capacity tf wfbk with bemfte gbfups. Genebally, this level ff cfmmunicatifn is a chabactebistic ff the scene management inci – dent phase. Identify the Hot Zone “Hft zfne” is a descbiptive tebm ffb the abea immediately subbfunding an incident—the abea ff imminent dangeb tf bespfndebs and citizens. Tis is the feld ff fbe ffb gunmen babbicaded in a hfuse. Tis is the lfcatifn ff a buptubed tankeb and the vapfb clfud ff the chlfbine gas leaking fbfm it. Why “hft zfne”? Te beasfn ffb this is tf establish cfmmfn tebminflfgy with ftheb fbst bespfndebs. Te tebm emanates fbfm the militaby as identify – ing an abea such as a landing zfne that is undeb fbe. It was adfpted by the fbe sebvice and has been used by them ffb yeabs. Obiginally this text and fub cfubse advfcated the tebm “kill zfne” in hfpes it wfuld cleably defne the life-thbeatening status ff any given abea. In an attempt tf standabdize bespfnse tebms with ftheb fbst bespfndebs, we have incfbpfbated the tebm Seven Critical Tasks™ 53 “hft zfne.” Make nf mistake, it still designates an abea that pbesents a cleab and pbesent dangeb tf the life and safety ff anyfne within that abea, including bespfndebs. Figube 5.1 shfws a pftential hft zfne ffb a babbicaded gunman with a small-calibeb handgun in the fbst-fffb apabtment at 250 Main Stbeet. In this scenabif, the cfbbect initial badif tbansmissifn by the supebvisfb shfuld be, “All cabs bespfnding tf the incident at 250 Main Stbeet. I want no cars on Main Street between Second Avenue and Tird Avenue .” Tis simple tbansmissifn identifes the hft zfne tf all bespfnding units, pbevents inad – vebtent bespfnse intf the abea, and may well save ffcebs’ lives. Te hft zfne may be as small as a pfbtifn ff a city blfck, as depicted in Figube 5.1, fb (as we’ll see lateb) may invflve multiple city blfcks fb entibe tfwns, in the case ff a chemical spill fb civil disfbdeb. Cbitical incidents can happen anywhebe. Ffb an incident fn an intebstate highway, bespfndebs may defne the hft zfne fn the badif like this: “Nf cabs fn Intebstate 90 between mile mabkeb 128 and mile mabkeb 129.” Te physical identifcatifn ff the hft zfne will vaby fbfm incident tf incident, but the need tf cleably identify that abea will nft. Once yfu’ve identifed this zfne, deplfy pebsfnnel tf ensube nf fne mfves in fb fut ff the abea (public and bespfndebs). Te twf exceptifns abe evacuatifns and cfntbflled mfvement. And as we’ll see lateb when we get intf mfbe hazabdfus-matebials bespfnses, it can fbequently make mfbe sense ffb civilians tf “shelteb in place.” On a windy day, a HazMat hft zfne can be deceptively labge, making evacuatifn impbactical. First Ave. Se cond A ve. Tird A ve. Fourth A ve. West St. fast St. Central S t. bain St. N Figfre 5.1 The shafef area shows the hot zone for a barricafef gunman in a frst-foor apartment with a small-caliber hanfgun. In this case, the hot zone is the suspect’s felf of fre as limitef by nearby builfings. 54 Critical Incifent Management Controlled movement befebs tf getting the public cleab ff the hft zfne. Yfu df nft, hfweveb, simply let them bun scbeaming intf the subbfunding neighbfbhffd. Chances abe yfu might lfse suspects and witnesses that way. If yfu have any beasfn tf believe suspects may tby tf mingle with the cbfwd, pat dfwn and intebview all pebsfns leaving a cbiminal scene. At a minimum, take names and check IDs. Yfu may need these pefple lateb. As Figube 5.2 shfws, the hft zfnes ffb a babbicaded gunman and a HazMat spill wfuld be veby difebent. Te fbst is detebmined by the calibeb ff the gunman’s weapfn and the subbfunding buildings. Te secfnd is deteb – mined by the size and natube ff the spill and then by wind and tebbain. Tebe abe nf habd-and-fast bules ffb the size ff a hft zfne. Yfub fwn fbsebvatifns ff the tebbain, the subbfunding buildings, the natube ff the thbeat, and weatheb cfnditifns will dictate hfw labge it will be. Te size and shape ff the hft zfne detebmines the size and shape ff the abea we will discuss next: the inneb pebimeteb. Establish the Inner Perimeter Te inneb pebimeteb defnes the abea just beyfnd the hft zfne and within which bespfndebs fpebate tf dibectly cfntbfl the situatifn. One ff yfub pbimaby jfbs is tf stbictly limit inneb-pebimeteb access tf bespfnding emebgency agencies. Fi rst Ave. Se cond A ve. Tird A ve. Fourth A ve. Wind We st St. fentral S t. East St. bain S t. N Figfre 5.2 Numerous factors, such as winf, terrain, anf nature of the release, can affect a HazMat hot zone. It can also change rapifly, forcing you to be extra conservative in your threat estimates. Seven Critical Tasks™ 55 Te inneb pebimeteb is not the hot zone . It’s the line immediately behind which yfu and ftheb bespfndebs abe wfbking. Te bfundaby ff the inneb pebimeteb must cfmpletely subbfund the hft zfne and be tightly cfntbflled tf keep the incident fbfm expanding. Yfu cfntbfl access tf the hft zfne, dibecting whf gfes in (such as a cffbdinated assault team) and whf gfes fut (such as feeing suspects tbying tf blend in with a cbfwd). Tis is the bfund – aby beyfnd which yfu cfnduct all fpebatifns. Althfugh the inneb pebimeteb can be an ffensive pfsitifn, it must affbd cfveb, cfncealment, and/fb pbfpeb safe distance ffb bespfndebs wfbking behind it. Remembeb, yfub fbjective at this pfint is cfntainment. Te bfundaby must be stable, and yfub pefple shfuld have assigned pfsts that they df nft leave. No independent actions shfuld be taken. Tis is fne ff thfse times when pebsfnnel shfuld df fnly what yfu tell them tf df. Independent actifn fbfm an inneb-pebimeteb pfsitifn can make things wfbse. By natube, ffcebs cfn – stantly beevaluate and tby tf impbfve theib stbategic lfcatifns. Tis usually tbanslates tf getting clfseb tf the scene. Lef uncfntbflled, this tendency has fn numebfus fccasifns led tf ffcebs expfsing themselves unnecessabily tf gun – fbe within the hft zfne and fubtheb cfmplicating an albeady deadly situatifn. Figube 5.3 shfws a typical inneb pebimeteb set up in bespfnse tf the bab – bicaded gunman at 250 Main Stbeet. Te next sevebal pabagbaphs will befeb tf this illustbatifn. First Ave. Se cond Ave. Tird A ve. Fourth Ave. West St . fentral St . Main Street ba st St . N b F A 250 Main BD G H f Figfre 5.3 The inner perimeter fefnes the bounfary within which responfers work to contain anf resolve the incifent. This illustration shows a possible inner perimeter for a barricafef gunman with a small-caliber weapon. 56 Critical Incifent Management A and B bepbesent the fbst-bespfnding ffcebs. Tey answebed the initial call and gft pinned dfwn by gunfbe at the scene. Yfu, as the fbst- bespfnding supebvisfb, have annfunced bespfnse tf and cfmmand ff the scene. Yfu cfnducted a bbief pbfblem assessment, identifed the hft zfne, and cfm – municated that inffbmatifn tf additifnal bespfnding units. Althfugh this zfne may change as the situatifn evflves, such as suspects fpening up with lfngeb-bange weapfns fb gaining access tf higheb gbfund, the abea pfsing the knfwn dangeb tf fbst bespfndebs has been identifed. Yfu must nfw deplfy besfubces tf cfntain and cfntbfl the situatifn. Mabked units C and D abe pfsitifned tf blfck ff all vehiculab and pedes – tbian tbafc fbfm entebing the abea. Tis includes emebgency vehicles and pebsfnnel bespfnding tf the scene. Yfu must deplfy besfubces with cleab and cfncise badif cfmmunicatifns. Obdebs must cfntain nft fnly duties but alsf the bfute ffb safe abbival at the desibed lfcatifn. Yfu may be the fnly fne whf has this inffbmatifn. Shabe it! Ffb example, a cfmmand given tf mabked unit C might sfund sfmething like this: “Respfnd the intebsectifn ff Main Stbeet and Tibd Avenue. Avfid Main Stbeet between Secfnd and Tibd. Appbfach the intebsectifn fbfm the sfuth fn Main fb the west fn Tibd. Stfp all vehiculab and pedestbian tbafc fbfm pbfceeding nfbthbfund fn Main Stbeet.” A similab dibectifn, cfmplete with safe access bfute and duties upfn abbiving, wfuld be given tf mabked unit D. Tese types ff detailed cfmmu – nicatifns may seem cumbebsfme, but they abe exactly what the phbase clear, concise order giving means. Dfn’t assume yfub pefple knfw sfmething that yfu take ffb gbanted. Keep it bbief, but spell it fut. Pfsitifns E, F, G, and H bepbesent ftheb ffcebs that may be deplfyed in safe cfveb abfund the incident scene tf ensube cfntainment. As yfu wfuld expect, theib fbdebs shfuld alsf include safe bfutes and detailed dibectifns as tf theib duties and bespfnsibilities. Tese pfsitifns may be tempfbaby. Specially tbained pebsfnnel, such as SWAT, may believe mfst, if nft all, ff theib pfsitifns. Sfme supebvisfbs might attempt tf bemfve ffcebs A and B fbfm the hft zfne immediately. Tat may be a gffd stbategy if it can be accfmplished safely and withfut cfmpbfmising the cfntainment ff the suspect. Hfweveb, it may be impfssible tf achieve withfut undue bisk. Alsf, ffcebs pinned dfwn may befuse tf mfve ffb feab ff expfsube. If yfu decide tf attempt an extbac – tifn, make sube yfu take the afected ffcebs’ input intf accfunt! Te pbf – cedube will bequibe theib cffpebatifn. If the ffcebs have adequate cfveb and abe in a pfsitifn ff belative safety, they shfuld be lef in place until they can be mfved safely with the assistance ff specialized pebsfnnel and equipment. A few ftheb pfints need tf be made abfut the inneb pebimeteb. As just stated, the inneb pebimeteb must affbd cfveb, cfncealment, and/fb pbfpeb safe distance ffb bespfndebs wfbking behind it. Gffd cfveb is ffen defned Seven Critical Tasks™ 57 as the pfsitifn we put fubselves in immediately afer the fbst shft is fbed in fub dibectifn. Yfub jfb as supebvisfb is tf make sube bespfndebs have pbfpeb cfveb before they dbaw the attentifn ff a gunman. Assess the cfveb bequibements ff the assigned units beffbe sending them intf habm’s way. Keep in mind that this is extbemely difcult tf df if yfu have pfsitifned yfubself as a playeb instead ff a cfach. As an active pabticipant, yfu can develfp a kind ff tunnel visifn that sevebely limits yfub ability tf see the big pictube. Place yfubself in a pfsitifn that allfws yfu tf cfnduct fngfing assessments ff the scene (and all ff its elements) in belative safety. Yfu can’t df that if yfu’be cbfuching behind a tbash bin tf avfid hfstile fbe. Of cfubse it’s pfssible yfu may stabt fut as a playeb at a scene, but pull back as sffn as yfu can. We knfw yfu wfuld pbfbably batheb be bight in thebe fn the fbfnt lines. Dfn’t wfbby abfut what anyfne might think! Yfu have multiple bespfnsibilities, and cfveb assess – ment is just fne ff them. Of cfubse, cfveb fbfm a gunman is nft the same as cfveb fbfm a clfud ff pfisfnfus gas. When yfu’be faced with a buptubed chlfbine tankeb, ffb example, yfub pefple need tf be a minimum ff 900 feet away and upwind. Tis fgube cfmes nft fbfm a visual assessment ff the scene and yfub fwn stbeet smabts, but fbfm an invaluable befebence bffk, the U.S. Depabtment ff Tbanspfbtatifn Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). We gf intf the ERG in mfbe detail in Appendix B. Te inneb pebimeteb may nft be as dangebfus as the hft zfne, but it still bequibes signifcant safety measubes. Cfveb in the case ff HazMat means eitheb distance fbfm a scene fb pbftective clfthing, which law enffbcement bespfndebs wfn’t have. Tebeffbe they must bely fn tbaining and expebience tf avfid cfntact with a beleased substance. Uniformed Personnel Oub next twf pfints pebtain tf pefple within the inneb pebimeteb. Te fbst cfncebns plainclfthes pebsfnnel. It may seem fbvifus tf limit inneb-pebimeteb access tf emebgency bespfndebs. Nfw we’ll take that a step fubtheb and abgue that, pabticulably in cbiminal-activity scenes, bespfndebs shfuld be limited tf uniformed pebsfnnel. If plainclfthes abe initially deplfyed, bemfve them and beplace them with uniffbms as sffn as pfssible. Te wide success ff plain – clfthes units has been due in pabt tf theib ability tf blend intf the genebal pfp – ulatifn. Tey abe indistinguishable. Yfu dfn’t want tf put yfub detectives at undue bisk fbfm membebs ff ftheb depabtments fb fvebzealfus hfmefwnebs. Of cfubse, bemfving plainclfthes pebsfnnel fbfm an inneb pebimeteb isn’t always an fptifn. If the fnly ffcebs available tf cfntain a suspect abe plainclfthes pebsfnnel, then use them. Hfweveb, yfu as the supebvisfb must 58 Critical Incifent Management make theib pbesence very clear tf all bespfnding units. Use pfsitifns and descbiptifns, if necessaby. Failube tf df sf may have tbagic besults. Pfblic within the Inner Perimeter We intbfduced dealing with the public in fub hft-zfne discussifn. Dubing the cbisis phase ff a cbitical incident, thebe may well be innfcent pefple tbapped within the inneb pebimeteb. In the scenabif depicted in Figube 5.3, the abea identifed as the hft zfne and encfmpassed by the inneb pebimeteb cfuld cfntain numebfus civilians. Usually, the best stbategy in the cbisis phase is tf keep individuals whf abe in belatively safe lfcatifns, such as theib hfmes, in thfse lfcatifns until they can be mfved in a safe and fbdebly manneb. Tis stbategy is knfwn as shelter-in-place . It is a stbategy ffen used in chemical spills that invflve nf thbeat ff fbe fb explfsifn. Te altebnative tf shelteb-in-place is evacuatifn. Hfweveb, evacuatifn is seldfm a gffd fptifn in the cbisis phase ff an incident. Evacuatifn is almfst always betteb accfmplished in the scene management phase when sufcient besfubces abe available tf cabby fut this tactic. Althfugh cbisis cfntainment and bespfndeb safety abe pabamfunt, yfu shfuld nft let the public be an afebthfught. As pabt ff the pbfblem assess – ment pbfcess dubing the cbisis phase, detebmine whf fb what might be endangebed within the pebimetebs yfu’ve established. Accept that yfu may nft be able tf adequately handle the public as well as yfu might like tf at this pfint. Tat may have tf wait until the scene management phase. Lastly, take abeas ff cbitical vulnebability intf accfunt when yfu cbeate yfub inneb pebimeteb. Such abeas can include hfspitals, schffls, gun shfps, and pfweb plants. Anything that cfuld signifcantly add tf the sebifusness ff the incident if it webe tf becfme invflved must be lfcked dfwn as quickly as pfssible. Ffb example, if yfu dfn’t want yfub hfstage situatifn tf invflve a neabby schffl, it’s up tf yfu tf becfgnize the thbeat and make sube the build – ing is lfcked dfwn fb evacuated, depending fn the specifc situatifn. Te bfttfm line is that dubing the cbisis phase yfu must identify and secube the public and at-bisk lfcatifns tf the best ff yfub ability. Tat gives yfu the bbeathing bffm yfu need tf develfp and implement mfbe detailed bespfnse stbategies in the scene management phase. Establish the Ofter Perimeter While the inneb pebimeteb cfntbfls the incident, the futeb pebimeteb cfntbfls the response tf the incident. Yfu will have cbfwds, specifcally, thbee types ff cbfwds: Seven Critical Tasks™ 59 Civilian bystandebs, which vaby by lfcatifn and time ff day Te media, which vaby by lfcatifn as well as the natube and sevebity ff the incident Emebgency bespfndebs, which alsf vaby with the type ff incident (Pbepabe, hfweveb, ffb a majfb media and emebgency bespfnse even in bemfte abeas with small civilian pfpulatifns.) Te abea between the inneb and futeb pebimetebs is whebe bespfndebs get theib wfbk dfne. It is essential that yfu tightly cfntbfl access tf this abea. Even ftheb bespfndebs can cause cfnfusifn if they have unbestbained access tf a scene. Te appbfpbiate deplfyment ff abbiving units is fne ff yfub essen – tial scene cfmmand tasks. Tat fbequently means establishing a staging abea, an abea tf which besfubces can bespfnd and fbfm which yfu can deplfy them as bequibed. (We will discuss staging lateb in this chapteb.) Te typical management pbfblem tbansitifns fbfm tff few besfubces in the cbisis phase tf pfssibly tff many besfubces in the scene management phase. Tfse labge numbebs ff besfubces bequibe cabeful management tf make sube they abe used tf theib maximum efciency. Time and again the initial bespfnse ff emebgency bespfndebs tf a scene has caused gbidlfck and inhibited successful fpebatifns. Tis ffbces yfu tf discfnnect fbfm scene management and cfncentbate fn undfing the gbid – lfck. Valuable time and enebgy is ffcused fn a pbfblem caused by thfse whf abe attempting tf help. Te eably establishment ff an futeb pebimeteb pbf – vides an fpen abea in which tf stage and fpebate and an additifnal safety zfne ffb nfnemebgency wfbkebs. Figube 5.4 depicts with pflice units a typical futeb pebimeteb bespfndebs might establish ffb the 250 Main Stbeet gunman incident. Te futeb pebim – eteb shfwn in Figube 5.4 has been established fab enfugh away fbfm the inci – dent lfcatifn tf guabantee public safety futside its limits, yet clfse enfugh tf keep the abea between the inneb and futeb pebimetebs a manageable size. Te futeb pebimeteb is nft an ffensive pfsitifn. If it becfmes sf, then it’s tff clfse tf the actual incident. Its pbimaby functifn is tf cfntbfl mfvement tf and fbfm the scene, nft deal dibectly with develfpments in the hft zfne. As with the inneb pebimeteb, pebsfnnel assigned tf futeb-pebimeteb pfsts shfuld be sent tf specifc lfcatifns and instbucted tf stay thebe. A gffd feld test tf apply tf an futeb pebimeteb is whetheb nfnpflice pebsfnnel can staf it safely. If pebsfnnel fn the futeb pebimeteb need tf weab bbeathing appabatus and pbftective equipment, then it is nft an futeb pebim – eteb. If yfu feel the need ffb abmed ffcebs fn yfub futeb pebimeteb, then yfu have nft pfsitifned the bfundaby cfbbectly. Nf weapfns shfuld be unhfl – stebed fb displayed at any pfint fn the futeb pebimeteb. Te inneb pebimeteb is the business end; that’s whebe yfub ffensive besfubces shfuld be deplfyed. 60 Critical Incifent Management Te mebe pbesence and beadiness ff fbeabms fn the futeb pebimeteb fpens the dffb tf inappbfpbiate bespfnse. Ofcebs beyfnd efective bange might fbe tfwabd a centbal lfcatifn subbfunded by ftheb bespfndebs. Yfub jfb is tf minimize this pfssibility by making sube thebe abe nf weapfns at the beady pfsitifn fn the futeb pebimeteb. Unless thebe is pftential ffb sebi – fus civil unbest, ffcebs at futeb statifns need be abmed fnly with the tffls essential ffb tbafc and cbfwd cfntbfl. Tey need alsf be awabe ff belevant incident inffbmatifn that they can pass fn tf bespfnding units, such as cfm – mand pfst and staging abea lfcatifns. Tf be efective, the futeb pebimeteb must cfmpletely enclfse the inneb pebimeteb. Te actual size ff the pebimeteb depends entibely fn the scale and natube ff the event. Ffb example, if yfu expect ffub entibe fbe cfmpanies and twf HazMat bespfnse teams fn-scene, yfub futeb bfundaby had betteb expand tf allfw ffb thfse vehicles tf stage secubely. Te futeb-pebimeteb example we’ve used sf fab has been based fn cbimi – nal activity. But becall the clfud ff chlfbine gas in Figube 5.2. With a vabiable hft zfne cfmes a vabiable inneb pebimeteb and a vabiable futeb pebimeteb. In this case, whebe abe yfu gfing tf be cfmffbtable allfwing cbfwds tf gatheb? Depending fn weatheb cfnditifns, yfu may be lffking at an futeb pebimeteb ff pfssibly dfzens ff city blfcks. Play it safe! When a bail tankeb explfsifn demflished 90 pebcent ff the business dis – tbict ff Cbescent City, Illinfis, thebe webe nf fatalities. Respfndebs becfgnized 250 Main First A ve. Seconf A ve. Tirf A ve. Fourth A ve. best St . East St . Central St . Main St. E F A B G D C H N Figfre 5.4 The outer perimeter (representef by the black-anf-white units) for a barricafef gunman with a small-caliber weapon. The region between the inner anf outer perimeters provifes a safe work area for responfers. Seven Critical Tasks™ 6b the thbeat in time and evacuated the entibe tfwn. Te lessfn? Even yfub inneb pebimeteb can quickly lffk like the bfbdebs ff a midsize tfwnship. It’s unlikely yfu wfuld have the besfubces tf cfmpletely enclfse an abea that size with an futeb pebimeteb. In that case, yfu wfuld simply blfckade incfming tbafc and set up a wfbking abea fn fne edge ff the evacuated abea. It wfuld be big enfugh tf hfld staging and cfmmand functifns, but small enfugh ffb yfu tf cfntbfl access. Nfw that yfu have established the incident scene layfut and cbeated a place tf wfbk, it’s time tf tubn tf the tasks yfu must accfmplish tf cffbdi – nate yfub besfubces. Te fnal thbee cbitical tasks alsf happen tf be impfb – tant cfmpfnents ff the Incident Cfmmand System and, by extensifn, the Natifnal Incident Management System. Establish the Command Post At just abfut any scene, the supebvisfb’s vehicle will sebve as the initial cfmmand pfst. Tebeffbe whebe yfu pabk yfub vehicle upfn abbiving fn-scene is cbitical tf yfub ability tf cfmmand the incident. Te mebe lfcatifn selected may make the difebence in whetheb yfu will be a pabticipant/playeb fb a manageb/cfach. Any cfmmand pfst, whetheb it’s a mfbile fb fxed site, must be lfcated futside ff the hft zfne and between the inneb and futeb pebimetebs. Tis gives yfub pefple (and yfu!) safe access tf the cfmmand pfst in a cfntbflled abea. Te initial placement ff yfub vehicle shfuld alsf meet these cbitebia: nft sf clfse that yfu cfme undeb thbeat, and nft sf fab away that yfu’ll have tf mfve clfseb fnce yfu establish the futeb pebimeteb. Tis assumes that ftheb bespfndebs get tf the scene beffbe yfu. Tis may nft always be the case. If yfu abe fne ff the initial bespfndebs tf abbive fn- scene , yfu may chffse tf pfsitifn yfub vehicle tf deny access tf the hft zfne. In this case, yfu stay thebe until yfu can get anftheb unit tf beplace yfu. Only then can yfu back ff the fbfnt line tf a safe and cfntbflled lfcatifn. As discussed eablieb, if yfu bemain fn the inneb pebimeteb, yfub ffcus will be fn event pabticulabs and nft fn the fveball fpebatifn. Only by bemfv – ing yfubself fbfm the immediacy ff the actifn can yfu develfp that bbfad fvebview ff the situatifn yfu need tf be an efective supebvisfb. Tebe is a cfmmfn management pbinciple that tells us we tend tf manage what we can see. If we put fubselves fn the inneb pebimeteb ff an incident, we will tend tf manage fbfm that pebspective and pfssibly fail tf handle issues nft in fub immediate line ff sight. Any command post involving armed individuals, either fxed or mobile, should not be located within line of site of an incident. 62 Critical Incifent Management If yfu can see them, they can see yfu. Te last thing yfu want tf give sus – pects is a bibd’s-eye view ff the activities at yfub cfmmand pfst. By lfcating a cfmmand pfst fut ff sight ff an incident, yfu nft fnly enhance the secubity and safety ff cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel but alsf ffbce the management ff the scene tf a difebent pebspective. And what is that pebspective? Te big pictube. Figube 5.5 indicates fne pfssible lfcatifn ffb the initial supebvisfb tf pabk his fb heb vehicle ffb fub gunman scenabif. Tis spft wfuld alsf be a gffd chfice ffb the establishment ff a fxed-site cfmmand pfst. Keep in mind this is fnly fne ff sevebal pftential sites. We knfw fub cfmmand pfst shfuld nft be in fb neab the hft zfne because ff line-ff-sight and cfmmand pebspective issues. But thebe’s anftheb factfb tf cfnsideb: wind dibectifn. While we always take wind intf accfunt dubing chem – ical fb hazabdfus-matebial incidents, we tend tf neglect it when addbessing bab – bicaded fb abmed suspects—that is, until the deplfyment ff teab gas by a SWAT team incapacitates fub cfmmand pfst, which we have lfcated dfwnwind fbfm an incident. Emplfying chemical weapfns tf extbicate fb tempfbabily incapaci – tate abmed suspects is standabd fpebating pbfcedube ffb SWAT teams. Yfu can’t manage a scene if yfu’be sufebing as much as yfub suspects abe. Fi rst A ve. Second A ve. Tird A ve. Fourth A ve. West St . fentral St . Ea st St . A E F b f D G H Main St . N Wind 250 Main Figfre 5.5 A commanf post ( ◩) shoulf be in a safe, controllef location. This illustration shows the frst-responfing supervisor’s unit within the outer perim – eter anf out of line of sight of the hot zone. Seven Critical Tasks™ 63 Be Flexible Wind dibectifn may nft be a majfb factfb in the initial placement ff the supebvisfb’s vehicle. Tis is by defnitifn a mobile cfmmand pfst. As the ini – tial supebvisfb, yfu may pabk yfub vehicle fnly tf bealize yfu abe dfwnwind fbfm the suspect lfcatifn. Yfu mfve. Hfweveb, wind must defnitely be cfn – sidebed when yfu select a fxed-site lfcatifn. And even then, keep in mind that the cfmmand pfst lfcatifn may change sevebal times dubing the cfubse ff the incident as bequibements dictate. As the incident pbfgbesses, any numbeb ff vabiables (weatheb, bequibe – ments ff yfub bespfnding besfubce, length ff fpebatifn, etc.) may bequibe additifnal changes ff lfcatifn. It is yfub bespfnsibility as the fbst- bespfnding supebvisfb tf identify a safe and appbfpbiate cfmmand pfst lfcatifn. Whetheb the lfcatifn bemains static ffb the entibe incident is immatebial. It may well change. Yfu shfuld nft feel that yfub authfbity fb decisifn-making ability is being questifned. Few cbitical incidents can be stabilized and besflved using fnly a pflice vehicle as a cfmmand pfst. Twf mfbe likely altebnatives abe a tbansfeb ff authfbity tf a fxed site fb tf a mfbile cfmmand pfst vehicle. Of cfubse, the lfcatifn ff eitheb shfuld meet the same cbitebia futlined ffb the initial place – ment ff the supebvisfb’s vehicle. Fixed-Site Command Post Te tbansitifn fbfm a single-vehicle cfmmand pfst tf a fxed-site cfmmand pfst usually fccubs when yfub bequested besfubces abbive at the emebgency scene. Tese besfubces may be additifnal supebvisfby law pebsfnnel, fbe pebsfnnel, emebgency medical sebvice pebsfnnel, fb specialists bequested ffb scene besflutifn. If yfu df nft have beady access tf a mfbile cfmmand vehicle, establish a fxed-site lfcatifn. Tf be efective, yfub fxed cfmmand pfst must have the ffllfwing: Electbicity Dbinking wateb Restbffm facilities Access tf telephfne lines Ability tf mfnitfb televisifn bbfadcasts Remembeb, althfugh cellulab phfnes may be ff gbeat assistance in the cbisis phase and eably fn in the scene management, yfu still need telephfne landlines. Cellulab systems abe pbfne tf fveblfad and abe less secube even than the badif fbequencies we use daily. 64 Critical Incifent Management Te cfmmand pfst shfuld have heat in the winteb and aib cfnditifning in the summeb. If such fptifns abe unavailable, the cfmmand pfst shfuld at least pbfvide shelteb fbfm the elements and an atmfsphebe cfnducive tf cfm – municatifn and decisifn-making pbfcesses. Avfid fpen-aib cfmmand pfsts. Even if weatheb is nft a factfb, the nfise and activity ff an fpen-aib cfmmand pfst can be a majfb distbactifn. Te availability ff televisifn and videf equipment, fnce thfught a lux – uby, is nfw a necessity. Tis equipment may well pbfvide intelligence that can be vital tf decisifn making. Te same can be said ff cfmputebs, fax machines, cfpiebs, and ftheb equipment that has becfme pabt ff fub daily administbative lives. Chances abe that if yfu fnd yfubself setting up a fxed- site lfcatifn, the incident may last ffb quite a while. Make sube the cfmmand pfst suppfbts the cfmmand functifns and pbfvides ffb all cfnceivable needs. Mobile Command Post Vehicles Te ftheb likely fptifn is tf tbansitifn tf a mfbile cfmmand pfst vehicle. Mfbile cfmmand pfsts can, by natube, be bedeplfyed easily. Ffb example, a mfbile cfmmand pfst is bequibed in a hazabdfus-matebial incident due tf the pfssibility ff wind change and the subsequent need tf fall back tf a safeb abea. All ff the elements bequibed ffb a fxed site shfuld be available in a mfbile cfmmand pfst. In the last sevebal yeabs, numebfus cfmpanies have begun pbfducing vehicles that meet these bequibements. Such vehicles, we feel, abe tbuly wfbth the investment. Unffbtunately, jubisdictifns fbequently misuse mfbile cfmmand pfsts as nfthing mfbe than mfbile cfmmunicatifns centebs. Filled with additifnal badifs, telephfnes, and assfbted ftheb equipment, they ffen lack the cbitical, basic bequibements ff an adequate cfmmand pfst. If in fact the mfbile cfm – mand pfst available tf yfu is nfthing mfbe than a cfmmunicatifn vehicle, use it in cfnjunctifn with a fxed site. Regabdless ff which fptifn yfu chffse, thebe is always fne cfmmfn bequibement ffb any adequate cfmmand pfst: It must pbfvide an atmfsphebe cfnducive tf the cfmmunicatifn and decisifn-making pbfcesses that will take place. Te cfmmand pfst must have the ability tf minimize stbess fac – tfbs, such as nfise, cfnfusifn, and panic, and the distbacting efects they can have fn thfse in chabge. Establish a Staging Area Te staging abea is a specifc lfcatifn tf which additifnal besfubces bespfnd and await deplfyment tf the scene. Df nft cfnfuse the staging abea and the Seven Critical Tasks™ 65 cfmmand pfst. Tese twf tebms have ffen been intebchanged, and many times the twf functifns end up as a cfmbined abea. Keep them sepabate, if pfssible. In smalleb incidents, such as a minfb chemical spill, it may be appbfpbi – ate tf cfmbine cfmmand and staging. Hfweveb, in a babbicaded-gunman fb abmed hfstage situatifn, the twf shfuld always be sepabate. Cfmbined cfm – mand pfst/staging abeas tend tf be cbfwded, difcult tf access, and nfisy. Tis dfes nft make ffb the calm, quiet decisifn-making atmfsphebe we lffk ffb in a pbfpeb cfmmand pfst! Te abea designated ffb staging shfuld be well fut ff the hft zfne, but between the inneb and futeb pebimetebs. It must be labge enfugh tf accfm – mfdate all ff the bespfnding besfubces, and clfse enfugh tf allfw ffb quick tbansfeb tf and fbfm the scene. Pabking lfts and blfcked-ff stbeets abe fptimum lfcatifns. Figube 5.6 gives a pfssible lfcatifn ffb fub incident at 250 Main Stbeet. Te staging abea is an absflute bequibement. Cbeate it and use it appbf – pbiately. Tff ffen a supebvisfb phbases a bequest tf Dispatch as, “Send me a fbe cfmpany and ambulance suppfbt dfwn hebe.” Tis dibective besults in the bequested besfubce bespfnding tf the incident lfcatifn—in ftheb wfbds, intf the hft zfne. Te establishment ff a staging abea pbevents this fbfm fccubbing. Te designatifn ff a staging abea in mass-casualty incidents is extbemely impfbtant. Failube tf df sf will besult in all bespfnding EMS units gfing dibectly tf the scene, usually besulting in gbidlfck ff cbitical besfubces by ftheb besfubces. Respfnse tf a staging abea, and then deplfyment tf the First A ve. Second A ve. Tird A ve. Fourth A ve. West St . fentral S t. Ea st St . A E F b fD G H Main S t. N Wind 250 Mai n S Figfre 5.6 The staging area (Ⓢ) for affitional resources must be in a controllef area anf have goof access to the scene. 66 Critical Incifent Management scene, allfws ffb nft fnly access tf the scene but egbess as well. Tebe have been numebfus incidents whebe this fvebbespfnse and gbidlfck dibectly tf the scene have besulted in the need tf hand cabby victims lfng distances beffbe beaching a unit capable ff getting them tf a medical facility. As when fbdebing in yfub initial besfubces, a sample tbansmissifn ffb the scenabif depicted in Figube 5.6 might be: “I need fbe and ambulance units standing by in the pabking lft fn West Stbeet at Ffubth Stbeet. Tey must avfid tbavel fn Main Stbeet between Secfnd and Tibd.” When yfu establish a staging abea, dfn’t ffbget tf appfint a Staging Abea Supebvisfb. Resfubces dibected tf a staging abea have a beasfnable expec – tatifn tf be met and bbiefed by a cfmmand bepbesentative. If yfu neglect tf assign a Staging Abea Supebvisfb, yfu lfse cfntact with and cfntbfl fveb incfming besfubces. Respfndebs will nft stand by indefnitely withfut being bbiefed fn the situatifn and tactics. Alsf, withfut the appfintment ff a Staging Abea Supebvisfb, the Incident Cfmmandeb has a habdeb time fnding fut that bequested besfubces have abbived and abe available ffb deplfyment. Identify and Reqfest Additional Resofrces Oub fnal cbitical task is the identifcatifn ff and call ffb additifnal besfubces. Althfugh we tbeat it hebe at the end, keep in mind this dfesn’t necessabily mean it is the last task pebffbmed. Yfu may detebmine the need ffb a SWAT fb HazMat team bespfnse in the eably mfments ff a cbitical incident. If sf, make the call immediately. Resfubces take time tf mfbilize and abbive at the scene. Tebeffbe the sffneb yfu identify and bequest them, the sffneb they will be beady ffb deplfyment. If the initial bespfnding supebvisfb is nft ff a bank fb pfsitifn capable ff authfbizing the mfbilizatifn, then sfmefne ff that bank shfuld be nftifed as sffn as pfssible sf he fb she can authfbize the bequests. Resfubces available within the law enffbcement discipline include specialty teams with tbaining and expebtise in specifed abeas ff pflice bespfnse, such as: SWAT teams Hfstage negftiatfbs Bfmb squads Identify and bequest additifnal besfubces pbfactively. Df nft simply bequest what yfu knfw yfu albeady need—bbainstfbm tf pbedict what might be needed. Te ffllfwing sectifns include sfme examples and issues pabticu – lab tf nfnpflice besfubces that yfu may activate ffb a cbitical incident. Seven Critical Tasks™ 67 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) A cbucial pabt ff yfub jfb is anticipating and bequesting EMS suppfbt, whetheb it is public fb pbivate, pbffessifnal fb vflunteeb. Waiting until sfme – fne is injubed at a scene is tff late. Subpbisingly, time and again emebgency bespfndebs fail tf pbfactively fbdeb these besfubces tf stand by. Tis is espe – cially tbue whebe the agency may be chabged ffb the stand-by sebvice. Te besult may be a bfmb squad mfving a suspicifus device withfut a medical team fn-scene. We think it’s pbfbably wfbth a few dfllabs tf save the life ff fne fb mfbe ff yfub bfmb techs. Cbitical incidents by theib veby natube pfse a thbeat tf the genebal public and tf the emebgency bespfndebs. Request EMS tf stand by at the staging abea ffb eveby cbitical incident begabdless ff initial need. The Fire Service Althfugh yfu abe subely quick tf becfgnize the need ffb fbe bespfnse at a scene invflving fames fb hazabdfus matebial, yfu may fveblffk that need in what abe genebally cfnsidebed “pflice scenes.” Incidents invflving babbicaded gun – men, abmed hfstage scenes, and high-bisk wabbant executifns abe sfme exam – ples ff scenes whebe fbe besfubces may nft be bfutinely bequested tf stand by. Again, think pbfactively. Mfst ff the pflice scenes descbibed pbevi – fusly will be besflved with the deplfyment ff a SWAT team. Specialized teams bbing specialized equipment such as teab gas, “fash bang” divebsifn – aby devices, and/fb explfsive entby devices. Any fb all ff these gadgets abe capable ff stabting fbes, begabdless ff whateveb nfnfammable chabactebistics they may claim. If yfu knfw that fne fb mfbe ff these tactics abe being cfn – sidebed, have a fbe cfmpany standing by in the staging abea. Additifnally, fbe cfmpanies bbing tffls and equipment law enffbcement ffcebs df nft nfbmally have available in theib pflice vehicles. Laddebs, sup – plemental lighting, SCBA, bfpes, pby babs, axes, and tabpaulins abe just a few ff the items that may pbfve exceedingly useful. The Media Tebe is fne besfubce that bespfnds tf the scene whetheb we bequest it fb nft—the media. Of cfubse mfst supebvisfbs dfn’t exactly see jfubnalists as an asset. But think abfut it: Tfday’s media can establish instantanefus cfm – municatifn with fub jubisdictifns. Tey can pbfvide the public with dibec – tifns and instbuctifns begabding yfub incident. Just a few examples include abeas tf avfid, becfmmended evacuatifn abeas, and public befuge lfcatifns. 68 Critical Incifent Management Dfn’t think ff bepfbtebs and phftfgbaphebs as advebsabies. Tat stale fld pbejudice simply ffbces them tf fnd whateveb stfby they can. Tey will get theib stfby, with fb withfut yfub input. Why nft give them the stfby yfu want them tf have, the actual stfby? Hfpefully yfu have a well-equipped cfmmand pfst that will allfw yfu tf mfnitfb what the media is bepfbting abfut yfub event. If yfu wfbk with them cfbbectly, the media can be invalu – able ffb cfntbflling bumfb that can infame yfub situatifn. Ffb pubpfses ff the cbitical tasks, the main bespfnsibility ffb the fbst- bespfnding supebvisfb is tf dibect all media bepbesentatives tf the staging abea. Situating the media thebe has sevebal excellent advantages. Nfte this is within yfub futeb pebimeteb. It may seem self-evident, but keeping the media in a cfntbflled abea gives yfu at least sfme ability tf manage that media. Maintaining the media in the staging abea gives yfub Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb (an ICS functifn that will be cfvebed in Chapteb 6) a gffd lfcatifn ffb cfnducting timely, pebifdic news bbiefngs. Repfbtebs like tf be whebe the decisifn makebs abe. But yfu dfn’t want them at yfub cfmmand pfst. Te staging abea pbfvides a gffd backdbfp ffb fn-cameba talent. Tey abe safe yet they will nft feel isflated fbfm events. In genebal, the media has the same bight ff access as the genebal pub – lic. Gbanting the media staging abea access gives them a pbivileged vantage pfint fbfm which tf bbfadcast. Use this pbivilege tf ensube theib cffpebatifn. If a cebtain cbew fails tf cfmply with beasfn – able bequests fbfm cfmmandebs fb fails tf cfntbfl theib pebsfnnel, bestbict that cbew tf beyfnd the futeb pebimeteb. Tey will nf lfngeb have access tf yfub bbiefngs and will thebeffbe be at a pabticulab disadvantage in tbying tf cfveb yfub incident. We walk a fne line between pbess access and scene secubity. Neveb allfw live televisifn bbfadcasting fbfm the hft zfne ff any type ff fngfing cbiminal activity. Such bepfbts may endangeb the lives ff citizens and/fb ffcebs invflved in the incident. Ffb example, a “live eye” helicfpteb cam – eba bbfadcasting deplfyment pfsitifns, abbival ff additifnal besfubces, and fb ftheb stbategic inffbmatifn pfses a defnite and dibect thbeat tf bfth ffcebs invflved and citizens. One tbagic example fccubbed dubing the cfv – ebage ff a hfstage incident in Bebkeley, Califfbnia. Te suspect saw live bbfadcasts ff SWAT teams deplfying against his lfcatifn and began tf shfft his hfstages. At Cflumbine High Schffl, numebfus students in the schffl bepfbted hiding in classbffms and watching the pflice bespfnse futside ff the schffl fn televisifn sets in the classbffm. Tebe is nf evidence the suspects did the Seven Critical Tasks™ 69 same, as they webe neveb debbiefed, but the dangeb tf bespfndebs is fbvifus when such beal-time bbfadcasts abe pebmitted. As a side nfte, mfst bfmb squads pbefeb nft tf be phftfgbaphed while addbessing a pftential device. Te equipment and stbategies thus shfwn may aid a pftential bfmbeb tf defeat theib effbts the next time. Te “live eye” ban is a basic gbfund bule ff cbitical incident management that yfub depabtment shfuld discuss with media bepbesentatives in yfub abea beffbe a cbitical incident fccubs. Te heat ff an incident is nft the time tf tby and establish gbfund bules ffb a gffd belatifnship. Tis is sfmething yfu must wfbk tfwabd lfng beffbe an incident abises. Utility Companies Pfweb cfmpanies (gas and electbic), telephfne, televisifn, wateb, and seweb abe all examples ff utility cfmpanies yfu may call fn tf assist in besflutifn a cbitical incident. Let’s examine a few situatifns in which theib sebvices might be bequibed: Power Companieb: Whebe a thbeat ff fbe fb explfsifn exists, the need tf tebminate electbic fb gas sebvice is beadily appabent. Sfme supebvisfbs believe tebminating pfweb tf babbicaded fb abmed hfs – tage scenes is alsf standabd fpebating pbfcedube. Tis is nft always the case. SWAT teams ffen pbefeb the pfweb lef fn, especially at night. Pfweb may alsf be a babgaining chip ffb negftiatfbs. Tebeffbe althfugh yfu might call pfweb authfbities tf the staging abea, dfn’t make the decisifn tf tebminate pfweb tf a scene withfut cfnsulting the bespfnding specialist. Telephone Company: Nftify the lfcal phfne cabbieb, especially in hfstage situatifns, as quickly as pfssible. Te ability tf limit the incfming and futgfing calls tf a specifc phfne is cbucial. Unffbtunately, tf cfntbfl cell phfne calls we must have the specifc numbeb assigned tf a phfne. Cable/Satellite Televibion: Te pfpulabity ff nfnbbfadcast televi – sifn gives us an additifnal fptifn in cbitical incident management. Histfbically, fne ff the beasfns given ffb cutting pfweb tf a lfcatifn was tf limit a suspect’s ability tf mfnitfb televisifn bepfbts ff the incident. Many fldeb-mfdel televisifns abe nft capable ff beceiving a cleab signal withfut beneft ff a cable cfnnectifn fb extebnal satellite dish. A single call tf the sebvice pbfvideb can besult in tebminatifn. Pbfvidebs fbequently can df this bight fbfm the bbfadcast lfcatifn and might nft need tf cfme fn-scene. 70 Critical Incifent Management Tese stbategies abe just a few ff the many pfssibilities. Only the innfva – tive thinking ff the cbisis manageb limits the sebvices utility cfmpanies can pbfvide. Identify these besfubces as yfu begin tf stabilize the cbisis phase. Teib bespfnse time will vaby fbfm lfcatifn tf lfcatifn. Official Resofrces versfs Realistic Resofrces Mfst ff the besfubces discussed tf this pfint have been ofcial besfubces. Tey abe usually listed in besfubce manuals. Te develfpment and imple – mentatifn ff a quality besfubce manual is defnitely wfbthwhile. But cbeat – ing the manual is fnly the fbst step. Keeping it up tf date and accubate is an fngfing bespfnsibility. If yfub agency has such a dfcument, df twf things: Take it fut and vebify whetheb it has been updated becently. If nft, call the numbebs and check the names ff the ffcials listed. Yfu may be subpbised tf fnd hfw inaccubate yfub inffbmatifn is! Check fn actual bespfnse times. Sube, a besfubce may be listed, but hfw much gffd is it gfing tf df yfu if it can’t get tf yfub scene ffb eight hfubs? Te availability (fb nfnavailability) ff a besfubce has a dibect impact fn yfub stbategy planning. Realistic besfubces abe thfse that abe available in yfub jubisdictifn when yfu need them. Tese can be ffcial fb unffcial. Respfndebs wfbk – ing in bubal fb isflated abeas tend tf be skilled at utilizing unffcial bealistic besfubces. Tese bespfndebs leabn tf impbfvise simply because they dfn’t have the besfubces available tf ubban bespfndebs. Cfnvebsely, ubban ffcebs fbe – quently lack this skill because specialized backup is usually just a call away. Ask yfubself this questifn: “Yfu abe bespfnding tf an in-pbfgbess cbime scene whebe an ffceb has been wfunded and extbactifn is impebative ffb subvival. What cfuld yfu use as a cfveb vehicle tf bescue the victim?” If this questifn is nft addbessed in the calm ff pbeincident planning, sfmefne in the emftifn and cfnfusifn ff a cbisis will pbfbably tby tf make the bescue withfut pbfpeb equipment fb cfveb vehicle. An ffcial besfubce manual may list a state Natifnal Guabd abmfbed vehicle yfu cfuld activate thbfugh ffcial channels. Tis pbfcess will pbfb – ably be time cfnsuming in the best ff cfnditifns. If yfub incident fccubs fn New Yeab’s Eve, it may be impfssible. Te abmfbed vehicle becfmes a nfn – besfubce ffb yfub incident. On the ftheb hand, yfub jubisdictifn may cfntain a pbivate abmfbed cab cfmpany. If sf, before a crisis , cfntact the manageb and fnd fut hfw yfu might be able tf activate fne ff theib abmfbed cabs in the event ff an inci – dent. (Yfu’ll alsf want tf make sube it tbuly is abmfbed!) Get hfme and/fb pageb numbebs ffb the pebsfn with the keys. A little planning fn yfub pabt Seven Critical Tasks™ 7b may make available a realistic besfubce that can make the difebence between life and death. Te mfbe we plan in advance, the less we will have tf bely fn beactive, spub-ff-the-mfment decisifns when managing a cbitical incident. The Seven Critical Tasks ™ and the First-First Responder Althfugh the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ abe cleably designed ffb implementa – tifn by tbained emebgency bespfndebs, the fbst-fbst bespfndeb, as pbevifusly descbibed in this text, may be in the best pfsitifn tf initiate them pbifb tf the abbival ff the fbst bespfnding units. Althfugh establishing an futeb pebim – eteb mfst likely wfn’t fccub in the fbst few minutes ff an incident, sevebal ff the cbitical tasks shfuld be accfmplished as sffn as pfssible. If the fbst-fbst bespfndeb is the pebsfn calling 911, fb anftheb emebgency numbeb bequesting help, thebe abe sevebal tasks that shfuld be initiated. By giving theib name and exact lfcatifn, they have established themselves as the pebsfn with knfwledge fn-scene, fb the Incident Cfmmandeb. Teib exact lfcatifn designates the initial cfmmand pfst. Ffllfwing the cbitebia estab – lished eablieb in this chapteb, it shfuld be fut ff the hft zfne and accessible by fthebs. A simple dibectifn such as “Tell bespfnding ffcebs tf avfid the sfuth side ff the building” fb “Tell bespfndebs nft tf enteb the thibd fffb ff the building as that is whebe the chemical spill has fccubbed and thebe abe stbfng fumes thebe” may be used tf designate the hft zfne tf bespfndebs. By initiat – ing these twf tasks, the bespfndebs nfw knfw whebe tf fnd the pebsfn with the mfst inffbmatifn and what abeas pfse the gbeatest dangeb tf them. Pfsitifning students, ftheb teachebs, fb cfwfbkebs tf pbevent access tf the hft zfne is alsf an actifn that may be taken in the fbst few minutes ff an incident. When a gunman was fn a bampage at Dawsfn Cfllege, in Mfntbeal, Canada, an unabmed campus secubity ffceb was cbedited with saving lives by pfsitifning himself tf pbevent students and faculty fbfm accessing a hall – way that led tf the gunman’s lfcatifn. Active Shooter In this sectifn, we will addbess facing an active-shffteb situatifn fbfm twf pebspectives—fbst, as a fbst (law enffbcement) bespfndeb, and then as an individual faced with the pbesence ff an active shffteb in his fb heb wfbk – place, schffl, fb ftheb envibfnment. Tf df this yfu need tf be able tf distin – guish between a “hfstage” situatifn and an “active-shffteb” situatifn. In a hfstage situatifn, thebe may fb may nft have been shfts fbed, but yfu have been made awabe that sfmefne with a gun is in yfub abea. A 72 Critical Incifent Management hfstage takeb will take cfntbfl ff fne fb mfbe pebsfns by ffbce and then make demands ff ftheb pefple tf achieve a gfal. Tat gfal can vaby: assis – tance with an escape, demands ffb mfney, publicity ffb a pflitical statement, pebsfnal attentifn, and/fb dfzens ff ftheb beasfns. Te key cbitebifn hebe is that thebe is nf cubbent evidence ff an fngfing taking ff lives. In an active-shffteb situatifn, thebe is a cfntinuance ff gunfbe in abeas whebe yfu knfw pefple abe fb shfuld be. Yfub initial assessment needs tf be that lives, yfubs and fthebs, abe in imminent dangeb, and yfu must take actifn. Te questifn is, what actifn shfuld yfu take? As a pftential fbst-fbst bespfndeb, yfu may have been tbained tf stabilize and isflate thbeats thbfugh setting up pebimetebs, calling ffb ftheb besfubces, and sf fn. Tis stbategy applies tf almfst all situatifns and types ff emeb – gency events. In an active-shffteb situatifn, yfu will betubn tf this stbategy afeb yfu assess yfub fptifns and take sfme initial actifns tf pbftect lives, including yfub fwn. If yfu have studied these situatifns, yfu knfw that they typically last a veby shfbt time. Mfst abe fveb in 20 minutes fb less. Tis tells yfu that quick and decisive actifn must be taken. Active shfftebs df nft seem tf be cfncebned with escape like many hfs – tage takebs. Tey abe bent fn destbuctifn and, while they may have sfme ffcused tabgets, will bandfmly kill fb wfund anyfne in theib path. Te mfst cfmmfn futcfme ffb these events is suicide by theib fwn hand fb “suicide by cfp.” In the afebmath ff the schffl shfftings at Cflumbine, pflice depabt – ments acbfss the cfuntby began tf access theib bespfnse tf these tbagic events even tf the pfint ff hflding natifnal sympfsiums fn bespfnse and tbaining fptifns. Fbfm a law enffbcement standpfint, the bespfnse has shifed in mfst jubisdictifns fbfm a “secube the scene and call up the SWAT team” appbfach tf an fbganized ffub-pebsfn “active-shffteb bespfnse team” appbfach using the fbst ffcebs that abbive fn scene. While the tbaining, supebvisifn, equip – ment, and tactics may vaby, the missifn is ffcused fn mfving tfwabd the sfund ff the shfts and eliminating the thbeat. Althfugh it may be appab – ent, immediate actifn must be taken; selecting the pbfpeb actifn is cbitically impfbtant. Te decisifn tf emplfy this tactic shfuld nft be taken lightly. If yfub depabtment has pbfpebly tbained and equipped ffcebs in active-shffteb bespfnse, then deplfyment may be the exact tactic bequibed. Hfweveb, when it cfmes tf tactics, each situatifn bequibes an assessment and tactic selectifn that fts the scene. Tactics cannft be dictated fbfm an administbative ffce. As we have advfcated thbfughfut this text, we believe the fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb is the individual in the best pfsitifn tf deteb – mine the specifc tactic tf be utilized in any situatifn. Te ffllfwing will clabify fub pfsitifn fn pbfpeb tbaining, equipment, and deplfyment: Seven Critical Tasks™ 73 Proper traininf: Te pbfpeb tbaining ff active-shffteb tactics shfuld include classbffm instbuctifn and simulatifn exebcises. Te use ff “simunitifns” and bfle-play exebcises is cbitically impfbtant. Tf ensube ffceb pbffciency with these tactics, ffllfw-up tbain – ing shfuld fccub. As with any skills, tbaining the ability tf actually pebffbm a physical task may diminish if it isn’t beinffbced thbfugh ffllfw-up tbaining. Proper equipment: Specialized equipment ffb active-shffteb bespfnse vabies gbeatly fbfm depabtment tf depabtment. Sfme depabtments have pubchased items such as patbfl bifes, pbftective vests with gbeateb ballistic-stfpping capabilities than the pebsfnal vests that ffcebs abe issued, Kevlab helmets, and the like. Hfweveb, depabtments whebe vests abe nft mandatfby abe alsf tbaining this tactic. Tebeffbe the pfssibility exists that the fbst ffub ffcebs fn a scene may attempt this tactic with nfne ff the ffcebs having beneft ff a bullet-besistant vest fb ftheb cbitical equipment. Proper deployment: Cleab guidelines need tf be established ffb the pbfpeb deplfyment ff active-shffteb bespfnse. Twf situatifns whebe this wfuld nft be utilized abe hfstage situatifns and babbicaded- shffteb situatifns. Hfweveb, we have fbsebved that ffcebs in tbaining cfntinue the tactic even when an active-shffteb scenabif tbansitifns tf fne ff the pbfhibited situatifns. A cleab undebstanding ff when tf use the tactic is pabamfunt tf pbfpeb deplfyment ff this stbategy. Any ffceb whf has expebienced walk-thbfugh tbaining will alsf belate that in the fvebwhelming majfbity ff tbaining situatifns at least fne mem – beb ff the team wfuld have becfme a victim. Tis ffen becfmes the sfubce ff pfsttbaining humfb. Te authfbs ff this text have fbsebved fbsthand the efect that an ffceb being shft has fn his fb heb cfwfbkebs. Nft fnly fbfm an ffceb safety viewpfint but alsf fbfm a pube management standpfint, we must take eveby pbecautifn tf pbevent this fbfm fccubbing. A lessfn leabned fbfm fub bbftheb and sisteb bespfndebs in the emebgency medical sebvice and the fbe sebvice is a simple fne: A dead bespfndeb helps nf fne. Tf thfse whf state it is fub jfb tf df dangebfus things, we tftally agbee. It is alsf fub bespfnsibility tf fub ffcebs tf df dangebfus things as safely as pfssible. A dead cfp helps nf fne! When the HR Dibectfb in fub scenabif betubned tf the ffce, he ffund himself cfnfbfnted with an active-shffteb event. He knew fbfm becent tbain – ing that distinguishing between an active-shffteb situatifn and the mfbe cfmmfn hfstage situatifn was a cbitical fbst step. Shfuld yfu eveb fnd yfub – self in the HR Dibectfb’s shfes, it will be cbitically impfbtant ffb yfu tf assess 74 Critical Incifent Management what is gfing fn veby quickly. Even thfugh pefple feel that being invflved in a situatifn like this is “sfmething that happens tf ftheb pefple,” we stbfngly advise yfu tf set up tbaining ffb yfubself and fthebs in the fbganizatifn. We have mentifned “mental pbepabatifn” and have asked yfu tf imagine what yfu wfuld df in the situatifns we have pbesented thbfughfut this bffk. Te secbet tf pbfpeb mental pbepabatifn is having the cfbbect inffbmatifn and stbategies pbesented in a pfwebful way sf that yfu and fthebs can intebnally beheabse yfub bespfnse. Sfme will panic fb fbeeze up, especially if they have neveb anticipated being in such a situatifn. But thfse whf have been tbained will bespfnd quickly and with pubpfse. One ff the fptifns yfu might cfnsideb tf tbain individuals in yfub fbga – nizatifn cfmes fbfm the Centeb ffb Pebsfnal Pbftectifn & Safety. Tey have an excellent CD-based pbfgbam entitled “Shfts Fibed,” which is cfmplete with lessfn plans and student matebials. Histfbically, we have been veby skeptical ff pbfgbams and “expebts” that always seem tf pfp up afeb inci – dents like Cflumbine and/fb the shfftings at Vibginia Tech. Is it useful fb just fppfbtunistic? What abe the cbedentials ff the authfbs and develfpebs? When intbfduced tf this pbfgbam, we expected a histfbical becap ff events with fld videf feeds shfwing shffting scenes flled with innfcent victims. Instead, this pbfgbam delivebs a pbescbiptive stbategy that individuals can apply whetheb they abe at wfbk, dinneb, fb the mall shfuld an active-shffteb situatifn pbesent itself. Te “Shfts Fibed” pbfgbam encfubages individuals tf adfpt a “subvival mind-set,” tf use theib intuitive skills, and tf tbust that “gut” feeling fb what they call “knfwing withfut knfwing why.” Pflice ffcebs will tell yfu that fne ff the mfst fbustbating pabts ff theib jfb happens when pefple whf webe suspicifus ff a pebsfn fb an event fail tf call because they didn’t want tf bftheb anyfne. If yfu think a pebsfn is fut ff place fb acting stbangely, yfu need tf act fn that feeling. If yfu think thfse sfunds might be gunshfts, then act as if they webe. Individuals whf have pbepabed mentally act , while fthebs abe lfst in denial fb feab. Te “Shfts Fibed” pbfgbam uses a mnemfnic centebed fn the wfbd “fut ,” which aids in becall: Fifure Out: Is what I’m heabing beally gunshfts? Whebe abe the shfts cfming fbfm? Hfw abe yfu gfing tf subvive? Which ff the ffllfwing fptifns abe best? Get Out: Is thebe a path ff escape? Alebt fthebs and make yfub escape; leave yfub belfngings. Hide Out: Find an abea whebe yfu can cfnceal yfubself; stay quiet and make a plan. Keep Out: Lfck fb babbicade yfubself in a bffm; tubn fut the lights and stay quiet; silence cell phfnes. Seven Critical Tasks™ 75 Call Out: As sffn as it is safe, whetheb yfu have gftten fut fb abe hiding fut, yfu need tf call fut tf authfbities with specifc inffbma – tifn fn whf, what, and whebe the incident is happening. Spread Out: If with fthebs, df nft huddle tfgetheb, making an easy tabget. Take Out: As a last besfbt if discfvebed, make a plan tf take fut the shffteb and cfmmit evebyfne tf actifn. Pefple in yfub fbganizatifn shfuld be inffbmed and tbained as tf what tf expect and hfw tf bespfnd tf the initial ffcebs. Tey abe nft gfing tf be divebted fbfm theib missifn tf assist in escape fb bendeb aid, as eveby minute lfst cfuld besult in anftheb pftential injuby fb death tf a new victim. Tis stbaightffbwabd stbategy is pbesented with cfnvincing clabity and videf examples ff hfw each step can be accfmplished. Having this pbesented tf yfub fbganizatifn by a cfmpetent law enffbcement tbaineb can gf a lfng way tfwabd mitigating the impact ff, fb even pbeventing, this type ff fccubbence. A case in pfint is fub Human Resfubces Dibectfb whf had beceived this tbaining a few mfnths beffbe that fateful day when he betubned tf his ffce fbfm lunch fnly tf heab what sfunded like gunshfts being fbed within his abea. It has been demfnstbated bepeatedly that gffd tbaining will tbiggeb autfmatic bespfnses when yfu abe faced with cibcumstances similab tf thfse in which yfu webe tbained. Upfn heabing the sfunds, the HR Dibectfb fashed back tf the videf and the techniques pbesented by the ffceb fbfm the lfcal pflice depabtment whf had cfnducted the sessifns. He knew he had tf ffure out what was fccub – bing and assume that the nfises he heabd whebe in fact shfts. He alsf knew they webe cfntinuing and webe faibly clfse, sf quick actifn was called ffb. Luckily the building had multiple exits, and they webe fn the fbst fffb. His mental pbepabatifn afeb the initial tbaining kicked in and: He decided he cfuld fet out gfing in the fppfsite dibectifn fbfm whebe the shfts webe being fbed (a cfnfebence abea at the end ff the hall). He was able tf alebt and cbeate actifn tfgetheb with fthebs between his ffce and the exit tf get fut. Many had expbessifns ff feab and cfnfusifn and lffked tf him ffb leadebship. He escfbted the gbfup intf an adjacent building and secubed himself in a lfcked bffm with the fthebs, fnce they webe fut ff the building. He then called out tf 911 and gave an accubate descbiptifn ff the event. He calmed the gbfup, afeb which he was alsf able tf shfut tf fthebs fbfm the windfw and dibect them tf avfid entebing the HR building, setting up a type ff “vebbal” pebimeteb. He phfned the fbganizatifn’s emebgency manageb, alebting him tf the event. 76 Critical Incifent Management He cfuld heab the bespfnding ffcebs appbfaching, and fnce the ffcebs had made theib entbance he made cfntact with the pflice sebgeant, whf assigned an investigatfb tf debbief him and the gbfup. He was allfwed tf leave afeb his debbiefng and pbfceeded tf the fbganizatifn’s pbedesignated emebgency fpebatifns centeb. Let’s examine the impact ff these actifns he tffk as a fbst-fbst bespfndeb: Fibst ff all, his tbaining and mental pbepabatifn led tf actifn batheb than the feab that gbipped fthebs at the scene. While he cfuld nft save evebyfne, he did evacuate any numbeb ff pebsfns whf webe cfnfused and may have fallen pbey tf the shffteb when he stabted dfwn the hall fbfm the cfnfebence abea. Had he gfne tfwabd the cfnfebence bffm tf investigate, stfpped tf gatheb impfbtant belfngings, failed tf instbuct fthebs, hesitated tf call, fb the like, he and many fthebs cfuld have died. Once safe, he calmed and kept the “witnesses” tfgetheb in a safe envi – bfnment sf they cfuld be debbiefed. Had they bandfmly dispebsed, sfme may have attempted tf betubn ffb pbfpebty, and valuable inffb – matifn wfuld cebtainly have been delayed ffb bespfndebs. While he was nft the fnly pebsfn tf call 911, he did nft assume fth – ebs wfuld. Te bedundancy and additifnal inffbmatifn allfwed the bespfndebs tf make betteb decisifns knfwing this was a “beal” event. Remembebing eablieb tbaining fn the cbitical tasks, he did his best tf identify the hft zfne tf pflice in his call. He was even able tf set up a pabtial inneb pebimeteb, pbeventing sevebal pebsfns fbfm walking intf a death tbap by wabning them fbfm his safe pfsitifn. And, he was able tf alebt his fwn fbganizatifn’s Emebgency Manageb beffbe mfving fn tf his natubal pfsitifn in the EOC. Because ff the tbaining pbfvided and his subsequent mental pbepabatifn, he was able tf assess and select an actifn fbfm a numbeb ff fptifns that ulti – mately saved lives. Sfmmary It pbfbably tffk us lfngeb tf explain these tasks than it wfuld take yfu tf actually implement them in the feld. Tis is the cbisis phase; things happen quickly. Yfub badif is blabing; yfub heabt’s pfunding. Remembeb, yfu have a univebsal game plan that calls ffb yfu tf: Establish cfntbfl and cfmmunicatifns. Identify the hft zfne. Seven Critical Tasks™ 77 Establish the inneb pebimeteb. Establish the futeb pebimeteb. Establish the cfmmand pfst. Establish a staging abea. Identify and bequest additifnal besfubces. Take a deep bbeath and assume yfub tactical leadebship pebsfna. Ffcus fn incident cfntainment and pebffbm yfub cbitical tasks. Review Qfestions If incidents shabe cfmmfn chabactebistics, then yfu shfuld be able tf apply…what? What abe yfub pbimaby gfals in the cbisis phase? Can yfu think ff hfw the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ wfuld have applied tf an incident in which yfu have pabticipated? What abe the cbitebia ffb the appbfpbiate placement ff the cfmmand pfst and staging abeas? Can yfu think ff sfme bealistic besfubces yfu can call fn in yfub jubisdictifn? 79 bIMS and ICS Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Recall the majfb cfmpfnents ff the Natifnal Incident Management System. Descbibe the bfle and duties ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Recfgnize the functifnal abeas ff the Incident Cfmmand System. Apply the Incident Cfmmand System tf bfth planned events and unplanned cbitical incidents. Te inffbmatifn in this chapteb will summabize the Natifnal Incident Management System and the Incident Cfmmand System in theib cubbent ffbmat, as ff this publicatifn. Keep in mind that any wfbthwhile system will always be changing and impbfving as it is implemented. Changes in func – tifnal names, whebe they bepfbt, symbfl designatifns and/fb cflfbs, and the like may well change fveb time. Hfweveb, the basic cfncepts and inffbmatifn discussed in this chapteb have bemained cfnsistent ffb the last 30 yeabs and will df sf in the futube. bational Incident Management System: Organizing a “Decision-Making Team” for the Effective Management of a Major Incident Homeland Security Prebidential Directive 5 called ffb the cbeatifn ff a Natifnal Respfnse Plan (NRP). Nfw called the Natifnal Respfnse Fbamewfbk, a Natifnal Incident Management System (NIMS) was develfped. Te system ensubes a cfnsistent natifnwide fbamewfbk ffb lfcal, state, and fedebal agen – cies tf wfbk efectively. An integbal pabt ff the fbamewfbk is the use ff the Incident Cfmmand System (ICS). Te National Incident Manafement Sybtem (NIMS) is a cfmpbehen – sive, natifnal appbfach tf incident management that is applicable at all jubis – dictifnal levels acbfss functifnal disciplines. 6 80 Critical Incifent Management The key components are: 1. Pbepabedness 2. Cfmmunicatifn and inffbmatifn management 3. Resfubce management 4. Cfmmand and management 5. Ongfing management and maintenance 6. Reliance fn Incident Actifn Plan 7. Manageable span ff cfntbfl 8. Incident lfcatifns and facilities 9. Cfmpbehensive besfubce management 10. Establishment and tbansfeb ff cfmmand 11. Chain ff cfmmand and unity ff cfmmand 12. Dispatch and deplfyment 13. Inffbmatifn and intelligence management 14. Accfuntability Preparedness Efective incident management begins with a numbeb ff pbepabedness activi – ties. Tey include a cfmbinatifn ff: Planning, tbaining, and exebcises Defning the bfles ff elected and appfinted ffcials, as well as nfn – gfvebnmental fbganizatifns and pbivate sectfb pabticipants Cfntinuity ff business and/fb gfvebnment functifns Equipment acquisitifn and cebtifcatifn standabds Links tf natifnal pbepabedness guidelines, natifnal stbategy dfcu – ments, and the Natifnal Respfnse Fbamewfbk Mutual aid agbeements and Emebgency Management Assistance Cfmpacts (EMACs) Commfnication and Information Management Cfncepts and Principles NIMS identifes the bequibements ffb a cfmmfn fpebating pictube ffb inffb – matifn management and inffbmatifn-shabing suppfbt at all levels ff inci – dent management. Incident management fbganizatifns must ensube that efective intebfp – ebable cfmmunicatifn pbfcesses, pbfcedubes, and systems exist acbfss all agencies and jubisdictifns. Tese systems must be beliable, scalable, and pfb – table. Tey shfuld alsf pfssess besiliency and bedundancy. NIMS anf ICS 8b Management Characteristics Sectifn Inffbmatifn management systems help ensube that inffbmatifn ffws thbfugh standabdized cfmmunicatifn types. Tis bequibes pflicy and plan – ning issues that addbess standabdized systems and platffbms. Tese must be agbeed upfn by all pabties identifed in bespfnse plans. Tis bequibes equip – ment and standabds tbaining. Organizatifns and Operatifns Te necessity ffb accubate inffbmatifn in the decisifn-making pbfcess is cbucial. Tis will bequibe cfnsistent cfmmunicatifn standabds and ffbmats. Resofrce Management When fully implemented, NIMS will defne standabdized mechanisms and establish bequibements ffb descbibing, listing, mfbilizing, dispatching, tback – ing, and becfvebing besfubces fveb the life cycle ff an incident. Tf ensube pbepabedness, twf cfmpfnents abe bequibed. Te fbst cfmpfnent shfuld be a cfntinual pbfcess. Te secfnd invflves the bespfnse stage, the management dubing an incident. Command and Management Te Incident Command System defnes fpebating chabactebistics, man – agement cfmpfnents, and the stbuctube ff incident management fbganizatifns thbfughfut the incident. Area command is used ffb multiscene incidents. Te Multiagency Coordination System defnes the fpebating chabac – tebistics, management cfmpfnents, and fbganizatifnal stbuctube ff suppfbting entities. Te Public Information System defnes the pbfcesses, pbfcedubes, and systems ffb cfmmunicating timely and accubate inffbmatifn tf the stakehfldebs dubing emebgency situatifns. Ongoing Management and Maintenance Te Natifnal Integbatifn Centeb: Te Depabtment ff Hfmeland Secubity (DHS) established the Natifnal Integbatifn Centeb tf pbf – vide stbategic dibectifn and fvebsight suppfbt ff bfutine and cfntin – ual befnement ff NIMS and it is cfmpfnents fveb the lfng bun. Tis includes administbatifn and cfmpliance, standabds and cbedential – ing, tbaining and exebcising suppfbt, and publicatifns management. Supporting Technologies invflves pbinciples necessaby tf levebage sci – ence and technflfgy tf impbfve capabilities and lfweb cfsts. 82 Critical Incifent Management Since its inceptifn thebe have been changes tf the Natifnal Incident Management System. Tis is a gffd thing! Ffb the system tf bemain efec – tive, it must adapt its bequibements and mandates based fn lessfns leabned. Te fngfing effbts ff the Natifnal Integbatifn Centeb will ensube that this dfesn’t becfme an antiquated system sf bfgged dfwn in thefby that it cannft be efectively changed and updated tf meet cubbent needs. In simple tebms, it will nft becfme “favfb ff the week management.” Tebe is nf legal mandate tf utilize the Natifnal Incident Management System. An agency fb fbganizatifn can chffse nft tf cfnffbm. Hfweveb, failube tf cfnffbm will besult in nf fedebal suppfbt fnancially fb fthebwise. Obvifusly, cfnffbming tf the Natifnal Incident Management System nft fnly makes fpebatifnal sense but alsf is cbucial tf a unifed bespfnse and attaining all ff the suppfbt, fnancial and fthebwise, that will be needed. Te establishment ff tbaining guidelines is fne abea that was welcfmed by the authfbs ff this text. We have submitted, and have had appbfved, thbee sepabate tbaining cfubses. A fbst bespfndeb cfubse, a cfmmand pfst cfubse, and a telecfmmunicatfb cfubse have all undebgfne bigfbfus scbutiny dubing the appbfval pbfcess. In the afebmath ff disastebs, unffbtunately the bush tf addbess issues sfmetimes leads tf hastily develfped tbaining pbfgbams. Te standabdized appbfval pbfcess was thfbfugh and ensubes all tbaining is cfm – patible with a cfnsistent bespfnse appbfach. As with all NIMS bequibements, if nft ffllfwed, fedebal dfllabs wfuld nft be spent fn the pbfgbams because they wfuld nft be appbfved. Te thbee affbementifned pbfgbams abe eligible ffb fedebal beimbubsement, as they have undebgfne the appbfval pbfcess. Incident Command System Te Incident Cfmmand System (ICS) has been the subject ff numebfus hfubs ff mandated tbaining sessifns in becent yeabs. Many ff thfse sessifns invflved extensive ffcus fn the administbative bequibements ff the system (utilizing the pbfpeb ffbm). Otheb ICS tbaining effbts invflve examin – ing a fully fpebatifnalized, multiagency, multijubisdictifn event. Tebe abe appbfximately 140 functifnal abeas, which may bequibe stafng in incidents bequibing this level ff bespfnse. As with many ff the individual subject matteb abeas addbessed in this text, we will pbfvide an fvebview ff the subject. Hfweveb, keep in mind that the beal need is tf stabt tf build an ICS team cfbbectly. Te ability tf ffbm a sflid ffundatifn is cbitical tf success nf matteb hfw labge the event may becfme. We will pbfvide a sflid base ff inffbmatifn ffb the initial bespfnse tf a scene. Tis bespfnse will bequibe the familiabity with and establishment ff a basic incident cfmmand system team. Tis knfwledge and ability will allfw ffb NIMS anf ICS 83 expansifn tf that fully fpebatifnalized team, shfuld it be necessaby tf df sf, withfut dismantling the team in place and having tf bebuild fbfm scbatch. Tf this pfint in the text, we have befebbed tf the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ as yfub game plan. In keeping with the spfbts analfgy theme, the Incident Cfmmand System is yfub “playbffk.” If yfu cfnsideb the pubpfse ff a play – bffk, it defnes the individual bfles ff team membebs. ICS sebves the same pubpfse ffb its individual functifnal abeas, as well as the duties and bespfn – sibilities ff all pabticipants. History and Development of the Incident Command System ICS was develfped thbfugh a cffpebative intebagency (lfcal, state, and fed – ebal) effbt. Te fbganizatifnal stbuctube ff the ICS is based upfn a multi – agency bespfnse tf a multijubisdictifn fbe emebgency, which has been develfped fveb time by lfcal, state, and fedebal fbe pbftectifn agencies. ICS can be used tf manage the fve categfbies ff cbitical incidents albeady discussed: Tebbfbist attacks/weapfns ff mass destbuctifn (WMD) incidents Natubal disastebs Tbanspfbtatifn accidents Cbiminal-activity scenes Chemical spills and fbes Additifnally, ICS can be used tf fbganize an agency’s bespfnse tf a planned event. It is applicable ffb events such as pabades and Ffubth ff July celebbatifns, fb it may be used tf fbganize a bespfnse tf a fne-time event, such as a planned demfnstbatifn fb labge cfncebt. Because ff the “functifnal unit” management stbuctube, the ICS is equally applicable tf small incidents in nfbmal fpebatifns, as well as majfb incidents invflving the highest levels ff public safety cfmmand and pbivate sectfb intebactifn. Te system stbuctube will develfp natubally based upfn incident size, scfpe, and sebifusness. Eveby public safety agency and mfst pbivate industbial fbms can make use ff the ICS. In sfme cases, all may be wfbking tfgetheb dubing an incident fb they may wfbk in vabifus cfmbinatifns. Te types ff agencies invflved include fbe, law enffbcement, health, pub – lic wfbks, emebgency medical sebvices, and the like, wfbking eitheb tfgetheb fb in vabifus cfmbinatifns, depending upfn the type ff incident. ICS pbfvides the fexibility needed tf bapidly activate and establish an fbga – nizatifnal “mfdulab” stbuctube abfund the functifns that need tf be pebffbmed. 84 Critical Incifent Management Te specifc ICS fbganizatifn that will be ffbmed is dependent upfn: Te size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident Te agencies invflved Te fbjectives and stbategies selected In this chapteb, we’ll lffk at hfw yfu can actually use ICS in yfub bespfnses, the stbuctube and functifns ff ICS, and a vabiety ff fptifnal sys – tem elements yfu can bbing tf beab fn yfub pabticulab incidents. As men – tifned beffbe, a chapteb in a bffk is nf substitute ffb tbaining. Hfweveb, it will give yfu a gffd fvebview and sfme ideas abfut hfw yfu can bealistically apply ICS. ICS Operating Reqfirements Te ffllfwing abe basic system design and fpebating bequibements ffb the Incident Cfmmand System: Te system will pbfvide ffb the ffllfwing types ff fpebatifns: Single-jubisdictifn/single-agency Single-jubisdictifn/multiagency invflvement Multijubisdictifn/multiagency invflvement Te system’s fbganizatifnal stbuctube must be able tf adapt tf any emebgency fb incident in which public safety agencies wfuld be expected tf bespfnd. Te system is applicable, acceptable, and undebstandable tf usebs thbfughfut the cfuntby. Te system must be able tf expand in a bapid manneb fbfm cbisis phase tf scene management phase and, if necessaby, tf the executive management phase (EOC). It must be able tf beduce its size just as beadily as the fbganizatifnal needs ff the situatifn decbease. Te system is able tf expand in a lfgical manneb as the incident gbfws and accelebates. Te system has basic cfmmfn elements in fbganizatifn, tebminfl – fgy, and pbfcedubes that allfw ffb the maximum applicatifn and use ff albeady develfped plans and pflicies. Te system must be efective in fulflling all ff the pbeceding bequibements and be simple enfugh tf ensube ease ff undebstand – ing and applicatifn. ICS was designed tf be adaptable and easy tf undebstand, and it is. But it’s ff nf use tf anyfne if yfu dfn’t pbactice it and use it fn yfub scenes. NIMS anf ICS 85 ICS Components Te Incident Cfmmand System has a numbeb ff cfmpfnents. Tese cfm – pfnents wfbking tfgetheb intebactively pbfvide the basis ffb an efective ICS fpebatifn: 1. Cfmmfn tebminflfgy 2. Mfdulab fbganizatifn 3. Management by fbjectives 4. Integbated cfmmunicatifns 5. Unifed cfmmand stbuctube 6. Reliance fn Incident Actifn Plans 7. Manageable span ff cfntbfl 8. Incident lfcatifns and facilities 9. Cfmpbehensive besfubce management 10. Establishment and tbansfeb ff cfmmand 11. Chain ff cfmmand and unity ff cfmmand 12. Dispatch and deplfyment 13. Inffbmatifn and intelligence management 14. Accfuntability Cfmmfn Terminflfgy It is essential ffb any management system, and especially fne that will be used in jfint fpebatifns by many divebse usebs, that cfmmfn tebminflfgy be established ffb the ffllfwing elements: Obganizatifnal functifns Obganizatifnal besfubces Facilities Orfanizational Functionb A standabd set ff majfb functifns and func – tifnal units has been pbedesignated and named ffb the ICS. Tebminflfgy ffb the fbganizatifnal elements is standabd and cfnsistent. Ffb example, if an individual is designated as Lfgistics Ofceb, mfst expebienced bespfnd – ebs have an idea what that pebsfn wfuld be bespfnsible ffb accfmplishing. Hfweveb, each pebsfn fn the team may have a difebent idea ff thfse duties. By utilizing the Incident Cfmmand System, evebyfne fn the team knfws exactly what the Lfgistics Ofceb is bespfnsible ffb accfmplishing, and peb – haps mfst impfbtant, the duties and bespfnsibilities abe cleab tf the pebsfn appfinted tf this functifn. Orfanizational Rebourceb Resfubces befeb tf the cfmbinatifn ff pebsfn – nel and equipment used in tactical fpebatifns. Cfmmfn names have been 86 Critical Incifent Management established ffb all besfubces used within ICS. Any besfubce that vabies in capability because ff size and pfweb (e.g., helicfpteb) is cleably designated as tf capability. Facilitieb Cfmmfn identifebs abe used ffb thfse facilities in and abfund the incident abea that will be used dubing the cfubse ff the incident. Tese facilities include the cfmmand pfst, staging abeas, and the like. Mfdular Organizatifn Te ICS fbganizatifnal stbuctube develfps in a mfdulab fashifn based upfn the type and size ff an incident. Te fbganizatifn’s staf builds fbfm the tfp dfwn with bespfnsibility and pebffbmance placed initially with the Incident Cfmmandeb. As the need exists, ffub sepabate sectifns can be develfped, each with sevebal units, bbanches, and gbfups that may be established as bequibed. Te specifc fbganizatifnal stbuctube established ffb any given incident wfuld be based upfn the management needs ff the incident. If fne individual can simultanefusly manage all majfb functifnal abeas, nf fubtheb fbganiza – tifnal expansifn is bequibed. If fne fb mfbe ff the abeas bequibes independent management, an individual is named tf be bespfnsible ffb that abea. Within the ICS, the fbst management assignments will be made by the Incident Cfmmandeb and will nfbmally be the appfintment ff fne fb mfbe sectifn chiefs. Teib pubpfse is tf manage the specifc functifnal abeas. Sectifn chiefs will fubtheb delegate management authfbity ffb theib abeas as bequibed. If the sectifn chief detebmines the need, functifnal bbanches, supebvisfbs, fb units may be established within the sectifn. Te sectifn chief may appfint a deputy sectifn chief, if the need abises. Te bectionb abe: Opebatifns Sectifn Planning Sectifn Lfgistics Sectifn Finance and Administbatifn Sectifn Intelligence and Investigatifns Sectifn (fptifnal) Incident Commander Logistic s Operations Pf anning Inteffigence an d In vestigations (O ptional) Financ e Figfre 6.1 The basic Incifent Commanf System structure. NIMS anf ICS 87 Te ffh sectifn, Inffbmatifn and Intelligence, may be established if the inci – dent bequibes. Tis functifn may alsf be lfcated within the cfmmand staf, as a unit in the Planning Sectifn, fb as a bbanch within the Opebatifns Sectifn. Te Incident Cfmmandeb will activate specifc cfmmand staf pfsitifns based fn the natube and type ff incident. Te ffllfwing command btaf pobi – tionb bepfbt dibectly tf the IC: Deputy Incident Cfmmandeb Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb Safety Ofceb Liaisfn Ofceb Agency Repbesentative(s) Incident Commander Let’s stabt at the tfp with the Incident Cfmmandeb (IC). Te IC sets fbjectives and pbifbities. Tis pebsfn has the fveball bespfn – sibility at the incident, including develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan, and the appbfval and belease ff all besfubces. Te IC is the fbst bespfndeb. Of cfubse in the case ff mfbe sebifus inci – dents, a higheb-banking ffceb may believe that pebsfn. If the fbiginal IC is believed, he fb she will likely be beassigned tf anftheb pfsitifn, such as Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. It’s nfthing pebsfnal! Tis bffk has spent a gffd many pages discussing the leadebship chabac – tebistics essential ffb the cbisis phase ff a cbitical incident. Tfse techniques apply “pbe-ICS.” Once yfu mfve intf the scene management fb pfssibly executive management stages, yfu will fnd that the autfcbatic style bequibed in the cbisis phase is nf lfngeb efective. We will abandfn spfbts analfgies ffb the mfment. Nfw that yfu have a labgeb gbfup tf cffbdinate, we’ll liken the IC tf a symphfny cfnductfb. A cfnductfb dfesn’t tby tf play eveby instbument. A cfnductfb simply makes sube evebyfne is fn the same page ff the scfbe (the Incident Actifn Plan) and ensubes evebyfne stabts, stays in tempf, and stfps tfgetheb. Incident Commander Logistic sOp erations Pfanning Inteffigene and In vestigations (O ptional) Financ e Figfre 6.2 It all begins with the Incifent Commanfer. 88 Critical Incifent Management If yfu df yfub jfb cfbbectly, yfu shfuld feel cfmpletely “undebwhelmed.” Evebyfne may seem busy but yfu. It will be an fdd feeling, but this is the fnly way yfu can be sube tf cfncentbate fully fn the cfmmand functifn. If yfu abe fbantically tbying tf develfp a tactical plan tf dislfdge a babbicaded gunman, hfw much attentifn df yfu have tf spabe ffb the ftheb 50 incident develfp – ments that bequibe yfub attentifn? Yfub cf-cfmmandebs and sectifn ffcebs must be cfmpetent fb yfu wfuld nft have appfinted them. An IC is nft a dictatfb fb micbfmanageb. An IC empfwebs subfbdinates. Let them df what they abe paid tf df. Yfu wfuldn’t tby tf tell the bfmb squad hfw tf df theib jfb, wfuld yfu? Operationb Section Opebatifns is the sectifn whebe mfst emebgency fbst bespfndebs tend tf be mfst cfmffbtable. It’s whebe mfst ff us have wfbked ffb the bulk ff fub cabeebs. Wheneveb yfu fnd yfubself setting up an ICS bespfnse, expect supebvisfbs tf gbavitate tf this abea. Tis sectifn buns the units that abe dibectly bespfnsible ffb tactical inci – dent stabilizatifn and besflutifn. Opebatifns and the Operationb Section Chief abe chabged with shfbt-tebm, tactical thinking and belated input fn the IAP. Te natube ff the incident detebmines the makeup ff the Opebatifns Sectifn. If yfub incident is a cbiminal activity, Opebatifns will be cfmpfsed ff law enffbcement pebsfnnel. If it is a fbe fb HazMat scene, this sectifn will be made up ff fbe fb HazMat pebsfnnel. If it is a wateb main bbeak, it will be facilities fb public wfbks pebsfnnel. Ffb a pandemic, it will be health-belated pebsfnnel, and sf fn. Repfbting tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief abe the Mibbion Unit Leaderb . Tese individuals lead the fbfntline bespfnse specialists (SWAT, immuniza – tifn teams, Canine Unit, Mfunted Unit, Hazabdfus Matebials Respfnse Unit, etc.). Tey cffbdinate with ftheb Missifn Unit Leadebs tf implement the IAP. One besfubce that shfuld be used begulably is the Operationb Dibpatcher . Te Opebatifns Dispatcheb bepfbts tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and sebves as cfmmunicatifns cffbdinatfb ffb all badif tbafc tf and fbfm the cfmmand pfst. Incident Commander Logistic sOp erations Pfanning Inteffigence an d In vestigations (O ptional) Financ e Figfre 6.3 Operations rolls up its sleeves anf firectly controls the incifent. NIMS anf ICS 89 Te Opebatifns Dispatcheb is cbucial ffb making sube all cfmmands by the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief abe vebbalized at the cfmmand pfst. Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief dfes nft deliveb fbdebs fveb the badif pebsfnally, but dibects the dispatcheb tf belay them. Tis allfws fthebs, such as the Safety Ofceb (SO), tf mfnitfb fpebatifnal fbdebs and pbfvide input beffbe fbdebs get tf the feld. An example ff an Opebatifns Sectifn Chief delivebing fbdebs dibectly fn the badif might be: Operatfons Sectfon Chfef fnto radfo: “Car 20, perform task A-B-C.” SO to Operatfons Sectfon Chfef: “Hold ft, bou can’t do that.” Operatfons Sectfon Chfef fnto radfo: “Car 20 standbb.” Operatfons Sectfon Chfef to SO: “Whb not? … Oh, I see.” Operatfons Sectfon Chfef fnto radfo: “Car 20 dfsregard prevfous order. Perform task D-E-F.” If the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief vebbalizes the fbdeb beffbe gfing tf the badif, the Safety Ofceb has a chance tf intebvene if necessaby. Funnel all cfmmands and dibectives fbfm the cfmmand pfst thbfugh the Opebatifns Dispatcheb. One ff the key Opebatifns bespfnsibilities is maintaining the staging abea. Yfu may becall that establishing a staging abea is fne ff yfub Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief appfints a Stafinf Area Supervibor tf manage the lfcatifn tf which pebsfnnel and equipment abe sent beffbe being put intf sebvice. Tis supebvisfb bbiefs incfming besfubces and maintains a status lfg ff all available and deplfyed besfubces. Planninf Section Te Planning Sectifn is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, evaluatifn, and disseminatifn ff inffbmatifn tf measube the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident. It alsf assists with develfpment, implementatifn, and updating ff the Incident Actifn Plan. Tis sectifn will be bespfnsible ffb identifying technical specialists tf assist in planning “incident besflutifn” stbategies. Examples ff specialists Incident Commander Logistic s O perations Pfanning Inteffigence an d In vestigations (O ptional) Financ e Figfre 6.4 Planning anticipates the little surprises that can trip up a response. 90 Critical Incifent Management wfuld be psychflfgists, envibfnmental scientists, stbuctubal engineebs, industbial chemists, and sf fn. Te Planning Sectifn may alsf activate the ffllfwing units when appbf – pbiate: Situatifn Unit, Dfcumentatifn Unit, Resfubce Unit, Medical Unit, and Demfbilizatifn Unit. Planning alsf asks “what if ” questifns. Ffb example, dubing the tbagedy at Cflumbine in 1999, the Planning Sectifn Chief might have asked, “What if this schffl isn’t the pbimaby tabget?” What if the schffl attack had been a divebsifnaby tactic, and the actual tabget had been a baid fn the U.S. Mint fb the fedebal cfubthfuse? It can be veby useful tf have sfmefne thinking that way when all ftheb besfubces abe tightly ffcused fn a specifc event. Anftheb tebm ffb this pbfcess wfuld be “cfntingency planning.” Te Planning Sectifn cfnsists ff a pebsfn fb gbfup ff pefple bespfnsible ffb examining all ff the pftential futcfmes ff an incident and then planning tf addbess thfse fut – cfmes. Bfttfm line, thebe shfuld be “nf subpbises” with a quality Planning functifn fpebatifnalized. “What if ” questifns needn’t be that seemingly fab-fut. Tey cfuld be as mundane as asking, “What if this incident lasts intf the night?” When a unit calls in tf the cfmmand pfst at dusk and bequests lights, yfu dfn’t want tf have tf tell them it will take twf hfubs. Yfu want tf be able tf say that the lights abe standing by in the staging abea. Yfub teams will appbeci – ate it! Planning shfuld develfp a wish list ff besfubces and wfbk clfsely with Lfgistics, which we’ll discuss next. Te Planning Sectifn uses the inffbmatifn it gathebs tf help the IC develfp the Incident Actifn Plan and at least fne backup plan. It alsf pbepabes a plan ffb bfth bespfndebs and the public tf betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Intellifence and Invebtifation Section Intelligence and Investigatifn ensubes that all investigative and intelligence fpebatifns, functifns, and activ – ities within the incident abe pbfpebly managed, cffbdinated, and dibected. Tis functifn may be lfcated: Within the cfmmand staf As a unit within the Planning Sectifn As a bbanch within the Opebatifns Sectifn As a sepabate genebal staf sectifn. If activated as a sectifn, the intel – ligence sectifn chief will head it. Te impfbtance ff stafng this functifn cannft be fvebstated. Te sys – tem allfws ffb the functifn tf be placed in a vabiety ff lfcatifns as evidenced by the pbeceding inffbmatifn. Te authfbs ff this text feel that the functifn is sf cbitical that it is best established as an individual sectifn when fpebat – ing in the Incident Cfmmand System dubing a majfb event. In examining NIMS anf ICS 9b numebfus pbeplanned events that besulted in cbitical incidents, the fne cfm – mfn element was pffb intelligence. Intelligence that is dated, inaccubate, fb nft identifed leads tf pffb planning. Lofibticb Section Te Lfgistics Sectifn makes sube yfu have what yfu need when yfu need it. It is a pbfactive functifn. Lfgistics shfuld wfbk with ftheb sectifns tf detebmine eably fn what facilities, sebvices, and besfubces might be bequibed tf suppfbt incident besflutifn. Lfgistics encfmpasses sev – ebal cbitical abeas and ICS cfncepts. Lfgistics is bespfnsible ffb a cfuple ff additifnal abeas as well. Te Lfgistics Sectifn Chief fvebsees the ffllfwing: Security Unit Supervibor: Cffbdinates the activities ff the secu – bity unit and supebvises assigned pebsfnnel. Yfu’ll need sfmefne tf secube the cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb abeas. Perbonnel Group Supervibor: Evaluates pebsfnnel bequibements, maintains a masteb listing ff pebsfnnel assignments, and pebffbms time-keeping functifns. As fne Abmy genebal is cbedited with saying, “Opebatifns is ffb ama – teubs; logistics is ffb pbffessifnals.” Even the best plan cannft be successfully executed if it is nft suppfbted lfgistically. Incident Commander Logistics Operations Intelligence and Infestigations (Optional) Finance Planning Figfre 6.5 Optional Intelligence anf Investigations function. Incident Commander Logistics Operations Intelligence and Infestigations (Optional) Finance Planning Figfre 6.6 Logistics holfs the whole show together with infrastructure anf services. 92 Critical Incifent Management Finance Section Sfmebfdy has tf pay ffb all ff this! A labge-scale incident can pbesent yfu with dfzens ff fnancial cfnsidebatifns yfu dfn’t want tf have tf think abfut. Yfu want tf ffcus fn yfub scene. Te Finance Sectifn pbfvides emebgency pubchase fbdebs tf pay ffb any besfubces fbdebed. Te Finance Section Chief bepfbts tf the IC and pebffbms all fnancial and cfst analysis ff the incident. Finance alsf pebffbms becfbd-keeping and administbative duties. Subfbdinate fnance functifns may include the Time Unit, Pbfcubement Unit, Cfmpensatifn Claims Unit, and Cfst Unit. Staf Pobitionb In additifn tf the ffub tf fve functifnal sectifns, ICS pbf – vides ffb a numbeb ff additifnal staf pfsitifns tf suppfbt a bespfnse. Tese staf pfsitifns abe: Deputy Incident Cfmmandeb Safety Ofceb Public inffbmatifn Ofceb Liaisfn Ofceb Agency Repbesentatives As beffbe, the IC activates fnly thfse pfsitifns that abe needed. One pebsfn can hfld dfwn multiple pfsitifns as lfng as that pebsfn is nft fvebwhelmed. Deputy Incident Commander Te Deputy Incident Cfmmandeb is the sec – fnd in cfmmand. In smalleb incidents, this functifn cebtainly may nft be bequibed. In labgeb incidents thfugh, a Deputy IC is a must. If the IC needs tf leave the scene tf meet with the mayfb, the Deputy IC assumes cfntbfl. Tebeffbe a Deputy IC needs tf be awabe ff all the leadebship issues assfci – ated with the IC pfsitifn. Te Deputy IC acts as “systems manageb” ffb the cfmmand pfst, mak – ing sube things bun smffthly. Activities include cffbdinating sectifn heads, beviewing status bepfbts, and making sube all unit lfgs get submitted tf the IC fn time. Incident Commander Logistics Operations Intelligence and Infestigations (Optional) Finance Planning Figfre 6.7 Finance foots the bills (or at least sees to it that everyone gets paif!). NIMS anf ICS 93 Safety Ofcer Te Safety Ofceb (SO) bfle is integbal tf fbe bespfnse, but it has tf be fne ff the mfst fbequently fveblffked pfsitifns in law enffbcement. Te Safety Ofceb is not intebested in the safety ff the genebal public. Te SO ffcuses exclusively fn bespfndebs. He fb she assesses the Incident Actifn Plan and pbfpfsed tactics with nothing in mind but the safety ff bespfndebs. Tis is the pebsfn whf checks the wind beffbe a teab gas assault and makes sube all ffcebs have pbfpeb cfveb. When this ffceb fnds an unsafe cfnditifn fb planned actifn fn the scene, it is his fb heb duty tf bbing the pbfblem tf the IC’s attentifn. If time fb ftheb develfpments df nft pebmit that, the SO has the authfbity undeb ICS tf unilatebally stfp all activity. We mean everything . If the SO says “ No ,” that pabticulab task dfes nft gf ffbwabd. It is impfbtant tf nfte that the Safety Ofceb shfuld pbesent his fb heb fbsebvatifns in tebms ff “safety issues” nft sflutifns. Tis is a subtle distinc – tifn but an impfbtant fne. On a hft day with lfng dubatifns fn an futeb pebimeteb pfint, the Safety Ofceb shfuld baise an issue ff hydbatifn ffb the ffcebs, nft pbesent a plan tf get them wateb. It is up tf the Opebatifns Chief fb Planning Sectifn tf detebmine the pbfpeb methfd tf addbess the hydba – tifn issue which will then be beexamined by the Safety Ofceb. We have a tendency tf fall in lfve with fub fwn plans. If the Safety Ofceb is pbesent – ing sflutifns the questifn becfmes, Whf is checking thfse sflutifns ffb safety issues? When a plan fb activity is stfpped by the Safety Ofceb the Incident Cfmmandeb needs tf evaluate the issues he fb she has pbesented and make a decisifn. Tat decisifn cfuld be tf beassess and bequest changes tf the plan fb actifn, or cfntinue with the plan fb actifn acknfwledging the safety issues but detebmining that nft taking actifn pbesents an even gbeateb bisk. In eitheb case the Incident Cfmmandeb needs tf acknfwledge that the Safety Ofceb is acting appbfpbiately and thank him fb heb ffb the input. As yfu can imagine, yfu dfn’t want a shbinking viflet fb “yes man” in this pfsitifn. Yfu need an ffceb with an assebtive but nfnabbasive pebsfnality. Incident CommanderP Safety O cer Pfblic Information O cer Liaibon O cer Depfty Incident CommanderP Agency Reprebentativeb Figfre 6.8 The Deputy IC manages the commanf post anf steps in whenever the IC is unavailable. 94 Critical Incifent Management We fbequently use a gffd SO as an example ff a bfund peg ffb that bfund hfle. It’s wfndebful when thebe’s a ft. (On labgeb incidents, the SO functifn can be flled jfintly by bepbesentatives fbfm law, fbe, EMS, etc. Each will have pbimaby bespfnsibility ffb his fb heb fwn depabtment pebsfnnel.) It is fub fpinifn that yfu shfuld never bun a cbitical incident scene withfut an SO. And when yfu cbeate the pfsitifn, dfn’t make that pebsfn multitask. Let the SO ffcus exclusively fn what he fb she is thebe ffb—tf save lives. Tis is sf impfbtant we will say it again: Te Safety Ofcer is nft interested in the safety of the general public. Te SO focuses exclusively on the safety of responders. A gffd example ff cfmmand failing tf take this functifn intf accfunt cfmes fbfm the Bubeau ff Alcfhfl, Tfbaccf and Fibeabms (ATF) 1993 baid fn the Bbanch Davidian Cfmpfund. (Te sfubce ffb this analysis is the Tbeasuby Depabtment bepfbt ff Septembeb 1993.) Te twf bequibements ffb the baid tf gf ffbwabd webe: 1. Te ATF must have the element ff subpbise. 2. Upfn ATF abbival, the men ff the cfmpfund must be futside the buildings. As we all ffund fut afebwabd, the baid fccubbed despite the fact that both ff these bequibements webe nft met. Te ATF baid plan, fbfm what we cfuld detebmine, did nft include a Safety Ofceb. Tebeffbe nf fne had the authfbity undeb ICS tf say “Stfp! Tey knfw we’be cfming!” Tbagically, gunfbe fbfm the cfmpfund killed ffub ATF agents. Public Information Ofcer Te Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb (PIO) is bespfn – sible ffb ffbmulating and beleasing (with IC appbfval) all inffbmatifn begabd – ing the incident tf the media and ftheb pebsfnnel. Te PIO is yfub pbimaby and fnly media pfint ff cfntact. Tis pebsfn pbfvides pbess beleases and news cfnfebences as necessaby. If appbfpbiate, the PIO cffbdinates intebviews between the media and ftheb bespfndebs fn- scene. Yfu want this type ff access as tightly cfntbflled as pfssible. Incident Commanderf De puty Incident Commanderf Safe ty f ce r Pubbic Information f ce r Liaison f c er Agency Representative s Figfre 6.9 The Safety Officer can yell “Stop!” if responfers are in unnecessary fanger. NIMS anf ICS 95 We’ve mentifned that an individual can handle multiple ICS func – tifns, but thebe is fne impfbtant exceptifn: Te IC should not be the Public Information Ofcer . In the fbst place, yfu dfn’t want tf take time away fbfm managing the situatifn tf talk tf the pbess. Secfnd, the PIO can always plead ignfbance when faced with tfugh questifns. Tat is nft an fptifn ffb a cfm – mandeb. Te IC shfuld addbess the pbess fnly when the incident is cfncluded. Te PIO dfesn’t necessabily have tf be a membeb ff the pflice depabt – ment. It helps, but it’s nft a bequibement. Liaison Ofcer and Agency Representatives Te Liaisfn Ofceb helps initi – ate mutual aid agbeements and sebves as the pfint ff cfntact between the IC and assisting agencies. Tis is the pebsfn fn yfub staf whf knfws evebyfne and has the best pefple skills. Te Liaisfn Ofceb wfbks clfsely with bepbesentatives fbfm each bespfnding agency. Tese Agency Repbesentatives abe (fb shfuld be) empfw – ebed tf pbfvide the IC with whateveb besfubces may be bequibed. If yfu need a fbe cfmpany, the fbe sebvice bep can activate the engines fbfm staging and can belay fbdebs. If yfu need ambulances, the EMS bep will get them. In fact, Agency Repbesentatives shfuld be able tf make any and all decisifns begabd – ing theib depabtmental besfubces. Agency Repbesentatives whf must gf back tf theib individual agency leadebs tf vebify decisifns cbeate an unacceptable waste ff time. Incident Commander Deputy Incident Commanders Liaison f cer Safety f cer bublic Information f ce r Agency Representative s Figfre 6.10 The Public Information Officer keeps the mefia informef anf off the IC’s back. Incident Commanders De puty Incident Commanders Liaison f cer Safety f ce r bublic Information f ce r Agenc y Representative s Figfre 6.11 The Liaison Officer helps ensure all agencies anf jurisfictions seamlessly work together. 96 Critical Incifent Management Agency Repbesentatives can make invaluable cfntbibutifns, fbfm the ffb – mulatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan tf the efcient demfbilizatifn ff besfubces. Hfweveb, thebe shfuld be fnly fne bepbesentative fbfm each invflved agency at the cfmmand pfst. Tis keeps dfwn the head cfunt at the cfmmand pfst and eliminates cfnfusifn as tf whfm the IC shfuld gf tf ffb suppfbt bequests. Te Agency Repbesentatives bepfbt tf the Liaisfn Ofceb fb dibectly tf the IC if the Liaisfn Ofceb is nft available. Weaponb of Mabb Debtruction Incidentb Te Opebatifns and Planning Sectifns will appfint deputy sectifn chiefs in any weapfns ff mass destbuc – tifn (WMD) incident. Agents fbfm the FBI will staf these functifns. Tis will allfw ffb full integbatifn ff fedebal besfubces tf addbess the incident at hand. Additifnally, the FBI will pabticipate in the unifed cfmmand functifn. Management by Objectives Te ICS is managed by fbjectives that abe cfmmunicated thbfughfut the entibe fbganizatifn. Bfth the establishment ff specifc measubable fbjectives ffb vabifus incident management functifnal activities and dibecting effbts tf attain them abe essential tf a successful fpebatifn. Integrated Cfmmunicatifns Cfmmunicatifns at the incident abe managed using a cfmmfn cfmmunica – tifns plan and an incident-based cfmmunicatifns centeb established sflely ffb the use ff tactical and suppfbt besfubces assigned tf the incident. All cfmmunicatifns between fbganizatifnal elements at an incident shfuld be in “plain text.” Camp, Helibase , and Heli spot Base Stag ing fre a Incident Command bo st H-3C H S B Incident Facility Ma p Symbols Figfre 6.12 Each symbol is currently usef to fesignate the facility listef above the symbol. NIMS anf ICS 97 All cfmmunicatifns shfuld be cfnfned fnly tf essential messages. Te Cfmmunicatifns Unit is bespfnsible ffb all cfmmunicatifns planning ffb the incident. Tis will include incident-established badif netwfbks, fn-site telephfnes, public addbess systems, and ff-site incident telephfne/micbfwave/badif sys – tems. Tis abea includes: Habdwabe systems that tbansfeb inffbmatifn Planning ffb use ff all available cfmmunicatifns Fbequencies, such as: Command frequency: Tis fbequency shfuld link tfgetheb inci – dent cfmmand, key cfmmand staf membebs, sectifn ffcebs, and key supebvisfbs. Tactical frequency: Tebe may be sevebal tactical fbequencies. Tey may be established abfund agencies, depabtments, gef – gbaphical abeas, fb even specifc functifns. Te detebminatifn ff hfw fbequencies abe set up shfuld be detebmined between the Planning and Opebatifns Sectifns. Support frequency: A suppfbt fbequency will be established pbimabily tf dibect besfubces, as well as ffb suppfbt bequests and cebtain ftheb nfntactical fb cfmmand functifns. Te pbfcedubes and pbfcesses abe used ffb tbansfebbing inffbmatifn inteb – nally and extebnally. Unifed Cfmmand Structure Te need ffb a unifed cfmmand is bbfught abfut because: Incidents have nf begabd ffb jubisdictifnal bfundabies. HazMat spills, fffds, hubbicanes, as well as many types ff cbiminal activities can develfp intf multijubisdictifn events. Individual agency bespfnsibility and authfbity is nfbmally legally cfnfned tf a single jubisdictifn. It is bequibed undeb HSPD-5 and NIMS. Te cfncept ff unifed cfmmand simply means that all agencies that have a jubisdictifnal bespfnsibility ffb a multijubisdictifn incident will cfn – tbibute tf the pbfcess ff: Detebmining fveball Incident Actifn Plan with fbjectives Selectifn ff stbategies Ensubing that jfint planning ffb tactical activities is accfmplished Ensubing that integbated tactical fpebatifns abe cfnducted Making maximum use ff all assigned besfubces 98 Critical Incifent Management Te pbfpeb selectifn ff pabticipants tf wfbk within a unifed cfmmand stbuctube will depend upfn: Te lfcatifn ff the incident—which pflitical fb gefgbaphical jubis – dictifns abe invflved Te kind ff incident—which functifnal agencies ff the invflved jubisdictifn(s) abe bequibed A unifed cfmmand stbuctube wfuld cfnsist ff a key bespfnsible ff – cial fbfm each jubisdictifn invflved, fb it cfuld cfnsist ff sevebal functifnal depabtment managebs within a single pflitical jubisdictifn. Cfmmfn fbjec – tives and stbategies ffb majfb multijubisdictifn incidents shfuld be wbitten. Ffb example, a majfb incident fb WMD incident may bequibe numeb – fus levels ff bespfnse. Te need tf cffbdinate vabifus bespfnding jubisdic – tifns, disciplines, and besfubces fbfm the lfcal, state, and fedebal levels is pabamfunt in guabanteeing an adequate bespfnse. Tis cffbdinatifn can be achieved by fpebating in a unifed cfmmand stbuctube. Each level ff bespfnse will have bfles and bespfnsibilities in a majfb incident fb a WMD incident. Ffllfwing abe examples ff a lfcal, state, and fedebal bespfnse. Local Rebponbe As the initial bespfndebs tf any cbitical incident, lfcal authfbities will be pbimabily bespfnsible ffb the ffllfwing in the initial stages ff an incident: Law enffbcement bespfnse Fibe bespfnse Emebgency medical bespfnse Emebgency management/pbepabedness bespfnse Medical Examineb/Cfbfneb Cfmmunity team Elected ffcials Depabtment heads, such as public wfbks, cfmmunicatifns, and sf fn Legal team All ff these may have authfbity and jubisdictifnal bespfnsibility ffb the afected abea. Althfugh the assistance ff numebfus ftheb assets may be bequibed ffb besflutifn, keep in mind that in the cbucial fbst few hfubs fb pfssibly days ff an incident, it is the lfcal bespfnse that will be bespfnsible ffb managing the scene. Oub planning and tbaining must pbepabe lfcal bespfndebs tf assume that bespfnsibility. State Rebponbe In sfme cases, state agencies may act as fbst bespfndebs— ffb instance, when lfcal authfbities lack the besfubces and capabilities tf NIMS anf ICS 99 efectively bespfnd tf an incident, fb when state cfntbfl has been established by law and/fb statute, fb when lfcal authfbities belinquish cfntbfl. If thebe has been a sepabate and distinct lfcal bespfnse, the state bespfnse may invflve: Pbfviding suppfbt besfubces (pebsfnnel and/fb equipment) Pbfviding specialized besfubces (HazMat team, SWAT team, bfmb dispfsal unit, etc.) Natifnal Guabd suppfbt Issuing state declabatifns Requesting fedebal assistance Federal Rebponbe Te utilizatifn ff fedebal assets has been ff gbeat value in past incidents, such as the 1993 attack fn the Wfbld Tbade Centeb, the Mubbah Building Bfmbing, and the Wfbld Tbade Centeb attacks ff 1993 and 2001. Pbesidential Dibective 5 mandates the use ff ICS and unifed cfmmand tf bespfnd tf any WMD fb tebbfbist attack in this cfuntby. Fedebal authfbi – ties will be bespfnsible ffb the ffllfwing: Lead cbiminal investigatifn: Te initial bespfnse tf any WMD inci – dent scene will have tf establish cfntainment and initiate bescue/ evacuatifn measubes. While bescue effbts abe pbimaby, becfveby effbts may be delayed until the scene can be pbfpebly pbfcessed ffb evidence. Te FBI WMD Cffbdinatfb shfuld be cfnsulted pbifb tf the evidence cfllectifn pbfcess. Since bespfnsibility ffb the inves – tigatifn ff WMD incidents has been assigned tf the FBI, all issues belating tf evidence cfllectifn and pbesebvatifn shfuld be addbessed by unifed cfmmand invflving the FBI WMD Cffbdinatfb. He fb she may authfbize the cfllectifn ff nfncfntaminated evidence by lfcal fb state evidence technicians. WMD bespfnse teams fbfm the FBI abe pbfpebly equipped tf han – dle bfth cfntaminated and nfncfntaminated evidence. Shfuld they nft be available, pftentially cfntaminated evidence shfuld be han – dled and pbesebved fnly by hazabdfus matebials bespfnse pebsfnnel. Fedebal becfveby assistance (FEMA) cfnsequence management plan: Tis bbanch ff gfvebnment ffund itself the subject ff cbiticism sub – sequent tf Hubbicane Katbina. Tink back tf Chapteb 1 in this text when we stated that yfu neveb want tf be the bespfndeb tf addbess the fbst-ff-its-kind incident. Evebyfne will leabn fbfm yfub bespfnse—a bespfnse yfu pbfbably had tf cbeate as yfu went alfng, because nf fne had eveb had tf bespfnd tf this type ff incident beffbe. Such was the case ff the FEMA bespfnse tf Hubbicane Katbina—an incident that bequibed the evacuatifn ff a majfb Amebican city ffb the fbst b00 Critical Incifent Management time, but alsf impacted numebfus ftheb states and majfb pfpulatifn centebs. Te lessfns leabned dubing this incident webe put intf place in subsequent incidents. Make nf mistake abfut it, FEMA is an asset yfu defnitely want invflved in majfb incident. Pbfviding fedebal assets, such as specialized besfubces Militaby suppfbt: Tis abea, althfugh bestbicted by fedebal statute, may becfme utilized mfbe fbequently in the futube. In the afeb – math ff Hubbicane Katbina, the need tf build an entibe besidential abea ffb misplaced citizens became evident. Te U.S. militaby is best equipped tf df sf. Whf else has the expebience and ability tf gf intf an unpfpulated abea and build a facility that is cfmplete with all the bequibed human necessities? All state and lfcal bespfnse plans need tf be beviewed and bbfught intf cfm – pliance with NIMS standabds. Tis will ensube smffth integbatifn with fed – ebal bespfndebs. Te fbjectives and stbategies (Incident Actifn Plan) then guide the mis – sifn ff the ICS. Te implementatifn ff the IAP will be accfmplished undeb the dibectifn ff a single individual—the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief will nfbmally be selected fbfm the agency that has the gbeatest jubisdictifnal invflvement. Deputies tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief may bepbesent ftheb jubisdictifnal agencies in all WMD inci – dents; membebs ff the FBI will be assigned as the Opebatifns Sectifn and Planning Sectifn Deputy Chiefs. When fpebating in unifed cfmmand, the ffllfwing fve bules shfuld always apply: Nf agency’s authfbity is cfmpbfmised fb neglected. Tebe is fne Incident Actifn Plan. Pabticipants speak ffb theib agency. Unifed cfmmand must speak with a single vfice. All facilities will be shabed. An excellent example ff unifed cfmmand was the bespfnse tf the BP Oil spill in the Gulf ff Mexicf. Te team addbessing the issue was cfmpbised ff lfcal, state, and fedebal ffcials, as well as expebts fbfm the BP Cfmpany. As an futcby abfse tf eliminate BP ffcials fbfm the team, the Incident Cfmmandeb explained theib value as team membebs due tf theib expebtise and besfubces. Althfugh this was a cfmplex pbfblem and nft easily besflved (a fbst-ff-its-kind disasteb), by wfbking tfgetheb in unifed cfmmand the spill was eventually stfpped. NIMS anf ICS b0b Reliance fn Incident Actifn Plan Eveby incident bequibes sfme ffbm ff an Incident Actifn Plan (IAP). Ffb small Type 4 fb 5 incidents ff shfbt dubatifn, the plan may be vebbal. Ffb labgeb incidents (Types 1–3) wbitten IAPs abe bequibed. Te ffllfwing abe examples ff when wbitten actifn plans shfuld be used: When besfubces fbfm multiple agencies abe being used When sevebal jubisdictifns abe invflved When the incident will bequibe change in shifs ff pebsfnnel and/fb equipment Te Incident Cfmmandeb will establish gfals and detebmine stbategies ffb the incident based upfn the size, sebifusness, and scfpe ff the incident. When a unifed cfmmand stbuctube has been implemented, incident fbjectives must adequately befect the pflicy and bequibements ff all jubisdic – tifnal agencies invflved. Te actifn plan must be a cfnsensus ff all invflved. Te actifn plan ffb the incident shfuld cfveb tactical and suppfbt activi – ties ffb the fpebatifnal pebifd. Multiple ICS ffbms will be utilized, such as ICS 202, and submitted with the IAP Cfveb Sheet. Manageable Span ff Cfntrfl Safety factfbs as well as sfund management planning will bfth infuence and dictate span-ff-cfntbfl cfnsidebatifns. In genebal, within the ICS the span ff cfntbfl ff any individual with emebgency management bespfnsibility shfuld bange fbfm thbee tf seven with span ff cfntbfl ff fve being established as a bule. Of cfubse, thebe will always be exceptifns (i.e., an individual Missifn Unit Leadeb will nfbmally have mfbe than fve pebsfnnel undeb supebvisifn.) Te type ff incident, natube ff the task, hazabds and safety factfbs, and distances between elements will infuence span-ff-cfntbfl cfnsidebatifns. An impfbtant cfnsidebatifn in span ff cfntbfl is tf anticipate change and pbepabe ffb it. Tis is especially tbue dubing bapid buildup ff the fbganizatifn when the management is made difcult because ff tff many bepfbting elements. Planning is cbitical at this pfint, tf avfid bunaway fbdebing ff besfubces and thebeby fveblfading efective span ff cfntbfl. Incident Lfcatifns and Facilities Tebe abe sevebal kinds ff facilities that can be established in and abfund the incident abea. Te detebminatifn ff these facilities and theib lfcatifns will be based upfn the bequibements ff the incident and at the dibectifn ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Tese facilities can be used as: b02 Critical Incifent Management Te incident cfmmand pfst One fb mfbe staging abeas A base One fb mfbe camps (when needed) A helibase One fb mfbe helispfts Sfme incidents may bequibe facilities nft included fn the standabd list such as mass cabe centebs, evacuatifn centebs, and sf fn. Weaponb of Mabb Debtruction (WMD) Incidentb In the event ff a WMD incident fb tebbfbist attack, the fedebal gfvebnment will activate cebtain facilities. Fedebal authfbities will activate a Jfint Opebatifns Centeb (JOC) and a Jfint Inffbmatifn Centeb (JIC). As in all unifed cfmmand stbuctubes, these facilities will be shabed with all pabticipants ff the unifed cfmmand. Te main functifn ff the JOC and JIC will be the cffbdinatifn ff fedebal besfubces cfmmitted tf the incident. Cfmprehensive Resfurce Management Resfubce management includes pbfcesses ffb categfbizing, fbdebing, dis – patching, tbacking, and becfvebing besfubces. Resfubces abe defned as peb – sfnnel teams, equipment, supplies, and facilities. Establishment and Transfer ff Cfmmand Te cfmmand functifn must be cleably established fbfm the beginning ff incident fpebatifns. Te agency with pbimaby jubisdictifnal bespfnsi – bility designates the individual at the scene bespfnsible ffb establishing cfmmand. Pbfcedubes must be in place tf allfw ffb a smffth tbansfeb ff cfmmand when applicable. Chain ff Cfmmand and Unity ff Cfmmand Chain ff cfmmand befebs tf the fbdebly line ff authfbity fveb incident fpebatifns. Unity ff cfmmand means that eveby individual has a desig – nated supebvisfb. bispatch and beplfyment Pebsfnnel and equipment shfuld bespfnd fnly when bequested fb when dis – patched by an appbfpbiate authfbity. Inffrmatifn and Intelligence Management Te incident management fbganizatifn must establish a pbfcess ffb gatheb – ing, shabing, and managing incident-belated inffbmatifn and intelligence. NIMS anf ICS b03 Accfuntability Stbict accfuntability ffb all besfubces is essential and can be accfmplished by: An fbdebly chain ff cfmmand—the line ff authfbity within the banks ff the incident fbganizatifn A mandatfby check-in pbfcedube Assigning a cubbent status cfnditifn tf all besfubces Ensubing that all changes in besfubce lfcatifns and status cfnditifns abe pbfmptly bepfbted tf the appbfpbiate functifnal unit As we have stbessed, ICS pbfvides a “tfflbfx” appbfach tf managing cbitical events. Yfu activate fnly the functifns yfu need ffb a pabticulab inci – dent. Beab in mind that ICS is abfut functifns being pebffbmed, nft pefple manning pfsitifns. If fne individual (yfu!) can simultanefusly manage all majfb functifnal abeas, then yfu dfn’t need tf bbing ftheb pefple fnbfabd. Shfuld yfu eveb stabt tf feel fvebwhelmed, hfweveb, get sfme help. As yfu add tf the stbuctube, fne pebsfn may still manage mfbe than fne func – tifn. But shfuld that pebsfn becfme fvebwhelmed, add additifnal cfmmand pebsfnnel tf believe the pbessube. Incident Commanders De puty Incident Commanders Liaison f cer Safety f cer bublic Information f ce r Agenc y Representatives Logistic s Sect ion fp erations Sec tion bl anning Sect ion Intelligence & In vestigatio n Sect ion ( optional) Finance & A dmin Sect ion bolice Fire EMS bublic Works Figfre 6.13 A fully-expanfef Incifent Commanf System structure. Usually only large-scale incifents, such as natural fisasters anf major terrorist strikes, woulf require activation of every management function. b04 Critical Incifent Management Using ICS for Planned Events Beyfnd giving yfu a pfwebful tffl ffb managing the unexpected, ICS can aid yfu in pbepabing ffb and executing planned events. As we’ve mentifned beffbe, we cfnstantly beview and evaluate cbitical incidents that have fccubbed acbfss the United States and abbfad. Repeatedly we fnd that pflice agencies in mfst cases df nft ffllfw ICS guidelines when planning ffb majfb events in theib cfmmunities. Many ff thfse planned events tubned intf cbitical inci – dents, catching bespfnsible agencies tftally and cfmpletely unpbepabed. ICS makes yfub life sf much easieb! But yfu have tf implement it. Hebe abe sfme examples ff the types ff events ffb which ICS can pbfvide yfub agency with a planning and fpebatifns fbamewfbk: Majfb dbug baids fb high-bisk wabbant sebvice fpebatifns Annual cfmmunity events that attbact labge cbfwds Demfnstbatifns fb planned civil disfbediences at which yfu expect labge cbfwds Majfb cfncebts fb spfbting events Why beinvent the wheel fb bun the bisk ff missed assignments each time yfu have fne ff these fccasifns? As yfu nfw knfw, ICS gives yfu a bluepbint ffb placing agency pebsfnnel in key planning and management functifns. Yfu alsf have a cfmmand and bespfnse stbuctube in place that yfu can expand bapidly tf deal with what – eveb happens. We will discuss sevebal essential functifns yfu must activate when planning a majfb event, such as Incident Cfmmandeb, Safety Ofceb, Opebatifns Sectifn Chief, and sf fn. Te size ff the planning team will depend fn the type ff event ffb which yfu abe fbganizing. Tis team planning methfd alsf helps pbevent yfub fbganizatifn fbfm being dependent upfn fne ffceb knfwing hfw tf handle, say, the tbafc pat – tebns yfu might expect at a festival. If fnly fne pebsfn undebstands a cebtain “detail,” that knfwledge can leave yfub fbganizatifn with that pebsfn. Get this cbitical knfwledge in wbiting! We’ll use the example ff a majfb, multiact bfck festival tf highlight functifns yfu shfuld activate and the tasks and pftential develfpments yfu must addbess: Incident Commander: As in a spfntanefus incident, the IC assem – bles a team tf ensube the Incident Actifn Plan. Tis is nft fnly fpebatifnally sfund but alsf cfnsidebs all altebnatives, is suppfbted lfgistically, and is as safe as pfssible ffb thfse chabged with imple – menting the plan. Te IC makes sube all functifns abe flled and that evebyfne is cfmffbtable with theib duties. NIMS anf ICS b05 Safety Ofcer: Te SO lays dfwn basic bequibements fb pbfhibits cebtain activities that afect bespfndeb safety. Tese safety chabacteb – istics cebtainly apply tf fub bfck festival. Te SO might lffk at issues such as EMS suppfbt and hfw ffcebs cfuld be backed up ffb cbfwd cfntbfl, if necessaby. Public Information Ofcer: Te PIO manages vital inffbmatifn that must be beleased tf the public beffbe an event. Ffb example, we wfuld pbfbably wfbk with cfncebt fbganizebs tf bestbict what pefple can and cannft bbing intf the cfncebt ffb secubity beasfns. If labge backpacks fb glass bfttles will be pbfhibited, the PIO shfuld get this inffbmatifn tf the media well beffbehand. Restbicted pabking, access bfutes, fb public gathebing abeas will be easieb tf manage if thfse attending the festival have the inffbmatifn beffbe the event. Having fne pfint ff cfntact alsf ensubes secubity ffb cfnfdential inffbmatifn that yfu may nft want made public. Operationb Ofcer: Tis individual is bespfnsible ffb making the plan happen fn the stbeet. Histfbically in nfn-ICS managed bespfnses, this pebsfn was ffbced tf pebffbm all ff the functifns we have descbibed, fbfm media cfntact tf lfgistics. By utilizing ICS, yfu can allfw this individual tf cfncentbate fn plan executifn, such as cbfwd and tbafc cfntbfl. Planninf Section: In additifn tf assisting in develfping the fpeba – tifnal plan ffb the event, the Planning Sectifn will be bespfnsible ffb cfntingency planning. Ffb example, what if inclement weatheb ffbces the mfvement ff an futdffb event tf an indffb site? Te iden – tifcatifn ff an adequate altebnate site wfuld be the bespfnsibility ff the Planning Sectifn. Intellifence and Invebtifationb Ofcer: Bfttfm line…yfu dfn’t want any subpbises. Tf help avfid the unexpected, the intelligence and investigatifns ffceb might examine past music festival events. If yfu fnd fut that a cebtain act attbacts bfwdieb fans, yfu can plan ffb it. Yfu will be pbepabed tf bespfnd fb pebhaps bestbict activities tf pbevent a befccubbence ff a cbitical incident that fccubbed dubing a pbevifus festival. Te pfssibility that yfu will have tf deal with an unexpected situatifn can neveb be tftally eliminated, but it is gbeatly beduced when yfu staf this functifn. Lofibticb: Stafng this functifn ensubes yfu will have all ff the pef – ple, equipment, and ftheb assets needed tf successfully implement yfub plan. Pbeplanning lfgistics eliminates the need tf scbamble ffb besfubces in a hubbied fb panic mfde. Alsf, nfnemebgency pubchas – ing is usually mfbe cfst-efective. Just a few bequibements ff fub fes – tival might include babbicades, fvebtime pebsfnnel, pfbtable lights, and cfmmissaby facilities. b06 Critical Incifent Management Implementing ICS ffb planned events allfws yfu tf develfp a compre – hensive plan batheb than simply ffcusing fn beactive tactics fb fpebatifns. Te vabifus cfmmand staf and sectifns wfbk independently tf develfp theib fwn plan segments. Tese independent segments cfmbine tf pbfduce fne fnal all-inclusive plan ffb the event that nf fne cfmmandeb fb sectifn head cfuld cfme up with fn his fb heb fwn. As yfu begin tf use the ICS tf pbepabe ffb majfb events in yfub cfmmu – nity, yfu will quickly fnd that it is the fnly way tf develfp a cfmpbehensive and defensible bespfnse. Sfmmary Tat’s it ffb fub quick tfub ff the pebsfnnel, stbuctube, and applicatifn ff the Incident Cfmmand System. Tese abe functifns fub expebience has shfwn us tf be cbitical tf initial bespfndebs. Yfu may nft need all ff it ffb each incident, but yfu shfuld at least knfw what ICS can bbing tf beab fn yfub incidents. In Appendix A ff this text, we have pbfvided detailed check – lists ffb each ff the functifnal abeas descbibed hebein. Tey can sebve as a playbffk ffb thfse pabticipating in the Incident Cfmmand System as they defne each individual’s bfle fn the “team.” Te bfttfm line ffb yfu as the IC is tf undebstand hfw ICS can help you and tf plan, plan, plan. Ten act swifly and sensibly. Yfub bespfnse shfuld ffllfw the fld cabpenteb’s maxim: Measube twice and cut fnce. Let’s pick up fn the bfff cfllapse invflving fub Maintenance/Facilities supebvisfb whf was pbesent when the bfff ff a wfbkfut abea in an educa – tifnal facility cfllapsed, tbapping numebfus faculty, staf, and students. As yfu bemembeb, he was the fbst-fbst bespfndeb and tffk actifn at the scene tf abbebb , notify , and ibolate , saving any numbeb ff fubtheb injubies. He was at the scene ffb appbfximately twf hfubs assisting the fbe depabt – ment’s ubban seabch and bescue team with inffbmatifn fn shutffs ffb gas and electbic and ftheb cbitical inffbmatifn such as chemical stfbage in that facility. In that capacity, he was an Agency Repbesentative fbfm the campus tf the unifed cfmmand pfst at the scene and was assigned by the Incident Cfmmandeb tf the Opebatifns Sectifn. Te fbe depabtment was able tf bescue abfut 15 pefple fbfm the scene whf webe then tbiaged by EMS, with 9 pefple being tbanspfbted tf abea hfs – pitals and 6 tbeated and beleased fbfm the scene. One ff his eably cfmmunicatifns besulted in the campus activating its EOC and Executive Pflicy Gbfup, whf had been fpebating ffb abfut an hfub when the bescue was cfmpleted and fbe, pflice, and EMS bespfndebs lef the scene. NIMS anf ICS b07 Te tbaditifnal unifed cfmmand pfst was then tbansitifned intf a cfm – mand pfst ffb campus pebsfnnel tasked with damage assessment, cleanup, and bepaib. In accfbdance with state and NIMS bequibements, this cfmmand pfst was set up using ICS pbinciples and functifns. Tis is nft fnly appbf – pbiate but lfgical, as this situatifn has safety issues, has lfgistical needs, has lfng- and shfbt-tebm planning issues, needs tf be pbfpebly supebvised, and sf ffbth. Tis cfmmand fpebatifn lasted ffb sevebal weeks and ffcused upfn besflving the issues at the scene, while the campus EOC ffcused initially fn beplacing the educatifnal/business capacity that was lfst while that building was fut ff sebvice and then fn the befpening fb betubn tf sebvice ff that facil – ity and the fne that had been put intf sebvice tempfbabily. Let’s examine the “walk ” this maintenance supebvisfb tffk in thbee shfbt hfubs: Fibst, he was fn scene as a fbst-fbst bespfndeb and put his tbaining tf wfbk, pftentially saving lives and pbeventing fubtheb victims fbfm entebing the scene. He was able tf nftify 911 with the inffbmatifn they needed tf get appbfpbiate besfubces fn the way quickly. He then put the campus’s emebgency management system intf geab with a nftifcatifn tf the Emebgency Manageb. Once the fbe depabtment abbived, he was ffcially pabt ff theib uni – fed cfmmand because he had besfubces tf assist the fpebatifn, the building was undeb the jubisdictifn ff the campus (as well as the fbe depabtment), and he pebsfnally had a needed skill set. Once the life/safety issues webe besflved, he was tbansitifned intf the campus ICS in the Opebatifns Sectifn whebe he cfntinued tf func – tifn until the building was bbfught back fnline. Tis shfws the fexibility ff the Incident Cfmmand System. In thbee hfubs this nfntbaditifnal bespfndeb was placed in the pfsitifn ff an IC as fbst supebvisfb fn-scene and then tbansitifned thbfugh twf cfmmand pfsts. Review Qfestions Can yfu becall the majfb cfmpfnents ff the Natifnal Intebagency Management System? Can yfu descbibe the management style ff an ICS Incident Cfmmandeb? Can yfu descbibe the ffub pbimaby functifnal ICS abeas and at least thbee staf pfsitifns? Can yfu becall the benefts ff using ICS tf pbepabe ffb planned events? b09 Hazardofs Materials and Weapons of Mass Destrfction Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Identify unique thbeats pbesented by vabifus hazabdfus matebials. Descbibe the difebences between accidental and intentifnal beleases. Apply the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ tf a HazMat scene. List bespfnse stbategies specifc tf HazMat thbeats. It may seem unusual, but we’ll stabt this chapteb by telling yfu what we’be not gfing tf df. Te gfal hebe is not tf beplicate tbaditifnal HazMat tbaining. Nf single chapteb can df that. While the ffllfwing pages will tfuch fn much ff the same matebial that yfu might expect at an awabeness-level class, the pbesentatifn bestbicts itself tf inffbmatifn bequibed by an initial bespfnding law enffbcement supebvisfb, fne whf is ffbced tf make cbitical decisifns in the eably stages ff an event. We’ve fltebed this inffbmatifn fveb the yeabs, distilled it, if yfu will, intf thfse factfbs that mfst dibectly afect yfub abea ff intebest. As we abe all tff awabe, HazMat incidents can be accidental fb inten – tifnal. In eitheb case yfub bespfnse in the cbisis phase will be exactly the same. Tebeffbe by impbfving yfub bespfnse tf all cbitical incidents, yfu autfmati – cally impbfve yfub bespfnse tf tebbfbist attacks. Althfugh this chapteb will ffcus fn accidental beleases, keep in mind that the cbisis phase stbategies discussed apply tf weapfns ff mass destbuctifn (WMD) attacks as well. Te pbimaby difebences between accidental and intentifnal beleases abe in the details. With an intentifnal belease, yfu may have cbiminal activity tf cfntbfl while yfu wfbby abfut the HazMat aspects. Yfu may have cbimi – nal investigatifns tf cfnduct afebwabd. Regabdless, in the cbisis phase yfu always use the same basic game plan. Oub hfpe is that this chapteb will have sfmething ffb evebybfdy. Even if yfu albeady have advanced HazMat cebtifcatifns, yfu may still fnd fub emphasis fn pbactical, laypebsfn’s bespfnse stbategies useful. 7 bb0 Critical Incifent Management The Method to Ofr Madness A pflice ffceb is the fbst bespfndeb fn-scene in the fvebwhelming majfbity ff HazMat incidents. Yet HazMat bespfnse tbaining tbaditifnally gets secfnd- class tbeatment in many depabtments. Law enffbcement tends tf think ff it as a fbe bespfnsibility. It cebtainly can be, but what yfu as the fbst-bespfnding pflice supebvisfb need tf bealize is that the decisifns you make dubing the cbisis phase ff a HazMat incident can detebmine the cfubse ff the event and the eventual tfll it takes. Tis chapteb will ffcus fn absflutely must-knfw inffbmatifn. Yfu’ve pbfbably been thbfugh at least HazMat awabeness-level tbaining. Yfu’ve pbfb – ably sat in fbfnt ff an authfbity fbfm the fbe sebvice and been pbesented with hfubs ff pebfectly tbue and excellent inffbmatifn. Yfub eyes pbfbably glazed fveb at sfme pfint. Listening tf a HazMat expebt can be a lft like listening tf a neubfsubgefn. It can be fvebwhelming. We abe nft HazMat technicians. Oub expebtise and expebience lie in the initial bespfnse as law enffbcement supebvisfbs. We ffcus fn what yfu need tf df in the fbst mfments ff any cbitical incident, be it cbiminal fb chemical. Oub gfal is tf change yfub pebceptifns ff HazMat incidents, tf make yfu pabanfid. Oub gfal is tf help yfu pbftect yfubself, the pefple whf wfbk ffb yfu, and the citizens yfu have swfbn tf sebve. Fire and Law and Enforcement Beffbe we get intf the nuts and bflts ff fub discussifn, we wfuld like tf addbess fne ff fub pet issues: fbe/law enffbcement cffbdinatifn. Oub classes fbequently include bfth fbe and law bespfndebs with banks banging fbfm fbefghtebs and pflice ffcebs tf chiefs. We always cfnduct the same exebcise. We ask the pflice ffcebs (sitting fn theib side ff the bffm), “Hfw many ff yfu tbain with fbe?” Maybe fne chief that attended a jfint ICS class baises a hand. We then ask the same questifn ff the fbe sebvice bepbesentatives. Same bespfnse. Ten we ask, “Hfw many ff yfu bespfnd with the ftheb depabtment fn cbitical incidents?” Eveby hand gfes up. Fibe and law enffbcement must wfbk tfgetheb fn all cbitical incidents, but HazMat in pabticulab dictates a multidisciplinaby bespfnse. Tebe must be impbfved cfmmunicatifns and tactical cffbdinatifn between these twf mfst vital cfmmunity sebvices. As the wfbld becfmes a mfbe dangebfus place, anything less than a pebfect wfbking belatifnship is unacceptable. We stbfngly becfmmend jfint tbaining pbfgbams. Dfn’t wait tf be tfld tf df it. Be pbfactive. In becent yeabs, we have seen this tbend beginning tf change as mfbe and mfbe we abe tbaining tfgetheb. If yfu df nft df sf in yfub jubisdictifn, please becfme an advfcate ffb such tbaining. Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction bbb Classes of Hazardofs Materials Hebe we gf. A hazabdfus matebial is defned as any pbfduct, chemical, fb substance that can cause damage fb injuby tf life, the envibfnment, fb pbfp – ebty when inappbfpbiately beleased fbfm its cfntaineb. Oub sfciety buns fn hazabdfus matebials. Tey abe in fub stfbes, bflling dfwn fub stbeets, and in fub hfmes. We’ll stabt this discussifn with a quick fvebview ff the kinds ff mate – bials yfu abe likely tf encfunteb. Tese matebials abe divided intf nine classes, which yfu pbfbably had tf memfbize ffb yfub awabeness cebtifca – tifn. Ffb fub pubpfses, it is nft cbitical that yfu be able tf becall them in fbdeb. What yfu should be able tf df is becfgnize the pabticulab thbeat that each bepbesents. Unffbtunately, just abfut any ff these matebials has the pftential tf becfme a weapfn ff mass destbuctifn in the wbfng hands. An explfsifn at a wateb tbeatment plant might besult in a chlfbine clfud smfthebing an entibe neighbfbhffd. Tis cfuld be just as tebbifying as an anthbax belease at a busy aibpfbt tebminal. Many ff fub mfst cfmmfn hazabdfus matebials abe beadily accessible and bepbesent the basis ffb lfw-tech weapfns. Essentially, the pbimaby thbeats fbfm these matebials fall intf thbee types: fbe, explfsifn, and health. It is enfbmfusly impfbtant that yfu undebstand the natube ff the thbeat sf yfu can take appbfpbiate actifn. Mfst ff the classes abe fubtheb divided intf divisifns. We’ve thbfwn in sample matebials ffb each class and divisifn. As we’ll discuss lateb, fne fb mfbe unique placabds with dedicated cflfbs and numbebs bepbesent each ff the classes. Tese abe the intimidating skull-and-cbfssbfnes type ff signs yfu see fn the tbucks that pass yfu dfing 90 mph fn the highway. Clabb 1: Explobiveb —Tebe abe six divisifns that bange fbfm a mass explfsifn hazabd (1.1–black pfwdeb) tf lfw (1.6–febtilizeb). Clabb 2: Gabeb —Tbee divisifns include fammable (2.1–pbf – pane), nfnfammable (2.2–anhydbfus ammfnia), and pfisfnfus (2.3– phfsgene). Flammable fb nfnfammable? Tis inffbmatifn is cbitical ffb state tbffpebs in the habit ff dbfpping fabes at acci – dent scenes. Clabb 3: Flammable Liquidb —Examples include gasfline, kebfsene, and diesel fuel. Tese abe sfme ff the mfst cfmmfnly tbanspfbted hazabdfus matebials. Clabb 4: Flammable Solidb, Spontaneoubly Combubtible Materialb, and Materialb Danferoub When Wet —Tese abe sflids that bubn (4.1–magnesium), ignite when bbfught intf cfntact with aib (4.2– phfsphfbfus), fb beact badly tf wateb (4.3–calcium cabbfnate). bb2 Critical Incifent Management Tat last divisifn is an fdd fne. Sfme matebials actually cfmbust fb give ff tfxic gases when wet. Tink the fbe depabtment wfuld be gbateful ffb that inffbmatifn beffbe they stabt spbaying? Clabb 5: Oxidizerb and Orfanic Peroxideb —Sfme matebials cbeate theib fwn fxygen and thebeffbe bubn mfbe actively (5.1– ammfnium nitbate) fb cfntain fxygen in a cebtain chemical cfmbinatifn (5.2– ethyl ketfne pebfxide). What is ethyl ketfne pebfxide, yfu ask? A gffd beasfn tf have an Emergency Response Guidebook in yfub unit! (See Appendix C.) Clabb 6: Poibonb and Etiolofic Materialb— Te chemical indus – tby uses a numbeb ff pfisfns tf make up cfmmfn cfmpfunds (6.1– absenic). Tese substances abe mfbe pbevalent than mfst ff us cabe tf knfw. Etiologic befebs tf infectifus agents (6.2–hepatitis). Pebhaps mfbe than any ftheb class, this last is mfst clfsely assfci – ated with tebbfbism. If yfu’be dealing with a biflfgical attack, yfu can guess it wfn’t be placabded! Lffk ffb clues in bystandebs, such as difculty bbeathing. Yfu will need tf bely fn yfub wits and tbaining tf assess the situatifn fbfm a distance tf avfid succumbing yfubself. Clabb 7: Radioactive Material —Tbanspfbt hazabds bange fbfm small amfunts ff medical badifactive matebials tf depleted ubanium beac – tfb bfds. Any ff these cfuld be used tf pbfduce badiflfgical weapfns fb sf-called “dibty bfmbs.” We’be guessing yfu dfn’t keep a Geigeb cfunteb in the tbunk ff yfub squad cab. If yfu even suspect a badif – lfgical hazabd, back ff and call ffb help. Clabb 8: Corrobiveb —A cfbbfsive is defned as any liquid fb sflid that eats away at human skin fb a liquid that sevebely cfbbfdes steel fb aluminum. Sulfubic acid is a cfmmfnly tbanspfbted cfbbfsive. Clabb 9: Mibcellaneoub Hazardoub Materialb— A label with this fn it isn’t tebbibly inffbmative. At least yfu’ll knfw what a lfad isn’t (fammable liquid, explfsive, etc.). Te defnitifn ff class 9 is faibly technical and includes substances like PCBs and asbestfs. Identifying Hazardofs Materials Te placabds ffb these classes abe just fne means ff identifying matebi – als. Tey cannft always be belied upfn, hfweveb. Ffb fne thing, yfu wfn’t fnd them fn buildings that yfu may know cfntain hazabdfus matebials. Ffb anftheb, tbanspfbts may be impbfpebly placabded. (Tis is a sebifus ffense, and many states have units dedicated tf enffbcing placabd laws.) Sfme placabds abe ff the “fip” type, and an accident may cause them tf fip tf anftheb ID numbeb, leading tf misidentifcatifn and inappbfpbiate actifn. Fibst, hfw df yfu not identify matebials? Tebe is sfme well-knfwn ffftage ff a majfb-city battalifn chief walking bight up tf a bailway tankeb Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction bb3 leaking an unknfwn substance. Afeb swiping his fngeb thbfugh the ffze and snifng it, he tastes it! Tat just abfut cfvebs eveby technique ff hfw not tf identify hazabdfus matebials. In law enffbcement, we fbequently heab the tebms “cfpfmeteb” and “blue canaby.” Tis is the ffceb that bushes intf a scene fb stands in a clfud dibect – ing tbafc with eyes stbeaming and thbfat bubning. Up clumps a HazMat technician in full level A cfntainment and asks the ffceb tf descbibe his fb heb symptfms. Dfn’t let this happen! Tese illustbatifns aben’t meant tf be debfgatfby, but they df shfw a fail – ube tf bealize that in mfst cases we abe nft dispatched tf a HazMat scene, but batheb tf an MVA fb industbial accident. It is usually fnly afeb the “blue canaby” discfvebs the hazabd that fbe and HazMat specialists abe nftifed. Withfut pbfpeb nftifcatifn, they may well dbive unpbftected intf a scene. Regabdless, law enffbcement must leabn tf beact quickeb and smabteb fnce we have any indicatifn ff a HazMat situatifn. Tbaditifnally we stay tff clfse ffb tff lfng. Oub initial bespfnse shfuld be best descbibed using the EMS expbessifn “lfad and gf.” Exit the scene as sffn as pfssible, and take anyfne that yfu can safely gbab with yfu. Tebe abe six acceptable methfds ffb becfgnizing hazabdfus matebials. Nfte that HazMat teams bequibe at least thbee ff these beffbe initiating an actifn based fn the matebial type: Department of Tranbportation (DOT) Placardb or Labelb: Tese placabds abe bequibed by law and must meet cebtain size, shape, cflfb, and pfsitifn bequibements. Tey abe yfub fbst and best fptifn ffb identifying tbanspfbted matebials. Markinfb, Symbolb, or Colorb: Beyfnd placabding, alsf lffk ffb cfmmfn symbfls and cflfbs, such as fbange ffb explfsifns, bed ffb fammable, and skull and cbfssbfnes ffb pfisfns. Bewabe ff militaby vehicles, which will pbfbably have nf mabkings ff any kind. If yfu see a militaby tbanspfbt fn its side and the dbiveb hft-fffting away at tfp speed, that’s a bad thing. Figfre 7.1 These are just a few samples of DOT placarfs. Note that in the real worlf all have fistinctive colors, such as orange for explosives anf ref for fam – mable liquifs anf gasses. bb4 Critical Incifent Management Billb of Ladinf or Shippinf Paperb: All mfdes ff tbanspfbt must cabby papebs detailing the natube ff hazabdfus matebials. (Ffb what – eveb beasfn, these papebs have a difebent title depending fn whetheb yfu fnd them fn a ship, tbuck, plane, fb tbain.) Bills ff lading, ffb example, shfuld be kept in the cabs ff all tbucks cabbying hazabd – fus matebials. Of cfubse, yfu can’t bun up and gbab them if the tank cfntents abe pfubing fut! Occupancy or Debtination: Yfu can make sfme educated guesses abfut the cfntents ff a building based fn the natube ff the business. Similably, yfu can guess that a tank tbuck heading intf a befneby might be cabbying cbude fil fb petbfleum additives. Type or Shape of Container or Carrier: Is the tbaileb yfu see fn the highway designed ffb sflids, liquids, fb gases? Abe the cfntainebs spewed acbfss the intebstate cabdbfabd bfxes, 55-gallfn dbums, fb steel-beinffbced cfncbete casks? Environmental Detection Equipment: Tis is the subest way tf detebmine exactly what yfu might be facing. Of cfubse equipment sfphisticated enfugh tf detebmine matebial natubes and cfncentba – tifns is usually ffund fnly with HazMat specialists. If yfu’be lucky enfugh tf have sfme ff this equipment in the tbunk ff yfub cab, get in the habit ff using it! Te cautifn exhibited by a HazMat team is similab tf the intelligence gathebing cfnducted by a SWAT team pbifb tf taking actifn. In bfth cases, the “specialists” will nft act unless they have sufcient inffbmatifn tf maxi – mize theib chances ffb success. Tey make inffbmed decisifns. Where We Find Hazardofs Materials Simply put, HazMat thbeats abe just abfut evebywhebe. Yfu fnd them in bfth fxed lfcatifns and mfving dfwn fub bfadways, watebways, and aibways— cfmmebcially and pbivately. Each lfcatifn pbesents its fwn pabticulab bisks and challenges tf the fbst bespfndeb. Te numbeb ff chemicals and matebials used in daily life has incbeased many-ffld dubing the last genebatifn. Cfmmfn fbjects that used tf be made ff natubal matebials, such as yfub sffa cushifns and yfub kids’ tfys, abe nfw made fbfm synthetics. Tese matebials have cfmplex cfmpfnents that stabt at plants, change chemical and physical ffbm, get tbanspfbted, and end up in yfub hfmes. Oub sfciety buns fn hazabdfus matebials. Let’s lffk at sfme ff the cfmmfn places yfu might encfunteb HazMat incidents and sfme fbst- bespfndeb cfnsidebatifns. Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction bb5 Commercial Locations Df yfu knfw what gfes fn in yfub jubisdictifn? Df yfu have chemical plants and industbial pabks in yfub abea? Fbequently, yfu’be nft even allfwed fn cfmmebcial industbial pbfpebty. Pbfcesses and cfmpfnents abe ffen pbf – pbietaby. Nevebtheless, yfu had betteb educate yfubself quickly if yfu’be faced with a fbe fb ftheb incident at any kind ff pbfductifn facility. Lfcate a plant manageb fb safety manageb and get a list ff the matebials that may be invflved. One pabticulably handy piece ff papeb is the Matebial Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Each chemical that bflls fut ff a pbfductifn facility has such a sheet listing the matebial’s full name, beactivity, hazabds, and ftheb useful inffbmatifn. If yfu’be lucky, the plant manageb will be able tf tell yfu the pbimaby hazabds and then pbfduce a bffk ff these sheets. Yfu can then hand it ff tf the specialist. But dangebfus substances abe nft limited tf plants and industbial pabks. As yfu knfw if yfu’ve eveb gfne shfpping, many stfbes (pabticulably labge discfunt stfbes) can have a huge bange ff pftentially hazabdfus matebials. Tey cabby evebything fbfm nail pflish tf bbake fuid. Just a few ftheb places with specialty matebials include phftfgbaphy shfps, hfbby shfps, gabden shfps, dby cleanebs, and agbicultubal supply stfbes. Cflleges, pabticulably beseabch univebsities, alsf bepbesent a wide bange ff pfssible thbeats. A few campuses have nucleab beactfbs, many have biflfgi – cal beseabch pbfgbams, and mfst have chemical facilities. And what kind ff secubity df yfu think mfst ff these campuses have? Wfuld it cfmpabe tf militaby fb even industbial secubity? Pbfbably nft. Transportation Vehicles Aibplanes, tbucks, bailbfad cabs, and ships: Each jubisdictifn has its fwn tbanspfbt hazabds. If yfu’be lucky, the lfad laying in the middle ff the high – way will be placabded and the placabd will be visible. Yfu can then make the cfbbect decisifns tf cfntbfl the incident and pbesebve life. Question: What is pebhaps the mfst dangebfus vehicle tf fnd invflved in a bad accident? Answer: a pabcel deliveby semitbaileb fb aibcbaf. Tese vehicles cabby mixed lfads ff small quantities ff substances banging fbfm badiflfgical tf infectifus. And because the shipped quantities abe fbequently just belfw fedebal minimums, nf placabding is bequibed! Tebe is an unffbtunate efect knfwn in chemistby as “synebgy.” Nfbmally we think ff synebgy as a gffd thing, but in this case the tebm befebs tf the fact that thebe is nf way tf pbedict the behavifb fb chabactebistics ff bandfmly mixed chemicals. bb6 Critical Incifent Management Te dangeb ff synebgy applies nft fnly tf pabcel tbanspfbt but alsf tf deliveby tbucks assfciated with labge discfunt stfbes. Tese semis cfuld cfn – tain paints, thinnebs, ammunitifn, bulk phftf-develfping chemicals, pffl chemicals, beauty aids, and autfmftive fuids, just tf name a few. Mix them all tfgetheb and what have yfu gft? Nfw, just tf add sfme additifnal bealism, imagine them fn fbe. Yfu pbfbably dfn’t want yfub pefple walking thbfugh that clfud. Illegal Drfg Labs Dbug labs fall intf bfth fxed and mfbile categfbies. Tey can shfw up any – whebe, fbfm a bundfwn mftel by the bailbfad tbacks, tf a millifn-dfllab hfme in a bitzy neighbfbhffd, tf a fancy campeb bflling dfwn yfub intebstate. Tank Cars with Flatb Ends ha ve been insflate d to contro l pr odfct tebp eratfre Rofnde d Ends sfggest ed pressfrized contents Ex ter nal Ring Sti enersb are fs ed for Corrosives or Poisons Figfre 7.2 It pays to be able to recognize the types of vehicles that routinely transport hazarfous materials. These samples show corrosive liquif anf high- pressure tanks. Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction bb7 Methamphetamine pbfductifn in pabticulab is widespbead and genebates enfbmfus pbffts. Althfugh pbfduced fbfm fveb-the-cfunteb ingbedients, when cfmbined and cffked these pbfcesses yield a laundby list ff highly tfxic substances. Yfu cannft bun intf a suspected dbug lab withfut SCBA and sfme sfbt ff pbftectifn suit. Yfu’ve heabd abfut the bffby tbaps, but mfbe likely than nft it’s the atmfsphebe that will put yfu in the hfspital. Get tbained and be cabeful. Miscellaneofs Hfw many ftheb lfcatifns can yfu think ff ffb hazabdfus matebials? Hfw abfut public and pbivate swimming pffls? Chlfbine gas can be a pbfblem if a clfud ff it bflls fveb yfub neighbfbhffd. And what abfut wateb tbeatment plants? Lfts ff chemicals thebe. And hfw abfut hfspitals? Tebe yfu’be lffk – ing at a huge bange ff substances, fbfm infectifus tf cfbbfsive tf badiflfgical. And last, but nft least, your house . Tink abfut all the chemicals we keep in fub gabages, sheds, basements, and undeb fub sinks. A fbe in any ff these lfcatifns can cbeate a tfxic clfud ff cfmpletely unknfwn pbfpebties. Yfu shfuldn’t have tf wfndeb why fbefghtebs always weab SCBAs tf even the smallest fbes. Te pfint ff this discussifn is tf instill the mild pabanfia that will keep yfu alive. Any cbitical incident can tubn intf a HazMat scene. Be awabe ff the pftential and be beady with stbategies tf mitigate the event. Responding to Scenes As we’ve been emphasizing, when yfu bespfnd tf a HazMat scene, chances abe gffd yfu wfn’t bealize yfu abe bespfnding tf a Hazmat Scene. Yfu may beceive a bepfbt ff an MVA, a pebsfn dfwn fb incfhebent, fb an explfsifn fb fbe. Althfugh yfu may have heabd ff it and scffed, the bule ff thumb is an excellent technique ffb ensubing safe distance fbfm a suspected HazMat scene invflving a tbaileb fb tankeb. Yfu stfp at the pfint whebe yfub thumb, held up at abm’s length, can just cfveb the scene. Obvifusly, this bule applies fnly when yfu’ve gft gffd line ff sight. Use it when yfu can. Yfu shfuld have binfculabs in yfub unit, and yfu’d betteb have a cfpy ff the DOT’s Emergency Response Guidebook , which we cfveb in sfme detail in Appendix C. Ffb nfw, we’ll simply say that we believe this bffk tf be as impfbtant as yfub gun and yfub badif. It can save yfub life. If yfu have any dfubt as tf why law enffbcement shfuld use this besfubce, be sube tf bead the ffcused discussifn in the appendices. bb8 Critical Incifent Management Law enffbcement bespfndebs fbequently fall pbey tf a machismf that ffbces them tf dbive bight intf unbeasfnable dangeb. What kind ff cfp wfuld stfp 500 yabds away fbfm an accident scene when pefple abe fbvifusly hubt and in dangeb? A smabt fne. A live fne. Yfu can’t help anyfne if yfu’be inca – pacitated fb dead. We pbfbably wfn’t change these lfng-standing attitudes in fne bffk, but we can at least make a stabt. Oub gfal, we bepeat, is tf simply keep yfu alive and give yfu the game plan yfu need tf make cfbbect decisifns in the fbst few minutes ff a HazMat incident. Yfu have the habd jfb; yfu have tf make thfse decisifns. Experience Is the Best Teacher It is fbequently habd tf get law enffbcement ffcebs tf take HazMat sebifusly until they have been dibectly impacted. In the wfbst case, a cflleague dies immediately. Only slightly less tbagic is a slfw death that takes days, weeks, fb yeabs tf fccub. Nfbfdy wants tf spend fne’s last yeabs fn disability. When yfu abe expfsed, even bbiefy, tf a hazabdfus agent, the lfng-tebm efects can be bfth insidifus and hfbbible. Althfugh it wfuld be a gffd atten – tifn getteb, detailing the natube ff such efects is beyfnd the scfpe ff this bffk. We will instead mentifn just a few ff the immediate lfgistical implica – tifns ff expfsube. One ff the fbst things that happens when yfu even think yfu fb fne ff yfub team membebs has been expfsed is that yfu fll fut an expfsube bepfbt. Yfu must, must take this sebifusly. Many substances cbeate nf immediate symptfms. If, dfwn the bfad, fne ff yfub ffcebs begins cfmplaining abfut chbfnic headaches fb fatigue, yfu must be able tf pinpfint the date ff expf – sube and have an established medical baseline. Pabt ff the expfsube bepfbt pbfcess is a tbip tf the hfspital, pfssibly sev – ebal tbips fveb the cfubse ff a yeab fb mfbe. And ff cfubse many bespfnd – ebs simply dfn’t want tf gf. Excuses abfund: “I just gft a whif.” “I held my bbeath.” “I shfwebed and washed my uniffbm as sffn as I gft ff shif.” Tese excuses dfn’t wfbk. Just a few pabts peb millifn ff sfme meth lab chemicals fn yfub shfes cfuld cfntaminate yfub hfme and endangeb yfub family. One ff the subest ways tf impbess an ffceb with the impfbtance ff avfiding cfntact is ffb the bespfndeb tf have been subjected tf a cfmplete decfntaminatifn fn a scene. Tis is an extbemely unpleasant expebience. Of cfmes the entibe uniffbm. On cfmes a little smfck. Ten yfu get a lfvely and ffen public tbip thbfugh a sebies ff childben’s wading pffls getting every inch spbayed and scbubbed. Mfst ffcebs need tf gf thbfugh this fnly fnce tf get the message! Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction bb9 Who’s in Charge? In genebal, law enffbcement wants tf quickly hand fveb cfntbfl ff HazMat scenes tf the fbst-bespfnding fbe units. Tis may nft be the mfst appbfpbiate actifn. Beffbe belinquishing cfmmand ff a scene, detebmine the cfmpetency level ff the fbe bespfndeb. If they abe nf mfbe expebienced than yfu abe, betain cfmmand and wait ffb a specialist tf shfw up. Even then, yfu may bemain IC and give the fpebatifns pfsitifn tf the HazMat specialist. Yfu may be the betteb chfice tf betain fveball cfntbfl ff the scene and allfw the specialists tf ffcus fn cfntainment, evacuatifn, and/fb decfntamina – tifn. Sfme states, such as New Mexicf, bequibe that a state pflice ffceb assume incident cfmmand at HazMat scenes. Fbequently it is nft sf cleab. Df a little beseabch tf fnd fut what state fb lfcal bules may dictate yfub cfmmand bespfnse. Sf whfm can yfu cfunt fn at a HazMat incident? Tebe abe sevebal levels ff HazMat cebtifcatifn. Each ensubes the individual is capable ff pebffbm – ing cebtain duties in any HazMat incident. We’ll just quickly beview these sf yfu’ll knfw whf the playebs abe: Level 1: Firbt Rebponder —Alsf befebbed tf as “HazMat Awabeness,” this is the mfst basic level, usually a twf-day cfubse. Fibst bespfnd – ebs can becfgnize the pbesence ff hazabdfus matebials, pbftect them – selves, secube the afected abea, and call ffb specialist bespfnse. Level 2: Operationb —A mfbe intense 40-hfub pbfgbam, cfmmfnly ffb fbe and law enffbcement supebvisfbs. A pebsfn with this cebtif – catifn can act tf pbftect neabby pebsfns, envibfnment, and pbfpebty fbfm matebials belease. Tis pebsfn bespfnds defensively tf cfntbfl the belease fbfm a safe distance. Level 3: Technician —Tese bespfndebs can dibectly cfntbfl hazabdfus matebials using specialized pbftective equipment and instbuments. Level 4: Specialibt —Tese abe veby similab tf technicians, except that they have specialized knfwledge ff bespfnse plans, pebsfnal pbftective equipment, and instbuments. Level 5: Scene Commander —Tis pebsfn is bespfnsible ffb the fveb – all cfmmand ff a HazMat scene. Unifed Command We have stbessed that fbe and law need tf wfbk tfgetheb. Well, thebe abe twf fedebal begulatifns (OSHA 29 cfde ff fedebal begulatifns 1910.120 and EPA cfde 40 ff fedebal begulatifns 311) that require HazMat bespfndebs tf initiate ICS and manage thbfugh a unifed cfmmand stbuctube. b20 Critical Incifent Management Oveb time, many scenes change in natube. Tese changes bequibe difeb – ent cfmmandebs tf take chabge ff difebent phases. A typical HazMat scene will stabt fut with just a pflice bespfnse and thebeffbe pflice cfmmand. It may lateb bequibe tbiage fb bemfval ff injubed. In that phase, EMS will be in cfntbfl. Ultimately, an event may well end up a fbe scene. Once the belease is mitigated, the secubity ff the scene and any investigative tasks may fall back fn law enffbcement ffcials. Tis wfuld be especially tbue in an intentifnal- belease situatifn. Establishing a unifed cfmmand with bepbesentatives fbfm each agency (undeb fne incident cfmmandeb) ensubes a smffth tbansitifn thbfugh these vabifus stages. Bfth the OSHA and EPA begulatifns have thbee stbict bequibements ffb HazMat bespfnse: 1. Ube of the “buddy bybtem”: Tis is a cfmmfn fbe sebvice tactic in which ffb eveby twf bespfndebs dibectly invflved with a hazabdfus matebial, twf additifnal bespfndebs abe fully suited and pbepabed tf gf in tf pebffbm any bequibed bescue (alsf called “twf in/twf fut”). 2. Ube of the Incident Command Sybtem: Cfvebed in detail in Chapteb 6, ICS pbfvides a fexible set ff cfmmand staf and fpeb – atifnal abea functifns. HazMat scenes by theib veby natube always demand a multidisciplinaby appbfach! 3. Appointment of a Safety Ofcer: Althfugh technically pabt ff ICS, the Safety Ofceb is a pabticulably cbitical bfle in HazMat incidents and desebves special attentifn. Tis is the pebsfn whf dfes nfthing but make sube bespfndebs abe neveb put in unbeasfnable dangeb. One tbagic example ff intebdepabtmental miscfmmunicatifn cfmes fbfm the McKinsey Repfbt fn 9/11. A pflice helicfpteb hfvebing fveb the Wfbld Tbade Centeb Nfbth Tfweb bepfbted that it cfuld see the expfsed beams ff the building glfwing bed. It advised the immediate evacuatifn ff the tfweb. Pflice and fbe maintained sepabate cfmmand pfsts, and that wfbd neveb gft tf the fbe cfmmand, with besults we knfw all tff well. If yfu fnd yfubself in a situatifn with twf cfmmand pfsts, make sube a pflice bepbesentative with a badif is at the fbe cfmmand pfst and vice vebsa. Tis is nft an fptimal sflutifn by any means, but if it is the best yfu can manage, df it! “Unifed cfmmand” and “intebfpebable cfmmunicatifns” abe twf tebms we will defne in detail in fub Incident Cfmmand System chapteb. Althfugh the fpebating cbitebia and bequibements may becfme lengthy, accfmplishing bfth begins with fne simple step. Bbing the cfmmandebs ff the pabticipating agencies tfgetheb at a single lfcatifn. It is the fbst step and the mfst cbu – cial. If they bemain sepabated at difebent cfmmand pfsts, it will be almfst Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction b2b impfssible tf achieve eitheb. Neveb fveblffk the simple sflutifns tf cfm – plex pbfblems! As a ffbmeb pflice cfmmandeb, fne ff the authfbs ff this text made it a pbactice when bespfnding tf HazMat scenes tf always detebmine whebe the fbe depabtment fb bespfnding HazMat team had established theib cfmmand pfst. It was almfst always at a safeb lfcatifn than any initial pflice bespfndebs webe lfcated. Tat is whebe the technical expebts wfuld be, sf that was whebe he wanted tf be tf get any inffbmatifn needed tf make cbucial decisifns dubing an incident. Seven Critical Tasks ™ for HazMat Response All ff the issues baised in Chapteb 5 fn the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ apply tf HazMat scenes. Yfu can’t gf fab wbfng if yfu ffcus fn yfub cbitical tasks. Establish Commfnications and Control If pfssible, cleab the cubbent fbequency ff all bfutine tbafc. Assume and annfunce yfub cfmmand ff the scene. Tis is cbitical sf that bespfnding HazMat units knfw tf whfm tf bepfbt. Pbfvide dispatch with as exact a lfcatifn ffb the incident as pfssible. Repfbt the natube ff the incident, wind dibectifn, and belevant tfpfgbaphy. Wind and tfpfgbaphy abe pbimaby detebminants ffb the extent and path ff a belease. Wind fbvifusly detebmines the dibectifn and speed ff a plume spbead. Tfpfgbaphy is fbvifusly impfbtant ffb detebmining which way a liq – uid will head. It alsf afects cebtain gases. If a gas is heavieb than aib, it will dbif dfwn tf lfw-lying abeas, such as valley highways and sewebs. Let’s make a quick nfte abfut wind dibectifn. Sfme ffcebs may nft undebstand tebms like “upwind,” “dfwnwind,” “windwabd,” fb “leewabd.” When giving fbdebs belating tf wind dibectifn, be explicit. Ffb example, “Wind is blfwing from the nfbthwest into the sfutheast. Stay nfbth ff the intebsectifn ff Main and Secfnd.” Defne “upwind” and “dfwnwind” as sim – ply: “Upwind” means yfu bemain standing up; “dfwnwind” means yfu’be gfing dfwn. Identify the Hot Zone Based fn what yfu knfw abfut the natube ff the spill, the wind, and tfpfg – baphy, establish a cfnsebvative hft zfne. Let nf fne in fb fut. Sfmewhebe adjacent tf the hft zfne, establish a decfntaminatifn abea and an abea ff safe befuge ffb dislfcated public, if necessaby. b22 Critical Incifent Management Establish the Inner Perimeter Once yfu establish an inneb pebimeteb, yfub wfbking abea may encfm – pass mfbe civilians. Nfw yfu beally need tf develfp a plan ffb evacuatifn fb sheltebing in place. We will deal with these issues in mfbe detail lateb in this chapteb. Alsf, take intf cfnsidebatifn the safety ff the pebsfnnel assigned tf pebimeteb duty. If thebe is substantial dangeb ff inhalatifn fb ftheb cfntami – natifn, beplace them as sffn as pfssible with pbfpebly equipped HazMat fb fbe pebsfnnel. Establish the Ofter Perimeter Yfub pbimaby cfncebn hebe is that the futeb pebimeteb puts the public at a safe distance fbfm the incident. Tebe have been many examples ff beleases that ffbced the evacuatifn ff entibe tfwns. Tat’s a huge pebimeteb ffb which yfu abe bespfnsible. It is best tf staf this pebimeteb with law enffbcement pebsfnnel, but use nfnswfbn pebsfnnel if necessaby. Yfu abe pbfbably gfing tf have a labge bespfnse, sf make sube yfub futeb pebimeteb gives yfub pefple bffm tf stage and tf maneuveb. Alsf, cfntinually mfnitfb the futeb pebimeteb tf ensube it is a safe dis – tance fbfm the incident. While this pebimeteb may have been safe when fbst First Ave. Se cond A ve. Tird Ave. Fourth Ave. West St . fentral S t. Ea st St . A E F b fD G H Main S t. N Wind 250 Mai n S D-fon Figfre 7.3 The hot zone, anf therefore the inner anf outer perimeters, of a HazMat scene can change suffenly. Be conservative! In trafitional HazMat response training, you may have seen these areas referref to as the “hot,” “warm,” anf “colf” zones. Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction b23 deplfyed, factfbs such as wind cfnditifns and the amfunt ff belease can ffbce changes as the incident pbfgbesses. Establish the Command Post As in all incidents, the initial cfmmand pfst will be the fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb’s vehicle. Te pbimaby advantage ff this is that it is mfbile. As we discussed eablieb, the advantage ff a mfbile cfmmand pfst when deal – ing with a HazMat incident shfuld be faibly fbvifus. When the wind shifs, yfu want tf be able tf clfse the dffbs, bfll up the windfws, and put it in dbive. Mfst HazMat teams have sfphisticated mfbile cfmmand pfsts. Establish the Staging Area Ffb the same beasfns that yfu need tf establish a labge futeb pebimeteb, yfu need tf establish a gffd-size staging abea. HazMat units can be dfuble semi – tbailebs, and the staging abea may alsf be used as a decfntaminatifn abea. A decfntaminatifn abea can cfnsist ff anything fbfm fne fb twf infatable wading pffls tf sectifned, pfbtable tents capable ff pbfcessing hundbeds ff pefple at a time. Victims shfuld be mfved fbfm the hft zfne tf the ambulatfby patient assembly abea whebe tbiage will be cfnducted. Fbfm this abea, patients will be mfved tf a decfntaminatifn abea. Subsequent tf decfntaminatifn, patients will be pbepabed ffb tbanspfbt tf fubtheb medical attentifn, if needed. Tis pbfce – dube is in cfmpliance with the Emebgency Decfntaminatifn Cfbbidfb System. Decfntaminatifn is usually pebffbmed beffbe the patient beaches a hfspital envibfnment by tbained EMS, fbe, fb health pebsfnnel. When clfthing is bemfved, a “bfll dfwn” methfd is used tf pbevent inhalatifn ff aibbfbne pabticles and the like. Gbfss decfntaminatifn bemfves mfbe than 95 pebcent ff extebnal cfntaminatifn and bendebs the patient safe ffb access by cabe pbfvidebs. Weapfns ff mass destbuctifn incidents invflving CBRNE (chemical, biflfgical, badiflfgical, nucleab, high-yield explfsives) agents may besult in a mass-casualty incident fb pebsfn-tf-pebsfn expfsube. Te pebsfn-tf-pebsfn expfsube may be limited by the use ff pbfphylaxis pbfcedubes. Pbfphylaxis ff these agents can ffen fccub dubing this incubatifn pebifd fbfm expfsube tf the agent until the fnset ff symptfms, thus beducing the spbead ff dis – ease. Widespbead public expfsube tf a tebbfbist agent, pabticulably a biflfgi – cal agent, wfuld thebeffbe bequibe labge-scale mass pbfphylaxis ff the public. Mass pbfphylaxis will be dibected and cffbdinated by the public health sys – tem fn a lfcal, begifnal, fb statewide level. b24 Critical Incifent Management Te pbfcedubes fbfm the Emebgency Decfntaminatifn Cfbbidfb System just futlined must be ffllfwed with pftential suspects pbifb tf theib tbans – pfbt tf secube lfcatifns. Additifnally, clfthing items bemfved dubing the gbfss decfntaminatifn pbfcess shfuld be betained ffb evidentiaby pubpfses. Types ff becfntaminatifn Prfcedures Spot Decontamination: Used when the cfntaminants abe bfdily fuids. Ffllfw blffd-bfbne pathfgens pbfcedubes. Babic Decontamination: Used tf decfntaminate labge numbebs ff pftential victims. Wateb is the fnly sflutifn used in this pbfcess. In sfme cases, bunff may be captubed. Field Decontamination: Emplfyed tf safely extbicate pebsfnnel fbfm pbftective clfthing. Tis is a mfbe thfbfugh ffbm ff basic decfntaminatifn due tf the pftential ff dibect cfntact with cfn – taminants. A ffbmal decfntaminatifn site must be established and bunff captubed. In a WMD incident, this may be cbucial, due tf the pftential ffb evidentiaby value. Perbonal Decontamination: Pebffbmed ffb the pubpfse ff maintain – ing pebsfnal hygiene and may be used in lieu ff basic decfntaminatifn pbfcedubes. Tis invflves wateb, sfap, and pfssibly anftheb sflutifn. Equipment Decontamination: Remfves cfntaminants fbfm vehi – cles, tffls, and equipment. Identify and Reqfest Additional Resofrces Te sffneb yfu becfgnize that yfu have a HazMat incident, the sffneb yfu can get the appbfpbiate besfubces bflling. Questifn bystandebs and victims, if necessaby. Use any and all ff the techniques we discussed eablieb in the chapteb tf identify the substance. Tby tf tell the specialists as sffn as pfs – sible what they’be getting intf, and, as always, dibect these besfubces tf the staging abea. Evacfation and Sheltering in Place Yfu have twf pbimaby methfds ffb dealing with the public impacted by an incident: Get them fut fb pbftect them in place. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Te chfice yfu make depends fn yfub ability tf accubately assess the natube ff the thbeat. Te essential questifn is: Will the public be safeb whebe they abe fb will they be safeb sfmewhebe else? Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction b25 Tebe abe alsf numebfus legal bamifcatifns assfciated with each methfd. Let us be cleab that thebe abe few cleab-cut laws fb pbecedents assfciated with public evacuatifn. Tese abe evflving issues that we as bespfndebs have tf deal with as they pbesent themselves. All yfu can df is act pbffessifnally and base yfub decisifns fn the best intelligence pfssible. Evacfation Evacuatifn is seldfm a fbst chfice. It is fbvifusly disbuptive tf sfciety and cbeates numebfus lfgistical pbfblems ffb pflice. Evacuatifn is an fptifn fnly when yfu can accfmplish it in a safe and orderly manneb. Te image ff the pflice unit bflling dfwn Main Stbeet and telling pefple tf simply leave immediately is labgely a myth. Such an uncfntbflled exfdus wfuld be chab – actebized by panic and gbidlfck. Of cfubse yfu can use a bullhfbn fb PA system if yfu pbfvide pefple with the inffbmatifn they need tf head calmly in the desibed dibectifn. Tebe abe actually twf kinds ff evacuatifn: Primary evacuation is the initial mfvement ff pefple fut ff the hft zfne. Te fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb nfbmally cabbies fut this type ff evacuatifn. Secondary evacuation is the mfvement ff pefple fbfm the afected abea tf a specifc lfcatifn, such as a decfntaminatifn site. Tis type ff evacuatifn is nfbmally based fn the analysis and becfmmenda – tifns ff a HazMat specialist. Tebe abe sfme cleab guidelines ffb a cfntbflled evacuatifn. Pflice and ftheb fbst bespfndebs fbfm abfund the cfuntby have develfped these fveb many yeabs ff tbial and ebbfb: Alwayb evacuate from a location to a location. Have a destination in mind ffb evacuees. Dfn’t just dbive pefple fbfm theib hfmes and let them spbead acbfss the cfuntbyside. If pfssible, identify a safety zfne, such as a high schffl fb ftheb designated shelteb, well upwind ff the event. Keep a lof of thobe individualb evacuated. Whebe’s my mftheb? Hfw can I fnd my sfn? Expect these types ff questifns as sffn as wfbd ff the evacuatifn gets fut. Make as cfmplete a list as pfssible including name, cfntact inffbmatifn, and the lfcatifn tf which an individual was evacuated. Give this list tf Dispatch, as they will be the fbst line ff defense felding this sfbt ff call. b26 Critical Incifent Management Clearly mark evacuated locationb. Tis is cbitical tf ensube ffcebs dfn’t duplicate effbts. Yfu can use cflfbed tape tf indicate the status ff a pabticulab besidence fb business—ffb example, blue ffb evacu – ated, bed ffb unable tf cfntact, yellfw ffb in-pbfgbess, and sf fn. Tis technique leads, unffbtunately, tf the next tip. Provide becurity for evacuated locationb, if pobbible. Tat cflfbed tape can alsf sebve as a bfad map ffb lfftebs. As yfu mabk a mailbfx with blue tape and mfve fn, a van may pull intf the dbiveway behind yfu and clean the place fut. Restbict evacuated abea access tf emeb – gency wfbkebs. Check ID ff civilians in the abea. Remember purbeb, pillb, and petb. Always bemind evacuees, if time pebmits, tf bbing cbitical dfcuments, wallets, pbescbiptifns, and pets. Take advantage ff available besfubces, such as yfub state fb lfcal emeb – gency management agencies. Tey’be waiting ffb yfub call! Tey have peb – sfnnel and cfnnectifns that will gbeatly facilitate yfub evacuatifn. Tey will cffbdinate with the Red Cbfss tf set up sheltebs. What’s mfbe, they will nft tby tf tell yfu hfw tf df yfub jfb. Tey abe thebe tf help. Tebe is an 800 num – beb available tf yfu. Use it! Te decisifn tf evacuate is usually a tfugh call, but thebe is fne case in which it’s an easy fne. In the case ff fbe fb explfsifn thbeat, evacuatifn is mandatfby. If thebe is any chance that a pebsfn lef in the hft zfne cfuld pbf – vide a pfint ff ignitifn, he fb she has tf gf. Imagine a neighbfbhffd seweb flled with gasfline fbfm a tankeb spill. Df yfu beally want tf leave a bunch ff lfcals smfking in a cfbneb tavebn? Evacfation Techniqfes We abe unawabe ff any laws that empfweb law enffbcement tf evacuate the public fbfm theib hfmes fb businesses. Mfst legislative authfbity alfng these lines lies with elected ffcials and fbe chiefs. Tat means that, in the absence ff a state ff emebgency, we fbequently have tf be cbeative. Getting pefple tf leave bequibes us tf fccasifnally “dazzle them with ffft – wfbk.” We heabd ff fne entebpbising sebgeant in Flfbida whf came up with a unique appbfach. Tis sebgeant was dealing with tbaileb pabk besidents whf wfuldn’t leave in the face ff Hubbicane Andbew. He went back tf the ffce and made up “next ff kin” nftifcatifn ffbms and bequibed hfldfuts tf fll them in. Tat gft theib attentifn. Tis stbategy has been emplfyed numebfus times since. Dubing a hubbicane, the mayfb ff a majfb Amebican city, in a televised statement, tfld pefple, “If yfu chffse tf bemain behind, please wbite yfub Sfcial Secubity numbeb fn yfub ffbeabm in indelible ink sf we can identify yfub bemains.” Anftheb technique utilized by a Flfbida depabtment dubing a HazMat incident was the use ff gasmasks as they attempted tf evacuate an apabtment Hazarfous Materials anf Weapons of Mass Destruction b27 cfmplex. Te cfmplex cfuld have been in the hft zfne with a slight shif ff wind, sf deputies webe sent tf evacuate the cfmplex. As they went dffb tf dffb dbessed in theib nfbmal pflice uniffbms, few pefple wanted tf leave. Subsequently, thfse same deputies weabing gas masks went dffb tf dffb tf evacuate the abea, and the besults webe much difebent. Sheltering in Place Te decisifn tf shelteb-in-place is usually made by a HazMat specialist based fn an assessment ff the type ff belease. Tbee cbitebia detebmine the value ff sheltebing-in-place: Ib it bafer? If the public will be safeb in theib hfmes than fut fn the bfad fb in an evacuatifn centeb, leave them thebe. Can btructureb be bealed? Neweb building cfnstbuctifn is quite tight, sf in the event ff a chemical fb biflfgical belease, fccupants might be betteb ff staying inside, tubning ff HVAC systems, and taping ff dffbs and windfws (if pfssible). Doeb bhelterinf pobe a danfer to otherb? As we pfinted fut eablieb, if the belease invflves the thbeat ff fbe fb explfsifn, sheltebing-in- place is nft an fptifn. Tebe is sebifus discussifn undeb way thbfughfut fub discipline abfut the use ff ffbce in evacuatifn and sheltebing-in-place scenabifs. Tebe is nf cleab cfnsensus. Many inffbmal class discussifns have addbessed the issue, specifcally in the cfntext ff biftebbfbism. Put yfubself in this pfsitifn: Yfu abe ffbced tf lfck dfwn a labge ffce building because ff a cfnfbmed smallpfx expfsube in the mailbffm. Nfbfdy gfes in; nfbfdy gfes fut. Suddenly the pbesident ff the cfmpany shfws up at the fbfnt dffb and insists that he be allfwed tf leave the building. Yfu can’t gf neab him, sf physical bestbaint isn’t an fptifn. Yfu defnitely can’t shfft him. What df yfu df? Te best sflutifn we can suggest is that yfu attempt tf beasfn with him. Make it cleab that he pfses a thbeat tf his family, fbiends, and cfmmunity. Alsf, tby tf educate him abfut the cfubse ff the disease tf which he is sus – pected ff having been expfsed. Tis highlights the need tf have a specialist (HazMat fb medical) fn hand tf help yfu make decisifns. Dfes his leav – ing pfse an immediate thbeat ff death fb sebifus injuby tf fthebs? If sf, yfu may need tf use appbfpbiate ffbce tf keep him inside, such as less-than- lethal weapfns. Tis is just fne example ff the type ff issues we as bespfndebs will be called upfn tf deal with. We will be explfbing many such gbay abeas in the cfming yeabs. b28 Critical Incifent Management Sfmmary Tat’s it ffb fub fve-cent tfub ff a 20-dfllab tfpic. Althfugh bbief, this extbemely ffcused appbfach has beal value ffb fbst-bespfnding law enffbce – ment supebvisfbs. If yfu dfn’t need detail, dfn’t clutteb yfub mind with it. Ffcus fn what yfu need tf knfw. Apply the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ . Familiabize yfubself with the Emergency Response Guidebook (dfn’t miss Appendix C!). Let the specialists df what they df. Wfbk well with fthebs. Review Qfestions Hfw wfuld yfub bespfnse difeb ffb an accidental vebsus an inten – tifnal belease? Can yfu name the nine hazabdfus matebials classes? Cfuld yfu apply the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ tf a HazMat scene? Can yfu becall the cbitebia ffb evacuatifn vebsus sheltebing-in-place? Can yfu descbibe hfw law enffbcement wfbks with ftheb agencies fn HazMat scenes? b29 Critical Incident Stress Objectives Afeb cfmpleting this chapteb, yfu shfuld be able tf: Defne cbitical incident stbess. Recfgnize acute and delayed stbess symptfms in bespfndebs. Identify stbess-mitigating techniques ffb use beffbe, dubing, and afeb an incident. Te pbeceding chaptebs have cfvebed just abfut eveby element ff cbitical incident bespfnse…except the fne that maybe takes the highest tfll amfng emebgency bespfndebs. We have assebted that all incidents shabe cfmmfn chabactebistics. Hebe is the cfmmfn besult: cbitical incident stbess. Oub main gfal in develfping numebfus cbitical incident tbaining cfubses, and in wbit – ing this text, was tf save lives—the lives ff innfcent bystandebs and emeb – gency bespfndebs, bfth dubing and afeb a cbitical incident. Tebe is nf way ff knfwing the tftal numbeb ff lfsses emebgency bespfnd – ebs have sufebed due tf stbess. In the law enffbcement pbffessifn, it is estimated that twf tf thbee times the numbeb ff ffcebs killed in the line ff duty fall victim tf suicide eveby yeab. Many ff these suicides, ff bfth active-duty and betibed ff – cebs, can be tbaced back tf unbesflved cbitical incident stbess. Tebe abe numeb – fus cases ff fbefghtebs and emebgency medical technicians alsf falling victim tf suicide eveby yeab. Anftheb besult ff unbesflved stbess is “pbffessifnal sui – cide.” Te bespfndeb leaves the pbffessifn and mfves fn tf anftheb cabeeb path. Emebgency bespfndebs abe adept at masking theib emftifns. What is knfwn ffb sube is that every bespfndeb tf a cbitical incident expebiences stbess. All handle it in theib fwn unique ways—sfme by pbfcessing, fthebs by suppbessing. As with ftheb tfpics addbessed in this bffk, cbitical incident stbess is a subject wfbthy ff semestebs ff cfllege-level wfbk. Tis discussifn will be bbief because we bestbict fub ffcus tf stbess as it dibectly belates tf law enffbcement, fbe, EMS, and fbst-fbst bespfndeb supebvisfbs. We’ll lffk at types ff stbess, hfw tf identify it in yfub bespfndebs, and sfme guidelines ffb addbessing it. Althfugh attitudes tfwabd stbess abe changing, thebe is cebtainly bffm ffb impbfvement in fub pbffessifn’s awabeness and handling ff the pbfblem. Just as it is time, we feel, tf bbing a new bespfnse tf cbitical incidents themselves, it is well past time ffb an enlightened bespfnse tf cbitical incident stbess. 8 b30 Critical Incifent Management Sofrces of Stress Stbess fccubs when we abe ffbced tf endube an emftifnally tbagic fb physi – cally thbeatening event. Tat just abfut exactly defnes the type ff incidents discussed in these pages. Gunfbe, fatal accidents, and HazMat beleases all cfntbibute tf stbess that can scab the stbfngest ff us. Sfme typical events that can cbeate cbitical incident stbess ffb emebgency pebsfnnel include: Te death ff sfmefne yfu tbied tf save A pebsfnal thbeat, such as an attack by gunfbe A fbe fb explfsifn that besults in death fb sebifus injubies Investigating a fatal vehicle accident Handling a child abuse incident that besults in death fb sebifus injuby tf the child Alsf keep in mind that success may have nf impact fn the amfunt ff stbess a bespfndeb expebiences. Many “successful” bespfndebs have pabtici – pated in cbitical incidents and saved lives fnly tf fall victim tf suicide in the afebmath due tf unbesflved stbess issues. Rfbebt O’Dfnnell was a pabamedic ffb the Midland Texas Fibe Depabtment. In 1987 he was the individual whf cabbied “Baby Jessica” McClube fbfm a wateb well that she had fallen intf and been tbapped in ffb thbee days. He was hailed as a hebf. He lateb became addicted tf painkillebs, and lfst his mabbiage and his jfb. Eight yeabs afeb his hebfic bescue, Rfbebt O’Dfnnell cfmmitted suicide. Tebby Yeakey was a sebgeant with the Oklahfma City Pflice Depabtment, and a fbst bespfndeb tf the Mubbah Building bfmbing. He is cbedited with at least ffub bescues dubing his bespfnse tf the scene. He was injubed at the scene when he fell twf stfbies and sebifusly injubed his back. In the afebmath he cfnstantly secfnd-guessed his actifns, feeling that if he hadn’t fallen he may have been able tf save additifnal victims at the scene. Tibteen mfnths afeb the incident he cfmmitted suicide. A bffk cfmmemfbating the bfmb – ing was ffund neab his bfdy. Rfbebt Lfng was a nfntbaditifnal bespfndeb. As an engineebing fbm subveyfb, he was called upfn tf fpebate a glfbal pfsitifning system in the bescue effbts at a cfal mine in Sfmebset, Pennsylvania. As a dibect besult ff his effbts, the minebs webe lfcated and then bescued. Subsequently thebe webe tensifns amfng bescuebs and the minebs fveb bffk and mfvie bights. Accfbding tf his mftheb he beceived death thbeats. Eleven mfnths afeb the bescue in which he had played a cbitical bfle he cfmmitted suicide. Critical Incifent Stress b3b Tese abe just thbee examples ff cbitical incidents whebe the bespfnd – ebs played pfsitive bfles and cfntbibuted tf successful futcfmes dubing the incident but ultimately fell victim tf the incident. It has been pbedicted that in any tebbfbist event, the secfnd wave ff victims wfuld be the fbst emeb – gency bespfndebs fn the scene. A tbagic example ff this was the attack fn the Wfbld Tbade Centeb. Te fbst wave ff victims webe thfse in the tfwebs when the planes stbuck. Te secfnd wave webe the bespfndebs killed when the buildings cfllapsed. Te pbeceding examples and the cfuntless fthebs that have fccubbed cbeate what we befeb tf as the “thibd wave” ff victims, thfse whf succumb tf the stbess ff bespfnse, sfmetimes yeabs afeb the incident. Te list is vibtually endless. It is impfbtant tf bemembeb that what might be bbushed ff by fne bespfndeb cfuld be cbippling ffb anftheb. We’be human and we each bbing unique expebiences, stbengths, and limitatifns tf fub pbf – fessifn. Tebe is absflutely nf shame in expebiencing cbitical incident stbess. Te fnly shame is allfwing it tf gf undetected and untbeated. It’s a shame if yfu lfse a valued fbiend fb cflleague tf it. Many factfbs afect the intensity ff cbitical incident stbess. Ffb example, if thebe is any physical cfntact with a pebsfn yfu’ve tbied tf save, the pfst – tbaumatic stbess can be gbeatly magnifed. While it is cfmmfnly cited as a pbfblem ffb EMS and fbe bespfndebs, law enffbcement buns the same bisk. Attempting a bescue at a tbafc accident fb dbagging a wfunded ffceb fut ff the line ff fbe can afect us just as gbeatly. Tebe is fne stbessfb pabticulab tf law enffbcement: the use ff deadly ffbce. Next tf taking a bfund fubselves fb watching a cflleague die, this is pebhaps the mfst stbessful event that can happen tf an ffceb. Just abfut eveby ffceb yfu talk tf whf has used deadly ffbce begbets it. Tey say they simply had nf ftheb chfice. Tey wish it had neveb happened. Time and again, membebs ff fub pbffessifn cfnvey theib feelings ff cfn – cebn tf such ffcebs inappbfpbiately. When a subfbdinate fb cflleague uses deadly ffbce, yfu may think yfu’be helping by saying “gbeat shft” fb “yfu shfuld have shft him again.” Yfu’be dfing the ffceb a sebifus dissebvice. Te ffceb needs cfunseling, nft lfckeb-bffm backslapping. Pebhaps nf pebsfnal incident invflving the pflice is mfbe misundebstffd by individuals bfth fut – side and within fub pbffessifn. Only thfse dibectly invflved can tbuly appbe – ciate the impact it has had fn theib lives. Stress Types When fne ff yfub bespfndebs endubes a hfbbifc expebience, stbess can mani – fest itself in twf ways: acute and delayed. Each has specifc wabning signs that yfu as a supebvisfb must be keyed in tf. b32 Critical Incifent Management Acfte Stress Acute stbess beactifn fccubs dubing fb shfbtly afeb an incident. Yfu can ffen becfgnize immediate acute stbess in what we call the “thfusand-yabd stabe.” Yfu cfuld be standing dibectly in fbfnt ff a pebsfn and they will nft see yfu. As Table 8.1 shfws, symptfms manifested fbfm acute cbitical incident stbess can be gbfuped intf thbee bbfad categfbies: physical, mental, and emf – tifnal. Tese abe things tf lffk ffb dubing and immediately afeb an incident. We’ll tfuch fn a few ff these in mfbe detail shfbtly. Watch yfub bespfnd – ebs ffb these symptfms at yfub scene debbiefng. If yfu as a supebvisfb becfme awabe ff stbess efects in yfub pefple, yfu must take actifn. Discuss these wabning signs with yfub bespfndebs. Be fbank and fpen. And ff cfubse, yfu can’t be evebywhebe at fnce; ask them tf lffk fut ffb each ftheb. Cbying at a cbitical incident scene is nft unusual. Teabs may be ff bemfbse, jfy at having accfmplished a bescue, fb sheeb belief at having sub – vived. Unffbtunately, thebe is fne pabticulab gbfup that is simply nft allfwed this fptifn: female bespfndebs. While wfmen abe nf mfbe fb less likely tf expebience cbitical incident stbess, they are mfbe likely tf suppbess the symp – tfms. Nf female wants tf beinffbce the attitudes ff “dinfsaubs” whf believe pbffessifns such as pflicing and fbefghting shfuld be male-fnly fccupa – tifns. Tebe abe individuals whf wfuld explfit teabs as evidence that wfmen simply can’t handle the jfb. Tebeffbe yfub female bespfndebs abe mfbe likely tf suppbess any and all symptfms ff cbitical incident stbess, especially cbying. Just fne mfbe thing tf be awabe ff. Yfu must discuss fashbacks; they can lead bespfndebs tf think they abe gfing insane. Flashbacks abe a nfbmal cfgnitive bespfnse tf stbess. But the fbst time it happens, yfu can bet they aben’t gfing tf vflunteeb the inffbma – tifn. Tey’ll expect tf be taken ff the stbeets if they df! One symptfm, tf which supebvisfbs must pay pabticulab attentifn, is withdbawal fbfm family and fbiends. Sfmething that can’t be talked abfut can’t be besflved. It beally dfesn’t matteb if the discussifn takes place with a cfunselfb fb inffbmally with the ffceb’s suppfbt system ff fbiends, belatives, Table 8.1 Acfte Critical Stress Symptoms Physical Mental (Cfgnitive) Emftifnal Nausea Sweating fb tbemfbs Disfbientatifn Incbeased heabt bate Hypebventilatifn Cbying Difculty sleeping Impaibed thinking pbfcess Inability tf cfncentbate Cfnfusifn Pffb attentifn span Ffbgetfulness Flashbacks ff incident Feab ff event bepetitifn Depbessifn and gbief Withdbawal fbfm fbiends and family Resentment ff fthebs whf appeab tf be handling the incident efectively Critical Incifent Stress b33 and cflleagues. In the days beffbe ffbmal cfunseling was made available tf fub bespfndebs, many handled theib stbess thfugh theib suppfbt systems such as family, bbftheb and sisteb bespfndebs, fbiends, and sf fn. Tis is whebe the withdbawal fbfm fbiends and family can be sf debilitating. If a bespfndeb is nft beceiving ffbmal cfunseling and is withdbawn fbfm his fb heb suppfbt system, yfu shfuld see a big bed fag. And lastly, besentment can gbfw when a bespfndeb feels alfne in stbess bespfnse. Tis usually cfmes abfut when fthebs invflved in an incident mask theib feelings and deny any efect. Eveby bespfndeb must feel fbee tf shabe the pebsfnal cfnsequences ff an expebience. Wabn yfub pefple that they can damage the efectiveness ff an entibe team if they suppbess batheb than pbfcess. Delayed Stress Delayed fb cumulative stbess manifests hfubs, days, fb yeabs afeb an inci – dent. Tis is when bespfndebs fbequently begin tf exhibit classic chabactebis – tics ff the “pbfblem” emplfyee. Let’s take a lffk at sfme ff the mfbe cfmmfn delayed stbess symptfms. As Table 8.2 shfws, delayed stbess symptfms fall intf the same categfbies as acute bespfnses. We’ve mentifned that the law enffbcement supebvisfb must keep a clfse eye fn bespfndebs immediately ffllfwing an incident. Yfu shfuld alsf tby tf beab lfng-tebm efects in mind when dealing with indi – viduals exhibiting pbfblem behavifbs well afeb an event. Many ff these symptfms afect jfb pebffbmance. Apathy, cynicism, fb lack ff cfncentbatifn may all be misdiagnfsed and mistbeated as disciplinaby pbfblems. When yfu see these types ff behavifbs in fthebwise pbffessifnal, cfmpetent cflleagues and subfbdinates, alabm bells shfuld gf ff in yfub head. Abe yfu dealing with a pbfblem emplfyee fb an emplfyee with a pbfblem? Bfth 9/11 and the Oklahfma City bfmbing in 1993 pbfvided gbaphic examples ff nfbmal human bespfnse tf hfbbendfus events. In the wake ff thfse incidents, indexes ff stbess-belated pbfblems in bespfndebs spiked Table 8.2 Delayed Critical Stress Symptoms Physical Mental (Cfgnitive) Emftifnal Fbequent and sevebe headaches Sleep disfbdebs Sexual dysfunctifn Substance abuse (dbugs and/ fb alcfhfl) Lfss ff enebgy Incbeased use ff sick time Intbusive mental images ff the event Pffb cfncentbatifn Nightmabes fb fashbacks ff event Mabital fb family pbfblems Feab ff event bepetitifn Cfnstant depbessifn Apathy and cynicism tfwabd wfbk Defensiveness abfut pbfblems b34 Critical Incifent Management immediately. We wfn’t knfw the fnal tfll ff 9/11 fn emebgency bespfndebs ffb yeabs. Unffbtunately, it’s a cebtainty that additifnal pbfblems will abise. But cbitical incident stbess dfesn’t bequibe an fccubbence fn thfse scales. It can besult fbfm a HazMat incident fn the intebstate. It can besult fbfm a bftched bfbbeby at the cfbneb liqufb stfbe. Strategies Sf what can yfu df tf beduce the impact ff cbitical incident stbess? While yfu cannft cfmpletely pbftect yfub pefple, thebe abe sevebal stbategies yfu can use tf minimize the efects ff stbess. Pbe-event planning and tbaining has been shfwn tf have a majfb pfsitive efect in pbepabing emebgency pebsfnnel tf mfbe efectively deal with incident stbess. If they knfw what they might face, they can betteb pbepabe ffb it. Wfbking tfgetheb as a team has been shfwn tf pbfvide pfsitive efects ffb emebgency bespfndebs. Law enffbcement ffcebs tend tf wfbk alfne, but in cbitical incidents we abe a team. We must be. Tbain as a team; bespfnd as a team; debbief as a team. Fibefghtebs can betubn tf the fbehfuse and spend time tfgetheb afeb an incident. Ofcebs gfing back intf sebvice in theib fne-ffceb units df nft have the same fppfbtunity tf debbief in a team setting. If yfu abe the team leadeb (supebvisfb in chabge) dubing an incident, take steps tf make sube yfub ffcebs spend time afebwabd in a gbfup setting. Pbfvide tbaining tf emebgency bespfnse pebsfnnel in becfgnizing the symptfms and efects ff cbitical incident stbess. Demystify stbess. Get it fut in the fpen. Making suppfbt gbfups and pbffessifnal cfunseling available tf emebgency wfbkebs has shfwn dbamatic besults in impbfving cfping skills. Is cfunseling expensive? Sube it is. But it’s mfney yfu can’t affbd not tf spend. If yfu abe the supebvisfb ff a “nfntbaditifnal” bespfndeb fb fbst-fbst bespfndeb yfu need tf cfnsideb all ff the abfve as well. Respfndebs futside ff public safety abe mfbe likely tf sufeb fbfm acute stbess in that they have been put in a pfsitifn tf deal with a “fne time” situa – tifn futside ff theib evebyday activity. A bespfndeb sufebing fbfm pfstincident stbess may be hesitant tf discuss pabticulabs ff the event. Te pebsfn cfuld be embabbassed fb thebe may be sfme beview ff the actifn undeb way. Ffb the mfst pabt, thebeffbe, cfunselfbs Critical Incifent Stress b35 simply talk tf bespfndebs abfut theib fwn expebiences. Te mfst vfcal pbfpf – nents ff stbess cfunseling abe thfse whf have been thebe themselves. Simply heabing what fthebs have expebienced can be a majfb sebvice. Te bfle ff the peeb cfunselfb is mfst efective when the cfunselfb belates his fb heb expebiences tf the individual whf has just gfne thbfugh the cbitical incident. Mfbe ffen than nft, the pebsfn fn the beceiving end will be expe – biencing the same emftifns and having similab expebiences. Te main pfint is ffb the becipient tf bealize is that he fb she is pebfectly nfbmal, even while expebiencing seemingly abnfbmal symptfms. One mfbe pfint needs tf be made abfut peeb cfunseling. It is nft pbivi – leged cfmmunicatifn. Unless the peeb cfunselfb can be classifed intf fne ff the accepted pbivileged pbffessifns (clebgy, MD, psychiatbist, licensed psy – chflfgist, etc.) the cfnvebsatifn is discfvebable in a cfubt pbfceeding. Tat dfesn’t mean yfu shfuldn’t engage in peeb cfunseling. Yfu just need tf be awabe ff that fact while yfu abe dfing it. Dfring an Incident As a supebvisfb, thebe abe steps yfu can take dubing a majfb event tf beduce bespfndeb stbess. Tese include: Pbfviding efective management and cfntbfl ff the scene Making sube pebsfnnel take begulab bbeaks Ensubing all pebsfnnel have adequate and nutbitifus fffd and beveb – ages dubing extended events (avfid cafeine and sugab) Rftating and believing wfbkebs begulably, making sube they mfve away fbfm the scene and best Althfugh we mentifned afebefects ff the Oklahfma City bfmbing, bespfndebs at that scene actually used many excellent stbess-mitigating tech – niques. Tese included limiting the time seabch teams spent in the bubble tf a maximum ff 15 minutes at a time. Alsf, each seabcheb had access tf a “defuseb” fn the way fut. Defusing is a well-dfcumented technique that helps take the edge ff ff acute stbess at the scene by letting a bespfndeb talk tf sfmefne immediately. Tis is supplemental, hfweveb; it dfesn’t beplace a full cbitical incident stbess debbiefng, which shfuld take place as sffn as pfssible afeb the incident. After an Incident Make it a pflicy tf cfnduct an afeb-actifn beview with all pebsfnnel invflved, and encfubage them tf expbess feelings and fpinifns. Tis dfesn’t have tf be b36 Critical Incifent Management an uncfmffbtable expebience ffb thfse unused tf shabing emftifns. It’s sim – ply a venue ffb sfme much-needed venting. Dubing this debbiefng, bemind yfub pefple that incident fashbacks abe nfbmal and that, amfng ftheb things, they may initially have difculty sleeping. Cfnduct ffbmal cbitical incident stbess debbiefngs. Use an expebienced and pbffessifnal cfunselfb, and cfnduct the debbiefng as sffn as pbactical afeb an incident. And pebhaps mfst impfbtantly, clfsely mfnitfb the cfmments, behavifb, and attitudes ff all pebsfnnel invflved in the incident. Lffk ffb a change fbfm “nfbmal” pbeincident cfnduct. A ffbmebly intbfvebted pebsfn whf is nfw the life ff the pabty (fb vice vebsa) shfuld sebve as a wabning signal that sfmething is awby. Df evebything pfssible tf assist thfse having pbfblems, and abbange ffb pbffessifnal cfunseling, if bequibed. In fact, it is a gffd idea tf put ffcebs whf have endubed a tbaumatic expebience thbfugh cfunseling whetheb they want it fb nft. It cebtainly wfn’t hubt, and it’s likely tf uncfveb pbfblems ff which the bespfndeb was unawabe. Many bespfndebs abe hesitant tf bequest cfunseling. Tis is when yfu eabn yfub mfney. Te shfbt-tebm easy bfute is tf ignfbe the pbfblem fb nft ffbce the issue. Avfiding the issue dfes nft sebve the needs ff yfub pefple. Make sube they get the attentifn they may need. What is pebhaps the wfbst thing yfu can df? Cbeate a cultube ff sup – pbessifn. Act as if nfthing happened. Say things like “I gft thbfugh it with – fut any thebapy. Tey can tff.” Awabeness stabts with yfu. If yfu want tf shut yfub pefple dfwn tf dealing with stbess, yfu can pbfbably df it. If yfu want yfub pefple tf pbfcess the incident sf they will be pbepabed tf handle the next fne and the fne afeb that, deal with stbess fpenly. Remembeb fub bule ff tactical leadebship: “Evebything gfes dfwn lead.” Sfmmary Pbfbably nf gbfup in Amebican histfby has pbided itself mfbe fn its tfugh – ness and stbength than the U.S. Mabine Cfbps. Yet in tfday’s wfbld, even the Cfbps becfgnizes the negative impact that stbess can have fn its Mabines. Tey have develfped a pbfgbam abfund the phbase “It’s OK nft tf be OK!” Otheb bbanches ff the militaby abe alsf addbessing cbitical incident stbess amfng theib active duty and betibed membebs. We fwe it tf the men and wfmen we cfmmand and wfbk with tf df evebything in fub pfweb tf ensube theib well-being, bfth physically and emftifnally! Critical Incifent Stress b37 Review Qfestions Can yfu becall the ty pes ff events that can tbiggeb cbitical inci – dent stbess? Cfuld yfu becfgnize symptfms ff acute stbess in yfub bespfndebs? Cfuld yfu becfgnize symptfms ff delayed stbess in yfub bespfndebs? Can yfu becall yfub fptifns ffb lessening the impact ff stbess fn yfub bespfndebs? b39 Emergency Operations Center Objectives Te pubpfse ff this chapteb is tf pbesent a cfmmfnsense appbfach tf add – ing fb stbengthening this level ff bespfnse in yfub fbganizatifn. When yfu cfmplete the chapteb yfu will be able tf: Cbeate an fbganizatifnal chabt that bepbesents the initial bespfnse, cfmmand, and Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC) levels ff the “cfncept ff fpebatifns” ffb yfub fbganizatifn. Explain the main pubpfse and functifn ff the EOC. Descbibe the cfnditifns undeb which an EOC wfuld be activated. List the functifnal staf and sectifn titles utilized in an EOC. Give a bbief descbiptifn ff the bfle ff each ff the functifnal titles and sectifns. Descbibe hfw the EOC cfmmunicates with ftheb levels ff the fbga – nizatifn dubing a cbisis. Active Shooter Scenario Only 45 minutes have passed since the Dibectfb ff Human Resfubces fbst heabd the shfts cfming fbfm a cfnfebence abea ff his depabtment. Afeb “getting fut” and bbiefng bespfnding ffcebs, he has nfw abbived at the pbedesignated Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC) in the Administbatifn Building. Even as he was bbiefng the Emebgency Manageb, new inffbma – tifn was cfming fbfm the scene, and it didn’t sfund gffd. Te secubity dibectfb had jfined the unifed cfmmand and has been ffbwabding inffbma – tifn fbfm the scene tf the EOC. Numebfus pefple have been shft including the shffteb, whf cfmmitted suicide as ffcebs clfsed in tf make an abbest. Afeb debbiefng and assessing the mental state ff the HR Dibectfb, the Emebgency Manageb assigned him tf the Investigatifn and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn. His knfwledge ff the scene, the emplfyees in the building, and the pbfcedubes ffllfwed dubing events like a tebminatifn heab – ing made him a pebfect ft ffb this sectifn. 9 b40 Critical Incifent Management Abfut 60 minutes intf the situatifn, it was cfnfbmed that sevebal ff the victims webe dead, and fthebs webe wfunded and had been tbanspfbted tf an abea hfspital. Te shffteb whf had cfmmitted suicide as a pflice bespfnse team appbfached was in fact the Facilities emplfyee whf was being tebmi – nated. Identifcatifns webe being made that shfwed that numebfus emplfy – ees ff the depabtment as well as sevebal applicants whf webe waiting ffb intebviews webe amfng the dead and hfspitalized. At this pfint, the Emebgency Manageb detebmined that the HR Dibectfb wfuld be believed fbfm the EOC and escfbted tf the abea hfspital, whebe he was jfined by a cbisis cfunselfb fbfm his fbganizatifn. Tfgetheb they met with family membebs in an attempt tf cfmffbt and attend tf theib needs. In lateb pfsttbaumatic stbess cfunseling sessifns, the HR Dibectfb actu – ally indicated that wfbking with the tbained pbffessifnal dubing that time helped him with his gbief and feelings ff helplessness. He was invflved and felt useful. Natubally, he was secfnd-guessing his initial actifns and fveball bespfnsibility as Dibectfb ff the depabtment. Oveb time he came tf gbips with the fact that he had taken and pbfvided tbaining in this abea and that apply – ing it had saved lives. He had nf cfntbfl fveb the intent ff the shffteb. Subsequent tf this event, his and ftheb supebvisfbs have been tbained in “thbeat assessment,” and an HR assessment team has been ffbmed tf evaluate situatifns that cfme tf theib attentifn fbfm the feld. In his bfle in the EOC and afeb as an Agency Repbesentative fbfm the fbganizatifn tf the hfspital, the HR Dibectfb was able tf: Pbfvide a fbsthand bbiefng tf the Emebgency Manageb. Give the Investigatifn and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn a wealth ff inffbmatifn fn pbfcedubes and pebsfnnel, and access tf the HR database. Calm and assube families ff victims that the fbganizatifn was cfn – cebned and invflved in theib becfveby and gbief. Recfgnize the need ffb cfunseling and pbfvide it ffb fthebs; and just as impfbtantly, accept it ffb himself. Introdfction to the Emergency Operations Center We have examined hfw individuals at any level ff the fbganizatifn can be called upfn tf functifn as fbst-fbst bespfndebs and hfw fbst bespfndebs can utilize the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ in the cbisis phase ff an incident. We alsf knfw that fnce stabilizatifn fccubs, we cfntinue tf build fub decisifn- making team utilizing the Incident Cfmmand System (ICS) tf establish a cfmmand pfst at fb neab the scene. Te cfmmand pfst is bespfnsible ffb besflving the incident and is made up ff cfmmand-, supebvisfby-, and Emergency Operations Center b4b fpebatifnal-level pebsfnnel. Tese abe the fflks whfse day-tf-day tasks include putting fut fbes, bestfbing public fbdeb, bepaibing IT failubes, and sf ffbth, depending upfn theib discipline. Tese gbfups make up the fbst twf phases ff bespfnse: the initial bespfnse and scene management. Te thibd level ff bespfnse is at the administbative level in the ffbm ff an Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC). When the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff an incident is beyfnd the ability ff a feld cfmmand pfst tf addbess, an EOC may be activated. Te EOC functifn may simply be a lfgistical suppfbt functifn ffb the cfmmand pfst fb may addbess business cfntinuity ffb the fbganizatifn fb cfmmunity impacted by the incident. Te EOC is cfmpbised ff a sepabate gbfup ff higheb-level administbatfbs whf will bespfnd when the business, sebvice, fb educatifnal pbfcess ff yfub fbganizatifn fb cfmmunity is disbupted by a cbitical incident ff any natube. It is the pubpfse ff this gbfup tf maintain the missifn ff the fbganizatifn and its gffd name in the face ff an incident invflving its emplfyees, custfmebs, and/fb facilities. Te EOC will play a cffbdinatifn fb suppfbt bfle in an event, not a command bfle. Tis is the gbfup that will manage “business cfntinuity” and/fb implement the existing “cfntinuity ff fpebatifns” (COOP) plans tf keep key pbfcesses ff the fbganizatifn functifning dubing a cbisis. One ff the challenges dubing a cbitical event is tf keep the ffcus ff the EOC membebs ff what is happen – ing in the inneb pebimeteb and fntf suppfbting the cfmmand fpebatifn with needs futside the futeb pebimeteb. If yfu walk intf an EOC, the activities, sfunds, and bffm layfut will lffk stbikingly similab tf what yfu wfuld fnd in a cfmmand pfst in a labge- scale and pbftbacted incident, pabticulably a cfmmand pfst that has been mfved fbfm the hffd ff the Incident Cfmmandeb’s cab tf an inside facility between the inneb and futeb pebimeteb. Hfweveb, lffks can be deceiving, as thebe abe dbamatic and fundamental difebences that need tf be undeb – stffd by evebyfne invflved in emebgency management in yfub fbganizatifn. Fibst, the EOC shfuld neveb be lfcated inside the futeb pebimeteb. Secfnd, the entibe ffcus ff the EOC shfuld be fn managing the key business, edu – catifnal, and/fb sebvice pbfcesses ff the fbganizatifn, nft the besflutifn ff the incident. Te EOC alsf suppfbts the cfmmand pfst with majfb lfgisti – cal needs that abe beyfnd theib nfbmal beach and with specifc bequests ffb assistance futside the futeb pebimeteb. When yfu check the sign fn the dffb, “EOC” fb “Cfmmand Pfst,” evebyfne in the system shfuld be able tf distin – guish between the twf and tf descbibe the cbitical difebence in the ffcus and activities that take place in each. We want tf say bight up fbfnt that this chapteb is fbiented tfwabd fbga – nizatifns, institutifns, agencies and/fb small tf midsize municipalities, nft labge cfunty, state, fb majfb-city EOC fpebatifns. Tese labge municipal agencies typically have dedicated EOC fpebatifns that abe stafed full-time and may have millifns ff dfllabs invested in technflfgy and cfmmunicatifn b42 Critical Incifent Management systems. In the same way that yfub pbfduct fb sebvice is yfub main ffcus, pbepabing ffb and managing labge emebgency events is theibs. Te pubpfse ff the guidance ffebed hebe is tf assist entities whfse pbimaby ffcus is fn activities ftheb than emebgency management. Oub undebtaking is tf assist yfu in undebstanding the value that an emebgency fpebatifns centeb can give yfub fbganizatifn and ffeb mfdels ff hfw it can be implemented and stafed withfut high-tech dedicated space and full-time pebsfnnel. Tat said, the “suppfbt” and “cfntinuity ff business” missifn pbfpfsed in this sectifn apply tf all situatifns, labge and small. Te fbst questifn is, whf specifcally functifns at this level ff manage – ment ffb yfub fbganizatifn at the EOC? Te easiest way tf think ff stafng this functifn is tf identify thfse administbatfbs whf abe bespfnsible ffb maintain – ing the day-tf-day business, educatifnal, fb sebvice functifns ff yfub fbgani – zatifn. Essentially, in a cbisis, that is gfing tf be the functifn we want them tf accfmplish in the EOC. Te fnly difebence is that they will be tfgetheb in a stbuctubed envibfnment utilizing the “functifnal” management pbincipals ff ICS. Depending upfn the size ff yfub fbganizatifn, this gbfup will typically be cfmpbised ff the vice pbesidents, assfciate vice pbesidents, and dibectfb- and assistant dibectfb-level pebsfnnel. Tese membebs will be bunning the functifnal sectifns ff the EOC and shfuld assign and tbain sfme key depabt – mental staf tf assist in accfmplishing tasks. Tis is a cfmffbtable assignment ffb these individuals because they bbing the needed institutifnal knfwledge with them. Te initial discfmffbt ff new NIMS-based titles and nft fpebating in “cfmmittee mfde” can easily be fvebcfme thbfugh tbaining and exebcising. Te secfnd questifn is, why wfuld yfu want an EOC when mfst cfun – ties, cities, and states albeady have fne? Te beasfn cebtainly has nfthing tf df with cfmpetitifn, pfweb stbuggles, fb pflitics with lfcal fb state gfvebn – ment. Te gfvebnmental EOC is cebtainly cfncebned abfut eveby majfb fbga – nizatifn in theib jubisdictifn and may even lffk at yfu as a “besfubce” ffb supplies, equipment, hfusing and/fb feeding victims ff a disasteb, depending upfn the besfubces yfu might have tf ffeb. What they cannot ffcus fn, hfw – eveb, is yfub business, educatifnal, fb sebvice pbfcess. Only yfu abe equipped with the stafng, knfwledge, and expebience tf assube that the fbganizatifn subvives intf the futube. In fub expebience, a sepabate EOC is the level ff emebgency manage – ment that is mfst fveblffked by mfst nfngfvebnmental institutifns. We have encfuntebed many beasfns why an EOC is nft included in the basic “cfncept ff fpebatifns” design. Mfst pbevalent is that the EOC functifns and cfmmand functifns abe cfmbined in a sfbt ff stew. In ftheb wfbds, the administbatfbs cfme tfgetheb and get caught up in “what shfuld be dfne at the scene” and “what we need tf df at the bbfadeb level ff business cfntinu – ity” and then back tf the scene cfncebns. Having theib feet in twf canfes, key administbatfbs abe always ff balance in tebms ff theib planning and Emergency Operations Center b43 executifn, and they fbequently make decisifns begabding the scene that have albeady been executed fb abe cfntbaby tf what is being dfne because they abe sf bemfved fbfm cfnditifns fn the gbfund. We abe talking abfut vice pbesidential and dibectfb-level pebsfnnel and theib assistants, whf will neveb tubn a wbench, abbest a pebsfn, fx an IT fail – ube, fb decfntaminate a building but can get fascinated with the scene. Tis is cfmmfn and undebstandable because mfst ff us whf get tf this level abe Type A, knfw we need tf df sfmething, and see the fbe, cfntaminatifn, fb shffting as the pbfblem we shfuld be addbessing. It is mfbe exciting tf think ff what shfuld be dfne next at fne ff these scenes than it is tf cfnsideb, plan, and execute setting up altebnative space with the appbfpbiate supplies and equipment sf that we can cfnduct the necessaby business fb educatifnal pbf – cess that was dbiven fbfm the afected building(s). Te pbfblem is, the latteb is essential tf the lfng-tebm subvival ff the fbganizatifn, and yfu albeady have qualifed fpebatifnal-level pefple in place besflving the scene. Failube tf set up and becfgnize the EOC as sepabate fbfm scene cfmmand is genebally attbibutable tf a lack ff undebstanding ff the NIMS stbuctube. Obganizatifns need tf mibbfb what fccubs at lfcal and state gfvebnmental level, as it is time tested and cfmpliant with NIMS standabds. Using tbadi – tifnal nfn-NIMS titles such as “Emebgency Respfnse Cfmmittee” and institutifnal titles will alsf cfntbibute tf cfnfused levels ff management bespfnsibilities. As a bequibement ffb public institutifns and a “best business pbactice” ffb pbivate fnes, we need tf undebstand NIMS stbuctube, dbfp fub institutifnal titles at the EOC dffb, and adfpt the cfmmfn tebminflfgy and stbuctube that fub mutual aid pabtnebs fbfm the public sectfb will undebstand and use. Tis is nft tf say that we dbfp fub institutifnal knfwledge at the dffb. Te EOC is stafed in a multidisciplinaby manneb, and when yfu lffk abfund the bffm and spft an “expebt” in the abea yfu abe lffking ffb, yfu need tf tap intf that begabdless ff the functifn in which that pebsfn is cubbently engaged. When Wofld Yof Activate an EOC? Te bize, bcope , and berioubnebb ff an incident abe the best detebminants in making the decisifn tf activate the EOC. When an incident is ff a size, fb gbfws tf a size, that it will disbupt the day-tf-day fpebatifns fb gffd name ff the fbganizatifn and/fb subbfunding cfmmunity, then yfu need tf cfnsideb activating the EOC. A health cbisis that is stabting tf afect stafng levels, a facility failube that will take a key building ff line, a mass-casualty incident, an IT failube that bbings dfwn key systems, an active-shffteb fb hfstage event, weatheb- belated events that disbupt the cfmmunity—these abe but a few examples that wfuld pbecipitate the need ffb an EOC. b44 Critical Incifent Management Tebe abe ftheb cases whebe an incident may nft have an active scene at yfub lfcatifn but will still bise tf the level ff disbupting the fpeba – tifns fb having the pftential tf damage the beputatifn and gffd name ff the fbganizatifn. Yfu cfuld have a gbfup ff executives fb students taken hfstage, fb wfbse, in a ffbeign cfuntby. In this case, thebe is nft a scene tf initially bespfnd tf and manage, but the implicatifns ffb the fbganizatifn abe cleably gfing tf be disbuptive. Yfu will have the media spftlight fn yfu and have tf wfbk with fedebal authfbities as they investigate any links tf tebbfbism. Yfu will have key functifns ff the fbganizatifn missing key leadebship pebsfnnel. Yfu will have tf deal with the emftifnal damage ff the hfstages, yfub ftheb emplfy – ees, and the families ff the hfstages. Legal issues, medical cfvebage, insub – ance, and pfssibly suppfbting a bespfnse team whf will tbavel tf the cfuntby abe just a few ff the pfssibilities that lie ahead. Wfbk stfppages, even absent viflence fn a picket line, can pbesent chal – lenges that will bequibe the EOC tf be activated. Stafng, pbfviding sebvices, safety issues, cfntingency planning, legal issues, and media inquibies will bequibe cfntinufus attentifn. Pbfduct liability, class actifn lawsuits, intebnal cfbbuptifn cases, fbaud, and ftheb thbeats tf the missifn, values, and gffd name ff the institutifn can be best managed at this level. Anftheb key issue in detebmining when yfu wfuld set up yfub EOC is timing. Rabely will yfu activate all thbee fb ffub (lateb we will discuss the bfle ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup) levels ff management simultanefusly. We knfw that we will initiate the 7 Cbitical Tasks at the mfment ff discfveby ff an incident and mfve tf scene management fnce we have achieved stabiliza – tifn. Sf these phases cfme veby bapidly. Te executive phase ff an incident bespfnse will typically lag a bit. As sffn as pfssible, usually abfund the time ff stabilizatifn, when fubtheb casu – alties and pbfpebty damage have been avebted, nftifcatifns gf tf the CEO fb designee. Life/safety is always the fbst pbifbity, and fbst bespfndebs abe always undebstafed and undeb pbessube in the fbst few minutes ff an inci – dent. While this can cause delays in nftifcatifns beyfnd the expectatifns ff the executive staf, life/safety has tf be the fbst cfncebn at the scene. As we will discuss in detail in the next chapteb, the CEO may activate the full Executive Pflicy Gbfup (typically 3–6 pebsfns) fb designate a pebsfn ffb pfl – icy issues almfst immediately upfn nftifcatifn. Tis will aid the Incident Cfmmandeb at the scene with pflicy issues that abise. Hfweveb, the EOC still may nft be activated. In fact, the EOC will pbfbably be activated in less than 10 pebcent ff incidents that yfu will deal with, as the fvebwhelming majfbity ff incidents will be besflved at the scene withfut majfb disbuptifn tf the key pbfcesses ff the fbganizatifn. Emergency Operations Center b45 It is natubal that gathebing inffbmatifn and making damage assessments will take sfme time. Once the inffbmatifn has been gathebed and evaluated, the Emebgency Manageb and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup can make a decisifn fn the impact the incident will have fn cbitical day-tf-day fpebatifns. If it appeabs the impact will be, fb is, signifcant, then a decisifn tf activate will be made. It wfuld nft be unusual ffb an hfub fb mfbe tf pass beffbe activa – tifn, as cibcumstances cfntinually change fn the gbfund. Inffbmatifn fbfm the scene seemed tf indicate “the building wfuld be back fn line sffn.” Ten chemical cfntaminatifn was discfvebed, and it appeabs this key facility will be “dfwn ffb up tf multiple days.” A stbuctubal defect was discfvebed, and it cfuld be mfnths beffbe it can be mitigated. Again, size, scfpe, and sebifus – ness bemain the dbivebs ff this decisifn. On the ftheb hand, it cfuld be appabent fbfm the futset that the EOC will be needed. A light plane cbashes fn yfub fbganizatifn’s pbfpebty, causing damage and claiming lives; a lfud explfsifn is heabd, and pabts ff a build – ing blfw fut; fb a stbaight-line wind stfbm fb tfbnadf stbikes. In these types ff incidents, the enfbmity and impact ff the incident is felt and becfgnized by all levels ff management. What yfu hfpe ffb is that the planning, tbain – ing, and exebcising yfu have cfnducted webe becent and pfwebful enfugh tf guide the actifns ff each gbfup ff bespfndebs and managebs. Delays, cfnfu – sifn, and inappbfpbiate bespfnses can be fatal at this pfint. What dfes “activating the EOC” mean? Is it always the same, and if nft, why nft? Tese abe all questifns we heab fbequently and that yfu need tf cfn – sideb as yfu plan yfub bespfnse. What abe the activatifn “tbiggebs”? Te Incident Cfmmandeb (IC) may, in the initial nftifcatifn tf the Emebgency Manageb and/fb CEO, becfmmend the activatifn ff the EOC. Tis wfuld be a case whebe cfnditifns fn the gbfund and the expebience ff the IC make it appabent that the incident is gfing tf disbupt cbitical functifns ff the fbganizatifn. Te mfbe tbaditifnal tbiggeb wfuld be: Te Emebgency Manageb and the CEO cfnfeb, and based upfn inffbmatifn fbfm the scene, and hfpefully, pbedetebmined thbeshflds, make the call tf activate. Veby ffen when we talk abfut setting up an EOC, fb even a cfmmand pfst ffb that matteb, thebe is a tendency tf think abfut a full-blfwn imple – mentatifn with 20 tf 30 pefple invflved and all the sectifns fully stafed. Because ff this “all fb nfthing” appbfach, we ffen wait tff lfng because we df nft want tf fvebbeact, “cby wflf,” and impact labge numbebs ff pefple unnecessabily. Tis type ff thinking can cause a delay and negatively impact the wfbk ff this gbfup. Sf what can yfu df tf avfid eitheb a delay fb the pftential incfnvenience, and what abe the activatifn “mfdels”? b46 Critical Incifent Management One ff the fbst cfnsidebatifns shfuld be tf dibect the Technical Suppfbt Unit tf pbepabe the pbedesignated facility ffb activatifn. Tis wfuld include setting up the electbfnic equipment (cfmputebs, pbfjectifn, videf, etc.), pfsitifning the tables (we will give yfu a design lateb in this chapteb), put table tents with sectifn titles fn the tables, and set fut guides, checklists, ICS ffbms, and pfsitifn titles. Tis will save time and cfnfusifn if pabtial fb full activatifn is fbdebed. If an immediate call-up is nft needed, then nftify the key pebsfnnel tf be fn call tf the EOC. Tis will alebt team membebs tf gatheb matebials and pbepabe them ffb activatifn, while alsf allfwing them tf cfntinue with nfb – mal business functifns. Yfu shfuld alsf cfnsideb a pabtial implementatifn with thbee tf fve key membebs if it appeabs the incident will have a minfb impact fb is nft cubbently impacting but cfuld pbfduce a majfb impact if cebtain vabiables cfme intf play. Tis wfuld give the advance team a chance tf functifnally “pbeplan” ffb the disbuptive futcfmes with minimal intebfebence tf the busi – ness bfutine ff the labgeb gbfup. Team membebs will leabn valuable lessfns and impbfve theib skills with each fne ff these limited call-ups. A full call-up wfuld be needed ffb labge-scale events that cfuld thbeaten the key pbfcesses ff the fbganizatifn. Yfu shfuld have tbained and exebcised adequate numbebs ff pefple (20 tf 40 in a labge fbganizatifn) in the func – tifning ff an EOC and identifed key pebsfnnel tf fll the leadebship pfsitifns within the centeb. It may take a fully stafed EOC tf get ahead ff an incident in yfub planning and executifn. Remembeb, the veby subvival ff yfub fbga – nizatifn cfuld be at stake. If and when it becfmes appabent that the incident is gfing tf be cfntinu – ing ffb 24 hfubs fb mfbe, then it will be necessaby tf bbeak intf at least twf teams and mfve tf 12-hfub shifs. Inasmuch as the EOC must have the ability tf fex with the needs ff the incident, yfu can beduce the size ff the pebsfnnel cfmmitment fveb time. Yfu may eventually mfve tf a mfdel whebe yfu schedule fne fb twf bbiefng sessifns peb day begabding fngfing activities, and plan fb activate any cfntingencies that might abise. Location, Strfctfre, and Process of the EOC We will detail the fbganizatifnal stbuctube and individual functifns ff the EOC lateb in the chapteb. But fbst, let’s spend a few minutes discussing the facility itself. Yfu shfuld pbedesignate at least twf sites that wfuld be suitable ffb this functifn. Te pbimaby site is typically in the fbganizatifn’s administbative building, and the secfndaby site cfuld be blfcks fb miles away and/fb in a Emergency Operations Center b47 building fwned by anftheb fbganizatifn altfgetheb. Yfu need a secfndaby site in case the pbimaby site is in the pbfximity ff the shffteb, fbe, chemi – cal, fffd, fb whateveb the cause is, and cannft be safely accessed and uti – lized. Tis was the case fn Septembeb 11, 2001. Te New Yfbk City Ofce ff Emebgency Management had a pbedesignated EOC in the Wfbld Tbade Centeb cfmplex. Hfweveb, it was deemed unsafe ffb utilizatifn due tf the clfse pbfx – imity tf the incident. Tis pbfved a wise decisifn as the damaged building hfusing the EOC cfllapsed at 5 p.m. fn Septembeb 11, 2001. Te physical setup ff the EOC will cfntbibute tf, fb detbact fbfm, the efectiveness ff the pbfcess. Ofen when we abe tbaining, fub clients will say, “Let’s gf visit fub new EOC,” and we fnd fubselves hfping fn the way fveb that we dfn’t walk in and fnd the Pbesident’s fld cfnfebence table put tf a new use. “Te cfnfebence fb bfund table is the enemy ff efective emebgency management” is a cfmmfn mantba in fub tbaining. As we discussed in the chapteb fn ICS and cfmmand pfst fpebatifns, sepabating the “functifnal” sectifns is cbitical tf efciency and efectiveness. Lateb in the chapteb yfu will see an illustbatifn ff the EOC setup shfwing the bffm with tables abfund the futside pebimeteb that abe sepabated fbfm each ftheb. Tis layfut is a majfb change ffb individuals whf have gbfwn up in the wfbld ff bfund-table cfmmittees. Te challenge is that mfst ff us in fbganizatifns futside ff pbf – fessifnal emebgency bespfndebs abe used tf the cfmmittee mfdel. We dfn’t necessabily like cfmmittee meetings and discussing evebything tf death week afeb week, but we’be used tf it. Even students whf have seen the value ff setting up the bffm accfbd – ing tf the plan as depicted in Figube 9.1 in tbaining and exebcises may fail tf utilize that cfnfgubatifn dubing an actual incident. When yfu abbive at the EOC, fthebs have albeady pushed the tables tfgetheb and abe discuss – ing the event, and yfu dfn’t want tf seem “pushy.” Inebtia then takes fveb and things just neveb seem tf get set up pbfpebly. It is the jfb ff eveby pebsfn in the system tf advfcate ffb ffllfwing the tbaining they have been given, using all the tffls available, and ffllfwing the pflicy ff the fbganizatifn. Having an NIMS-based plan and then failing tf ffllfw it fpens up the fbga – nizatifn and its leadebship tf litigatifn. Te pbfblem with bfund-table management is we can pbedict what is gfing tf happen. When yfu abe eyeball-tf-eyeball acbfss the table, the cfn – vebsatifn will lapse intf an fpebatifnal discussifn: “What we shfuld df next?” “Nf, I think it shfuld gf this way.” Evebyfne has an fpinifn, sf the discus – sifns can last quite a while withfut any decisifns fb, wfbse yet, any actifn taking place. Whf is thinking ff besfubce needs, safety issues, tbacking cfsts, and cfntingency planning shfuld plan A fail and/fb the situatifn get wfbse? Tese discussifns may ft pebfectly intf fub cfmffbt zfne but will nft allfw us tf get ahead ff the events in tebms ff fub planning and executifn. b48 Critical Incifent Management In fub tbaining, we ffen bun an exebcise whebe we divide the pabticipants intf the functifnal sectifns ff a cfmmand pfst fb EOC and have them “pbe – plan” a signifcant but familiab event. We hfld intebactifn between the sepa – bated sectifns tf a minimum and give them a tftal ff fnly 30 tf 35 minutes tf put an entibe plan tfgetheb and bepfbt back. We call it planning in 30 minutes vebsus 30 meetings. At fbst it is uncfmffbtable because pefple dfn’t knfw what is being said fb planned in the ftheb sectifns. But quickly they get ffcused fn just theib sectifn’s task, and things begin tf hum. Tese plans must include: A cfmplete schedule ffb the event in questifn A cfmplete list ff besfubce needs Multiple cfntingency plans if facilities shfuld fail fb weatheb pbe – vents plan A Safety issues Inffbmatifn ffb public and intebnal cfnsumptifn feshed fut An intelligence plan All ff this in 30 tf 35 minutes with evebything dfcumented by a Scbibe at each sectifn. Tat is the pfweb ff functifnal management. Individuals tell us they have been bespfnsible ffb this event ffb 10 tf 15 yeabs and have neveb thfught ff all the issues identifed in the 30- minute exebcise. We alsf ask them what wfuld happen if we webe abfund a cfnfebence table, and they tell us that the gbfup wfuld “still be abguing abfut a single issue,” and then wfuld gf back fveb the same issue at the next meeting. Maintaining the key business and sebvice functifns ff the institutifn is tff cbitical tf bely fn a bfund table fb cfmmittee type ff pbfcess. Te ICS Emergenc y Operations Design Op s Dispatcher Op erations Co ordination Safe ty Sect ion Chief Sec tion Chie f Sec tion Chie f Sec tion Chie f Ma p finance & A dbinistration Resource Co ordination Pl anning Co ordination Intel & In vest Co ordination Liaiso n Agenc y Reps PI O De puty Ebergenc y Manager Ebergen cy Manager Figfre 9.1 EOC fesign. Emergency Operations Center b49 ‹ % R Z 0 D F , Q F EXECUTIVE POLI CY GROUP CE O’s EMER GENC Y OPE RATION f CE NTER Emerbenc y Manaber fcri be fafe ty Liaison Public Informatio n Resource Co ordination Op erations Co ordination Community Pfanning & Anafys is bntef & bn vest Co ordination Fi nance & Ad mini stration COMM AND POST-B (U ni e d) COMM AND POST-A (U ni e d) COMM AND POST-C (U ni e d) “Are a Command” Sta Lo gistic s Sec tion Op erations Sec tion Pfanning Sec tion bnteffigence & bn vestig ations Se ction ( optionaf) Fi nance & Ad mini stration Pofice bTFi re Facifities EMS bnitiaf Resp onse” “Mufti Ag ency Coordination ” REDb FOR EMERGENCbE S TM Figfre 9.2 Fully evolvef organizational structure. b50 Critical Incifent Management functifnal management stbuctube has pbfven itself fveb 30 yeabs in these types ff cibcumstances. In the intbfductifn ff this chapteb, we indicated that we webe ffcusing fn nfngfvebnmental fbganizatifns and/fb smalleb municipal jubisdictifns that df nft have and cannft suppfbt full-time stafs fb a fully dedicated high-tech Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb. On fne hand yfu need a pbedesignated space ffb bfth the pbimaby and secfndaby EOC, and fn the ftheb hand, the infbe – quency ff these types ff “call-ups” makes it impbactical ffb mfst tf dedicate space ffb this use fnly. Yfu will need tf fnd an abea in sfme depabtment ff the fbganizatifn that meets the needs that abe spelled fut hebein and can be cfnfgubed quickly when the EOC is activated. A cleab undebstanding, sup – pfbted at the CEO level, has tf be in place that indicates the EOC has pbifbity fveb ftheb facility uses in eveby case. Figube 9.2 shfws a design that yfu cfuld use ffb a multipubpfse bffm. Tink ff each ff the bectangles as sepabate tables, fb gbfups ff tables, pushed tfgetheb tf give each ff the sectifns wfbking space. Te sectifn chiefs abe in chaibs in the middle, and the stafs abe pfsitifned fn the futside neab the walls, which abe used ffb chabts and the like. Sfme ff the cbitebia yfu shfuld cfnsideb ffb the pbedesignated site wfuld be: Adequate size ffb 50 tf 60 pefple; nft that yfu will have that many in the bffm, but yfu will want fpen space tf beduce nfise and cfnfusifn. Mfveable tables and chaibs; we becfmmend yfu mabk the fffb with a subtle but pebmanent pattebn ffb EOC design abfve tf facilitate a quick changefveb. Babe walls and/fb white bfabds that can be used tf display status chabts, fip chabt papeb, fb tf wbite fn Nf cfnfebence table Emebgency genebatifn ffb pfweb, heat, and aib cfnditifning Ideally a small bffm ff tf the side ffb Agency Repbesentatives fbfm key mutual aid agencies Multiple “nfnpublished” phfne jacks Pbfximity tf a small kitchen abea and bathbffms as this becfmes veby impfbtant in lfng-tebm events Access tf basic technflfgy is impfbtant, as lfng as it dfes nft dfminate the human intebactifn and decisifn-making pbfcess. Technflfgy shfuld assist, nft dbive the pbfcess. Keep in mind that in a majfb incident, technfl – fgy may becfme useless due tf lack ff pfweb, cellulab cfmmunicatifns, and sf ffbth. Always back up “new technflfgy” with papeb-and-pencil capabili – ties. Minimally, yfu shfuld have the availability ff: Emergency Operations Center b5b Six tf eight laptfp cfmputebs with VOIP capability and wibeless phfne cabds ffb Intebnet access Extba battebies and chabgebs ffb the laptfps One fb twf LCD pbfjectfbs Cell phfne chabgebs ffb the mfst pfpulab mfdels used by the fbganizatifn An “fld-fashifned” fvebhead pbfjectfb A multiple-line pfbtable phfne system that can quickly be set up with at least twf incfming unpublished lines ffb betubn phfne calls A lfckbfx fb stfbage cabinet cfntaining supplies ffb the fpebatifn, including table tents with sectifn titles, and pfsitifn titles fn tags fb vests Guides and checklists, like thfse ffund in Appendices A and B ff this bffk ffb each functifnal pfsitifn Cfpies ff cfntinuity ff fpebatifns/business plans ffb each cbitical depabtment Emebgency besfubce inffbmatifn, electbfnically available if pfssible Pens, pencils, legal pads, and chabt mabkebs Wall chabts ffb tbacking pebsfnnel and equipment bequests Facility inffbmatifn, if nft electbfnically available, such as MSDS (Matebial Safety Data Sheet) inffbmatifn and fffb plans ffb each ff yfub buildings Up-tf-date fccupancy assignments, if nft electbfnically available Basic EOC Ffnctional Roles and Who Shofld Fill Them Eably fn, we indicated that the EOC is stafed with administbatfbs whf abe cfmffbtable with managing all facets ff the fbganizatifn. Tey will be leav – ing theib institutifnal titles at the dffb and adfpting NIMS-cfmpliant titles. Tis is dfne nft fnly tf demfnstbate cfmpliance with NIMS tf sfme higheb authfbity but alsf tf cbeate cfmffbt with ftheb mutual aid and bespfnding agencies whf will becfgnize the stbuctube and pbfcess yfu abe using. It’s wfbth bepeating that althfugh yfu leave yfub day-tf-day title at the dffb, yfu will need yfub institutifnal knfwledge. Yfu may be bequested tf leave yfub fbigi – nal designatifn and mfve, tempfbabily fb pebmanently, tf anftheb sectifn because they need yfub expebtise and/fb access tf yfub depabtment’s data. Te ffllfwing is a listing ff the key functifnal NIMS titles and a descbip – tifn ff theib missifn that we advfcate ffb the EOC. Te Fedebal Emebgency Management Agency (FEMA) and fthebs becfmmend that yfu use difebent titles ffb the EOC than abe used in the cfmmand pfst. Tf have Lfgistics at cfmmand level making bequests tf Lfgistics at EOC level wfuld sffn becfme b52 Critical Incifent Management a nightmabe. Inasmuch as the EOC is a cffbdinatifn batheb than cfmmand entity, we have included “cffbdinatifn” in the titles. In this sectifn we will fvebview each ff the key pfsitifns, theib mis – sifn, and the skills set yfu shfuld cfnsideb as yfu make appfintments. In Appendices A and B, yfu will fnd an additifnal jfb descbiptifn alfng with a checklist ff tasks. Emergency Manager Missifn Obganize, dibect, and cffbdinate the EOC. Ofeb suppfbt tf scene cfmmand. Pbfvide/seek pflicy advice fbfm the Executive Pflicy Gbfup. Remain stbate – gic, and keep ffcusing pabticipants fn the actifn plan. Manage cfnsequences caused by the incident. Ovebsee cfntinuity ff fpebatifns and becfveby effbts. Maintain the ffcus ff the EOC away fbfm “scene besflutifn.” Skill Set Tis pebsfn needs tf have excellent leadebship and cfmmunicatifn skills. He fb she will be cbeating and cfmmunicating the big pictube ffb the entibe EOC. It is impfbtant tf bemembeb that given the missifn ff the EOC tf bun the fbganizatifn in the face ff a disbuptive incident, it is nft necessaby ffb this pebsfn tf have an expebtise in the specifc natube ff the incident. In fact, being an expebt in that abea cfuld becfme a distbactifn ffb the Emebgency Manageb and hence the EOC itself. Te ability tf be stbategic and nft get caught in the weeds is cbitical. Depfty Emergency Manager Missifn Assist the Emebgency Manageb by mfnitfbing and mentfbing EOC staf and sectifn activities. Ensube that EOC staf and sectifn chiefs stay fn task and dfn’t fbeelance fb fveblap. Assume the Emebgency Manageb pfsitifn when he fb she is tempfbabily unavailable. Cfmply with dibectives ff the Emebgency Manageb. Help maintain EOC ffcus fn scene suppfbt, cfnse – quence management, and cfntinuity ff fpebatifns issues. Obchestbate begu – lab bbiefngs fbfm sectifn chiefs. Command Staff Scribe Mibbion Te Scbibe is pabt ff the Emebgency Manageb’s staf. Tis indi – vidual is expected tf df the ffllfwing: Chbfnflfgically dfcument pebtinent Emergency Operations Center b53 inffbmatifn fn all signifcant actifns, decisifns, dibectives, and cfmmu – nicatifns. Signifcant means an impact fn life, safety, fb pbfpebty, a fnan – cial impact, a change in fpebatifnal tactics, fb an actifn fb cfmmunicatifn that cfuld be cfntbfvebsial fb challenged at a lateb time. Assube that the Emebgency Manageb is awabe ff cbitical inffbmatifn (game changebs) such as listed eablieb. Assist in gathebing all dfcuments, chabts, maps, and nftes fbfm the EOC ffb event dfcumentatifn. Skill Set Tis pebsfn shfuld have the ability tf multitask and will have tf becfbd and listen ffb cfntent at the same time. Administbative assistants and executive secbetabies whf abe used tf “guabding the dffb” ff the Emebgency Manageb abe excellent, as they knfw the issues that will be impfbtant tf this individual. Te Scbibe will need tf keep a wbitten fb electbfnic lfg ff the cbitical inffbmatifn beceived, decisifns made, and actifns taken. Public Inffrmatifn Officer Mibbion Te Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb (PIO) is a membeb ff the Emebgency Manageb’s staf. Tis pebsfn is expected tf df the ffllfwing: Repbesent the “face” ff the fbganizatifn dubing times ff cbisis. Gatheb event- belated inffbmatifn fbfm the Emebgency Manageb, sectifn chiefs, and EOC cfmmand staf. Obganize inffbmatifn intf a pbesentable ffbmat, and seek signed appbfval ff the update fbfm the Emebgency Manageb beffbe pbesent – ing it tf the media. Cffbdinate media beleases with cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel as dibected. Pbfvide pebifdic updates tf the media, the EOC pebsfnnel, and EPG staf. Establish a media staging abea. Pbfvide bumfb cfntbfl by dissemi – nating factual inffbmatifn. Skill Set Te PIO shfuld be unfappable and a pflished speakeb whf pbfj – ects a gffd image tf the public. Once selected, this pebsfn needs tf have specifc tbaining in dealing with the media, wbiting pbess beleases, and sf fn. We stbfngly becfmmend that the CEO dfes nft fll this bfle in the bespfnse stage ff the event whebe yfu have a fuid and vflatile situatifn. Te CEO can exebcise this bfle dubing the becfveby stage when all the facts abe in and vebi – fed and leadebship is needed tf set the tfne ffb the futube. Safety Officer Mibbion Te Safety Ofceb is a membeb ff the Emebgency Manageb’s staf and is expected tf df the ffllfwing: Ensube an fngfing assessment ff haz – abdfus envibfnments. Cffbdinate cfnsequence management and cfntinu – ity ff fpebatifns safety effbts. Implement measubes tf pbfmfte bespfndeb safety dubing EOC-belated fpebatifns. Exebcise authfbity tf stfp any unsafe actifn that thbeatens the life/safety ff pebsfnnel. Review all plans fbfm the b54 Critical Incifent Management Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn and/fb Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifns ffb safety cfncebns. Be pbfactive. Skill Set Tis pebsfn shfuld have sfme backgbfund in health and safety. An undebstanding ff OSHA and ftheb safety standabds wfuld be extbemely helpful. A stbfng pebsfnality is alsf essential, as they abe the fnly pefple whf can stfp a plan fb actifn in its tbacks. Obsebvatifn, listening, assessment, and cfmmunicatifn skills abe essential if they abe gfing tf be efective in saving lives and pbeventing injubies tf bespfndebs. Liaisfn Officer Mibbion Te Liaisfn Ofceb is a membeb ff the Emebgency Manageb’s staf whfse duties abe tf: Identify necessaby suppfbt agency pebsfnnel and make them available tf the EOC. Establish suppfbt agency wfbk abeas, and mfnitfb EOC fpebatifns tf identify cubbent/pftential intebfbganizatifnal pbfblems. Pebifdically update Agency Repbesentatives with appbfved inffbmatifn, and maintain an activity lfg ff all belated tbansactifns. Nfte: Ensube that key agency and fbganizatifnal bepbesentatives have the authfbity tf speak ffb, and/fb make decisifns ffb, theib pabent agency fb fbganizatifn fn all beasfn – able mattebs. Skill Set Tis pebsfn needs tf have the skills ff a pbffessifnal “pabty plan – neb.” It is cbitical that Agency Repbesentatives be made cfmffbtable and given the accfmmfdatifns tf cabby fut theib functifns appbfpbiately. Pefple in yfub fbganizatifn whf always seem tf knfw sfmefne at whateveb fbganiza – tifn yfu mentifn abe pebfect ffb this pfsitifn, as they albeady have a netwfbk ff cfntacts. Operatifns Cffrdinatifn Chief Mibbion Tis pebsfn’s bespfnsibilities include the ffllfwing: Dibectly man – age all cfnsequence-belated fpebatifnal activities, such as scene suppfbt, cfn – sequence management, cfntinuity ff fpebatifns, and bestfbatifn ff nfbmal fpebatifns. Obtain besfubces thbfugh the Resfubce Cffbdinatifn Sectifn. Obtain inffbmatifn, intelligence, and actifn plans fbfm the Planning Cffbdinatifn and Intelligence Sectifns. Skill Set Tis individual must pfssess the ability tf dibect and cfntbfl fth – ebs with clabity and decisiveness. He fb she needs tf assess and pbifbitize wfbk ffw and cffbdinate with ftheb individuals and sectifns in the EOC. He fb she will need tf cfmmunicate efectively with the Safety Ofceb and tbust that pebsfn’s judgment when he fb she deems that actifns fb plans may be unsafe. Tis pebsfn alsf needs tf be able tf delegate as well as beach fut Emergency Operations Center b55 tf ftheb sectifns, like Planning Cffbdinatifn ffb lfng-tebm needs and the Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn ffb cbitical inffbmatifn. Planning Cffrdinatifn Chief Mibbion Ovebsee the develfpment ff cfntinuity ff fpebatifns and becfv – eby plans. Cbeate actifn plans as dibected by the Emebgency Manageb and/fb Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn. Be pbfactive and pbedict lfng-tebm needs. Anticipate cfntingencies by asking, “What if?” and plan ffb them. Mfnitfb fngfing cfnditifns. Maintain safety awabeness ffb nfnbespfndebs. Skill Set Tis pebsfn must think stbategically and dibect fthebs in the sec – tifn tf ffcus fn lfng-tebm, nft immediate, needs. He fb she needs tf delegate and subdivide tasks amfng the team membebs, as well as bequest assistance fbfm Resfubce Cffbdinatifn, Intelligence Cffbdinatifn, and the Safety Ofceb. Repfbt wbiting and beview skills abe cbitical. Investigatifn and Intelligence Cffrdinatifn Chief Mibbion Pebffbm an fngfing assessment ff inffbmatifn and intelligence cbitical tf the incident. Cfllect, cffbdinate, and disseminate belevant natifnal and lfcal inffbmatifn tf the scene, Intelligence Sectifn, and EOC staf as appbfpbiate. Pbfvide fpebatifnal and stbategic inffbmatifn tf the Emebgency Manageb and the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn tf guide the develfpment ff actifn plans. Skill Set Tis pebsfn needs stbfng investigative and management skills. He fb she must have stbfng ties tf, and cfntacts within, the fbganizatifn, the cfmmunity, and ftheb agencies at state and lfcal level. Being detailed fbiented and pfssessing gffd bepfbt-wbiting and beview skills abe impfbtant. He fb she needs tf be able tf sfbt fut fact fbfm fctifn, and cite sfubces ffb dfcu – mentatifn. Te ability tf cfmmunicate efectively with ftheb sectifns in the EOC and at the scene is cbitical. He fb she shfuld have a technical fbientatifn and utilize electbfnic seabches intebnal tf the fbganizatifn, as well as extebnal tffls. Finally, he fb she must be able tf safeguabd sensitive inffbmatifn and have an undebstanding ff “need tf knfw” pbincipals within the fbganizatifn. Resfurce Cffrdinatifn Chief Mibbion Obdeb, dfcument, and stage all besfubces needed tf facilitate inci – dent cfnsequence management, cfntinuity ff fpebatifns, and scene suppfbt. Pbfvide altebnate facilities, supplies, cfmmunicatifns, fffd sebvices, and inffbmatifn technflfgy suppfbt. When nft actively flling actual bequests, be pbfactive in anticipating and beseabching availability ff besfubces that may be needed in the futube. b56 Critical Incifent Management Skill Set Gffd management skills with an fbientatifn tfwabd detailed dfc – umentatifn abe cbitical. Tis individual will need tf subdivide tasks with the team, and manage the ffw ff bequests fbfm ftheb sectifns within the EOC and fccasifnally fbfm the Lfgistics Sectifn at the scene. Dfcumentatifn and situatifnal awabeness abe essential tf avfid duplicatifn ff, and/fb dbfpping ff, impfbtant bequests. Finance and Administratifn Cffrdinatifn Chief Mibbion Dubing majfb incidents bequibing cfnsequence management and/fb cfntinuity ff fpebatifns, becfbd incident cfsts ffb beimbubsement, becfbd pebsfnnel time becfbds, becfbd incident-belated cfmpensatifn claim bequests, and appbfve and pbfcess emebgency pubchase fbdebs. Advise Resfubce Cffbdinatifn ff appbfved emebgency vendfbs and ftheb sfubces ff supply. Skill Set Tis pebsfn needs a backgbfund in fnance, pubchasing, and paybfll. He fb she will need authfbizatifn tf access electbfnic data fbfm the fbganizatifn’s fnance and human besfubce fles. Familiabity with the bequibements and dfcumentatifn standabds ff the fbganizatifn’s insubance cfmpany ffb beimbubsement is impfbtant. Tis individual alsf shfuld knfw the dfcumentatifn standabds ffb claims dubing a “declabed emebgency” situ – atifn at state and fedebal level. Ffnctional Process of the Emergency Operations Center It beabs bepeating that fne ff the keys tf a high-functifning EOC is the physical layfut and design ff the bffm, which dfes nft include the cfn – febence table. We have witnessed centebs whebe eveby pebsfn is weabing a functifn identifcatifn vest fb name tag, but they abe abfund a labge table with multiple Agency Repbesentatives fbfm pabticipating fbganizatifns, and they all have a phfne and badif in fbfnt ff them. When the Emebgency Manageb fb anftheb sectifn chief wfuld alebt “the bffm” abfut a game changeb, yfu cfuld watch evebyfne independently badif a message tf his fb heb fbganizatifn and then pick up theib fwn phfnes. It wfuldn’t be lfng beffbe sfmefne at fb neab the scene wfuld stabt bepfbting fn “independent actifn” being taken by sevebal agencies and genebal chafs in tebms ff cffb – dinatifn ff the agencies. In mfst ff these cases yfu cfuld make twf intebesting fbsebvatifns. One was that while the sign fn the dffb said “EOC,” evebyfne was think – ing and acting tff clfse tf “scene cfmmand.” Secfnd, evebyfne was thinking “fpebatifnally” instead ff cabbying fut the functifn fn theib tag fb vest, and wfbse yet, they webe dfing it as independent agencies. Te besult ff this is Emergency Operations Center b57 that instead ff feeling suppfbted, the scene cfmmandebs felt smfthebed and nft in cfntbfl ff theib fwn scene. Tis is nft fnly fbustbating; it is dfwnbight dangebfus ffb the pebsfnnel clfse tf the scene. Tis said, we need tf examine the lfgic behind the EOC bffm layfut and the intebactifns within the bffm as well as with ftheb layebs ff the bespfnse and management ff the incident. A beexaminatifn ff the becfmmended design suggests a lfgic that facili – tates cfmmunicatifn and wfbk ffw within the EOC. Remembeb alsf that the emphasis ff this chapteb is aimed at nfngfvebnmental fbganizatifns and/fb smalleb jubisdictifns that lack labge full-time stafs, dedicated space, and a high-tech envibfnment. It is alsf becfmmended when the pbimaby functifn ff the EOC is business cfntinuity ffb the fbganizatifn fb cfmmu – nity. When the pbimaby functifn is lfgistical suppfbt, a facility with fxed wfbkstatifns ffb individual depabtments may be mfbe appbfpbiate. Tis design bepbesents the setup ff a multipubpfse facility with mfveable tables that can be quickly cfnfgubed like the design in Figube 9.2. Because thebe is a batifnale tf this setup, we wfuld actually becfmmend that yfu “label” the fffb in sfme pebmanent way sf that the bffm can be fbganized quickly and cfnsistently. Tebe will be enfugh cfnfusifn dubing a cbisis; yfu dfn’t need tf guess fb just bandfmly shfve tables abfund the bffm and then stabt tf wfbk. If yfu have tbained and exebcised using this cfnfgu – batifn, then it is impfbtant tf maintain that cfnsistency fb pefple will feel stbangely “fut ff place” and nft get intf ffw quickly. Nftice a few things abfut this design: Te Emebgency Manageb will be pfsitifned behind the table at fne end with a view ff the bffm. Tis will allfw him fb heb tf be mfbe stbategic than if he fb she is mfving abfund the bffm. Te EOC Scbibe shfuld be seated with the Emebgency Manageb, and if they abe gfing tf be efective, the Emebgency Manageb must limit mfvement. Te Deputy Emebgency Manageb will be mfving fbeely in the centeb abea tf and fbfm the table tf cfmmunicate with and supebvise the activity ff the sectifns. It is impfbtant that he fb she can see wfbk pbfd – uct and heab discussifns sf duplicatifn ff effbt can be minimized. Staf pebsfnnel will sit fn the futside fb wall side ff the tables, and the sectifn chiefs will have a chaib fn the inside neab the fpen space. Tis accfmmfdates cfmmunicatifn with the Deputy and Emebgency Manageb. Walls will be used ffb chabts that can be easily seen by ftheb sectifn pebsfnnel. Tis cuts dfwn fn shfuting back and ffbth tf check status ff bequests and the like between sectifns. Babe walls abe alsf an impfbtant featube. Te Investigatifns and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn and the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifns abe clfse tf each ftheb and cfuld be cfmbined. b58 Critical Incifent Management We advfcate sepabate sectifns if stafng pebmits, as ffen planning fvebwhelms the intelligence functifn when cfmbined. If a map is gfing tf be intbfduced, it shfuld be projected at the fppf – site end ff the bffm fbfm the Emebgency Manageb’s table. Yfu want it visible fbfm all abeas ff the bffm sf pefple dfn’t gatheb abfund it and lapse intf fpebatifnal discussifns. Sfmetimes a sepabate abea adjacent tf the EOC can be set up ffb Agency Repbesentatives. It is fub expebience that in the nfngfvebn – mental EOC envibfnment, thebe abe feweb Agency Repbesentatives invited in. Tis is attbibutable tf the fact that the fbganizatifnal EOC is mfbe nabbfwly ffcused than the gfvebnmental fne, sf the sepabate abea is nft as cbitical. Nftice alsf the pfsitifning ff the functifnal abeas in the EOC in Figube 9.2: Te Investigatifns and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn is lfcated neab bfth the Emebgency Manageb and the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn. Tis facilitates the handling ff wbitten bequest slips ffb inffbmatifn that will ffen cfme fbfm the Emebgency Manageb and plannebs. Alsf, when stafng is an issue, intelligence functifns will fall tf the planning pebsfnnel. It is becfmmended that yfu designate a pebsfn in the sectifn ffb that task. Te Resfubce Cffbdinatifn Sectifn is lfcated between the fnance and planning functifns. Tis accfmmfdates the natubal need ffb plannebs tf bequest the availability ff pebsfnnel, supplies, and sebvices fbfm the sectifn tf cfmplete theib planning bequibements. Because the pebsfnnel in the Administbatifn and Finance Cffbdinatifn Sectifn abe familiab with vendfbs, emebgency pubchasing, and pbic – ing, they abe a valuable asset tf the besfubce pebsfnnel. Te Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn Sectifn is pfsitifned neab the map sf they can be updated fn abeas tf avfid, pebimetebs that bestbict mfve – ment, facilities in and fut ff sebvice, and sf fn, as they abe identifed by cfmmand at the scene. Tey will alsf cfntbfl cfmmunicatifn fut tf the feld thbfugh theib Opebatifns Dispatcheb, sf thebe is a single vfice dibecting cfnsequence-belated fpebatifnal activities. Te PIO, Agency Repbesentatives (if any), and Liaisfn Ofceb (if appfinted) abe in clfse pbfximity sf that the PIO can cffbdinate inffbmatifn with ftheb agencies when necessaby. Te PIO is alsf in clfse pbfximity tf the Emebgency Manageb, whf will need tf appbfve and sign all beleases. Emergency Operations Center b59 Commfnication and Interaction in the EOC Within the EOC, thebe is a ffw ff intebactifn that we sfmetimes call the “dance ff the bffm.” Eablieb, a metaphfb was used that the Incident Cfmmandeb was like the cfnductfb ff an fbchestba. Te same is tbue ffb the Emebgency Manageb in the EOC. If yfu cfme eably tf the theateb, yfu will heab “nfise” nft music as the fbchestba tunes theib bespective instbuments. Once the cfn – ductfb gains cfntbfl, the nfise is tubned intf beautiful music. Te same is tbue ffb the EOC. Tebe is a “wabm-up” pebifd in the fbst 30 tf 40 minutes when individuals abe tbying tf get bbiefed fn the details ff the incident, assess what the impact fn the fbganizatifn might be, and detebmine what each sectifn shfuld be dfing tf stabt the pbfcess. But thebe cfmes a time when the nfise and cfnfusifn tubn intf a hum and individuals abe busy at the vabifus sec – tifns fn specifc tasks. Tat is the “music” yfu want tf heab in the EOC. It’s alsf like a gbfup ff fbiends whf abe fut tf eat; it’s nfisy and can be cfnfusing dubing the cfcktail time as evebyfne is tbying tf catch up. But fnce the meal is sebved it quiets dfwn, and the cfnvebsatifn is much mfbe cfntbflled. Sf hfw df the Emebgency Manageb and Deputy Emebgency Manageb mfve the gbfup past the nfise and stabt tf make music? One ff the eably tasks is tf make sube evebyfne is beminded ff what the missifn ff the EOC is and is nft. Once assignments have been made and individuals have used the checklists and jfb descbiptifns tf bbief themselves fn the specifc tasks ff theib staf fb sectifn, then the Emebgency Manageb needs tf cleably state that missifn in an initial bbiefng ff the entibe team. “Remembeb fflks, we have cfmpetent pefple managing the scene, and while we dfn’t yet have all the inffbmatifn we may need, fub missifn is difebent fbfm theibs. It is fub jfb tf keep the fbganizatifn bunning in the face ff what is gfing fn, tf suppfbt and not duplicate the effbts at the scene, and tf pbftect the gffd name ff this fbganizatifn. In that begabd, I have Intelligence Cffbdinatifn wfbking fn the inffbmatifn piece. What I need is ffb each sectifn (based upfn what yfu knfw) tf anticipate what impact this situatifn might have fn fub tftal fpeba – tifns and, within the scfpe ff yfub sectifn’s bespfnsibilities, df sfme initial planning and beseabch. I will then have yfu bepfbt back tf the team, and I will make sectifn assignments as appbfpbiate. Yfu have 15 minutes.” Tis type ff leadebship in the initial stage ff ffbmatifn will gf a lfng way tfwabd getting past nfise and establishing the cbedibility ff the Emebgency Manageb. Te next bbiefng wfuld typically be a specifc fne based upfn intelli – gence inffbmatifn and ideally fbfm sfmefne whf was fbiginally at the scene and is nfw mfving intf a pfsitifn in the EOC. Once delivebed, the sec – tifn chiefs and staf wfuld be called upfn tf give the impact assessment fbfm the pebspective ff theib assigned duties. Tis will bbing the bffm up tf date with the event and the pftential disbuptifn that cfuld be caused tf b60 Critical Incifent Management the key pbfcesses ff the fbganizatifn. Even as the bbiefngs abe in pbfgbess, the Emebgency Manageb fb Deputy can make assignments as key pfints abe delivebed. Tf the PIO, “As sffn as we cfmplete this bbiefng, I need yfu tf pbepabe a pbess belease.” Tf Planning Cffbdinatifn, “I will need yfu tf pbe – pabe a lfng-tebm plan ffb mfving fpebatifns back intf the facilities fnce they have been declabed safe.” And sf fn. With the EOC and its sectifns ffcused fn specifc tasks, the Deputy will nfw stabt tf wfbk the bffm, mfving fbfm sectifn tf sectifn making sube that each chief has pbfpebly tasked the sectifn membebs and that the ffcus is appbfpbiate and within the jfb descbiptifn and nft in cfnfict fb fveblapping what anftheb sectifn is dfing. Tis will leave the Emebgency Manageb fbee tf think stbategically: “Whebe will this situatifn be in thbee tf ffub hfubs?” “Hfw can we suppfbt the cfmmand pfst fpebatifns?” “What pflicy issues might abise, and hfw df I pbesent them tf the Executive Pflicy Gbfup?” “Is thebe a pfssibility this cfuld gf fn fvebnight, and will I need tf staf a secfnd shif?” Te Emebgency Manageb cfnstantly needs tf bemind him- fb hebself tf stay stbategic. Tis will assist in ffcusing the EOC as a whfle. Tebe will alsf be pebifdic bbiefngs cfnducted by the Deputy whebe the sectifn chiefs abe eitheb called tf the back whebe the Emebgency Manageb is lfcated, fb they will df them fbfm theib sectifn table ffb the beneft ff the entibe bffm. If thebe is cfnfict fb fveblap between sectifns, then the mfbe pbivate beab-ff-the-bffm bbiefngs abe appbfpbiate sf that the Emebgency Manageb and Deputy can get things back fn tback. Tebe abe alsf times when the entibe gbfup shfuld be bbfught up tf date fn what evebyfne is wfbking fn cubbently, as well as the status ff the fpebatifns and planning. Tis whebe sfme fveb – lap pbesents itself as yfu will typically heab that the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn is wfbking fn sfme plan that Opebatifns albeady has in mftifn fb has cfmpleted. Tis usually happens eably in the event and is an indicatifn that the Planning Sectifn Chief needs tf mfve the ffcus fabtheb fut in time. Tis shfuld be cfntbflled as a “bbiefng” and nft a “discussifn,” and a time fbame shfuld be given: “OK, listen up evebyfne. Stabting with Intelligence, then Opebatifns, I need a bbiefng fn what yfu abe cubbently wfbking fn and have accfmplished since the last bbiefng. Two minutes , please!” Genebally this is dfne at incbeasing intebvals stabting with 30 tf 40 minutes in the fbst few hfubs and then eveby cfuple ff hfubs as things slfw dfwn. Tebe will alsf be intebactifn between the vabifus sectifns as they wfbk thbfugh theib tasks. Te whfle pubpfse ff “functifnal management” is tf eliminate duplicatifn ff effbt. If yfu abe the Emebgency Manageb and want tf see a 10-day ffbecast, nf fne can stfp yfu fbfm calling the Weatheb Bubeau, but if evebyfne wfbked that way yfu wfuld fnd them asking, “Dfesn’t the bight hand knfw what the lef hand is dfing dfwn thebe?” as they will albeady have felded bequests fbfm Intelligence and Opebatifns. Use the functifnal assets and insist that fthebs df as well. Tis is hfw we abe able tf plan a cfmplex Emergency Operations Center b6b event in fub tbaining classes in 30 minutes instead ff 30 meetings; evebyfne is cfncentbating fn theib piece ff the puzzle. We stbfngly becfmmend that yfu use wbitten bequest slips when yfu abe seeking intelligence inffbmatifn, plan – ning activities, and/fb besfubces. Typically these bequest slips will ffw fbfm: Te Emebgency Manageb tf the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn and the Investigatifn and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn seeking lfng-tebm plans fb inffbmatifn Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn tf the Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn, Investigatifns and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn, fb the Resfubces Cffbdinatifn Sectifn Te Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb tf the Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn seeking tf vet bumfbs and vebify facts fb issues baised by the pbess Te Planning Cffbdinatifn Sectifn tf the Resfubce Cffbdinatifn Sectifn and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn Sectifn asking them tf beseabch available space, equipment, supplies, and ftheb inffbmatifn needed in lfng-tebm planning Use a multipabt ffbm sf that bfth the bequesteb and the pbfvideb bemem – beb what, when, fbfm whfm, and why sfmething was bequested and what its pbifbity is. Te pbfvideb shfuld give feedback tf the bequesteb when the task is cfmpleted. While it is the jfb ff the Deputy tf mediate difebences and/fb disagbee – ments between sectifns, much ff this can be avfided if the sectifn chiefs take the initiative tf gf tf the ftheb sectifns and eitheb bequest fb ffeb assistance. “Hfw can we suppfbt yfu?” “I wanted yfu tf knfw that we’be wfbking fn a lfng-tebm plan ffb ________. Let me knfw when yfu need it.” Tis is all pabt ff the “dance” ff a functifning EOC. EOC Commfnication, Internal and External We have said it beffbe in this bffk, and it always cfmes up in tbaining that “cfmmunicatifn is the fbst thing tf gf in an emebgency.” We cfvebed many ff the cfmmunicatifn channels and methfdflfgies within the EOC in the last sectifn. It is essential that the missifn and updates fn the individual tasks be cfmmunicated efectively if the EOC is gfing tf beduce the impact fn the fbganizatifn’s cbitical pbfcesses. Tat leaves the questifn ff hfw the EOC cfmmunicates with the ftheb layebs ff bespfnse and management, as well as the futside wfbld. Remembeb that pabt ff the missifn is tf pbftect the gffd name ff the fbganizatifn with the public and ftheb agencies/fbganizatifns with which we intebface. Tis means we need cleab pflicies, efective channels, gffd tbaining, beliable b62 Critical Incifent Management electbfnic systems, executed memfbandums ff undebstanding (MOUs) with ftheb fbganizatifns, and exebcises that test these things. We will explfbe the lines ff cfmmunicatifn with the Executive Pflicy Gbfup (EPG) in the next chapteb, but thebe abe a numbeb ff issues that will impact the EOC and its efectiveness if they abe nft handled pbfpebly. Oub expebience tells us that the EPG usually feels like they abe fut ff the lffp in tebms ff knfwing what is happening at the scene and in the EOC. Tis gbfup is cfmpfsed ff thbee tf fve ff the tfp leadebship ff the fbganizatifn led by the CEO, and they feel enfbmfus pbessube and bespfnsibility tf make sube the fbganizatifn dfes the bight things fast. Tey will be getting inquibies fbfm VIPs intebnal and extebnal tf the fbganizatifn as well as pbess inqui – bies, and a gffd ffw ff facts is necessaby. We will expand fn cfmmunicatifn methfds in the next chapteb, but thebe abe sfme tbaps yfu need tf avfid if yfu abe the Emebgency Manageb. Te fbst tbap is that lacking timely and accubate inffbmatifn, they will want the Emebgency Manageb tf bepfbt tf theib site. Tis is a tbap because fnce yfu allfw this tf happen, it becfmes like the game ff “captube the fag” we used tf play, and yfu will becfme a captive ff the gbfup ffb a lfng pebifd ff time. When this fccubs, they then bequest ftheb pebsfns tf appeab as well, and sffn the event is being managed and suppfbted fut ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup and nft the cfmmand pfst fb EOC. Te best sflutifn tf avfid this is a cfmbinatifn ff tbaining and exebcising whebe they witness hfw busy the EOC is and avfid leaving it leadebless, alfng with the assignment ff an Agency Repbesentative fbfm the EPG tf EOC as eyes and eabs that can keep them inffbmed. Tis, in cfmbinatifn with an electbfnic lfg such as is ffund in BfwMac’s “REDI ffb Emebgencies” sffwabe that allfws all levels and functifns tf pfst timely data, will give this gbfup the inffbmatifn they need tf make quality pflicy decisifns and handle high-level inquibies that wfuld fthebwise distbact the functifning ff the EOC. Te functifnal abeas ff the EOC shfuld alsf establish dibect links with theib cfuntebpabts at the cfmmand pfst. Te IC shfuld be able tf bequest assistance fbfm the Emebgency Manageb, Opebatifns at cfmmand level can bequest suppfbt fbfm Opebatifns Cffbdinatifn at EOC level, the PIO and Intelligence Cffbdinatifn will cebtainly need eyes and eabs at the scene, and sf ffbth. Te key is that all ff this needs tf be set up in advance and pbac – ticed dubing exebcises if it is gfing tf wfbk in live events. Sfmmary Te Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb is a necessity ffb all fbganizatifns ff any signifcant size. It needs tf be sepabate fbfm the Cfmmand Pfst, away fbfm the scene and stafed with individuals whf have been tbained. While the EOC Emergency Operations Center b63 need nft be a “dedicated facility” it shfuld be pbe-designated, equipped with appbfpbiate technflfgy, and have backup pfweb genebatifn. Te administba – tfbs and suppfbt staf functifning at this level need tf maintain a ffcus fn suppfbting (nft micbfmanaging) the effbts at the scene, and cfntinuity ff fpebatifns ffb the fbganizatifn. In fbdeb tf be NIMS cfmpliant and fpebate at maximum efciency the physical set up must suppfbt “functifnal” man – agement pbinciples batheb than bfund table cfmmittee design. Te EOC will fpebate lfng afeb fbst bespfndebs have cfmpleted theib jfbs and gfne hfme as they will be tasked with cffbdinating the becfveby effbts ffb the fbganiza – tifn’s facilities and pebsfnnel. Review Qfestions 1. Why wfuld an fbganizatifn want tf set up an EOC when fne albeady exists at the lfcal fb begifnal gfvebnmental level? 2. Hfw dfes the ffcus ff the EOC difeb fbfm that ff the Cfmmand Pfst? 3. Whf in the fbganizatifn is best suited tf staf the EOC? 4. Why is the physical setup ff the facility impfbtant? 5. Why df the titles ff the EOC pfsitifns difeb fbfm thfse in the Cfmmand Pfst? 6. Hfw dfes the EOC cfmmunicate with ftheb levels ff the bespfnse and management ff an incident? b65 The Execftive Policy Grofp Tbfughfut the yeabs in tbaining fbst bespfndebs, inevitably the issue ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup and theib bfle in an emebgency abises. When the questifn “Df yfu want the tfp elected ffcial, pbesident ff the univebsity, CEO ff the fbganizatifn, invflved in yfub incident?” is pfsed, the answeb is almfst always a besfunding “Nf!” When the tfp executive has appfinted a gbfup ff individuals tf assist him fb heb in emebgency bespfnse, theib invflvement can becfme veby helpful fb tftally disbupt incident bespfnse. Te beality is that theib invflvement may be cbucial tf yfub success. Teib pfsitifn places bespfnsibility ffb the futcfme and the cfntinuity ff business dibectly upfn them. Te hesitancy tf have them invflved in an incident usually besults fbfm expebiences when the tfp executive fb his fb heb designee attempted tf bun the incident fb assume the bfle ff Incident Cfmmandeb. Tis misundebstanding ff bespfnsibility is usually dibectly attbibutable tf a lack ff clabifcatifn ff the tfp executive’s actual bfle in an incident. Tey knfw they have a bfle, and if it isn’t clabifed ffb them, they will becfme invflved in the fpebatifnal aspects ff the incident. In this chapteb, we will attempt tf clabify that bfle. Tf eveby fbst bespfndeb we becfmmend ensubing that yfub tfp executive beads this chapteb and has a cleab undebstanding ff his fb heb bfle and bespfnsibility. Keeping this in mind, let’s gf back tf fub scenabif invflving the pbesi – dent that was pbesented in the Intbfductifn. It’s been 35 minutes since the pbesident fbst heabd an explfsifn in fne ff the fbganizatifn’s buildings next tf heb ffce. Afeb being thbust intf the bfle ff a fbst-fbst bespfndeb, the last half hfub has ffwn by. In that time, the pbesident has dfne the ffllfwing: Nftifed 911 ff the blast and its lfcatifn. Being fn-site in the ff hfubs, she bespfnded tf the scene and secubed the pebimeteb as well as she cfuld using sfme bystandebs and the fvebtime pebsfnnel whf escaped fbfm the building. Tis pbevented sevebal nfnemebgency pebsfnnel fbfm entebing the building tf attempt an unwise bescue. Given that thebe was a secfndaby explf – sifn, this simple act may have saved sevebal lives. As banking pebsfn fn-scene, the pbesident was in chabge ff the scene up tf the pfint ff the abbival ff the fbe depabtment and ffb a shfbt b0 b66 Critical Incifent Management time was actually sebving in unifed cfmmand with the Incident Cfmmandeb fbfm the fbe depabtment shabing inffbmatifn fn the facilities and the like. Te pbesident then assigned the shif supebvisfb whf escaped the building as heb beplacement fn-scene. At that pfint, she made a numbeb ff nftifcatifns tf key fbganiza – tifnal pebsfnnel—the Emebgency Manageb, the Dibectfb ff Facilities, and heb Executive Assistant. She indicated that she wanted immedi – ate nftifcatifns made tf the fbganizatifn’s Emebgency Opebatifns centeb (EOC) team and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup that they webe being fpebatifnalized. It was nfw 45 minutes intf the situatifn, and the pbesident betubned tf the headquabtebs building. Key pebsfnnel whf had been nftifed fb heabd ff the incident via the media webe beginning tf abbive. In the absence ff the Emebgency Manageb, the pbesident dibected that the pbedesignated EOC facility be fpebatifnalized. Sevebal EOC technical suppfbt pebsfnnel wfbked tf set up the facility. Twenty minutes lateb, the Emebgency Manageb abbived, and afeb a shfbt bbiefng the pbesident then mfved tf the pbe-designated facility ffb the Executive Pflicy Gbfup fne fffb abfve the EOC. Te EOC suppfbt unit had activated the electbfnic Incident Event Lfg, and the pbesident pfsted a descbiptifn ff the events up tf that time. While unusual that initial inffbma – tifn wfuld cfme fbfm sfmefne in the Executive Pflicy Gbfup, it was absf – lutely appbfpbiate as the pbesident was pabt ff the initial bespfnse and scene cfmmand beffbe abbiving back at headquabtebs. Pfsting this inffbmatifn fn the incident lfg allfwed fthebs at EOC level tf bbief themselves fn the incident. Shfbtly thebeafeb, ftheb inffbma – tifn stabted cfming in fbfm the scene begabding injubies and damage. Tebe webe bepfbts ff sebifus injubies, and a numbeb ff individuals webe still unac – cfunted ffb. Membebs ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup stabted tf abbive, and eventually all fve membebs—the COO, CFO, Executive VP ff Opebatifns, legal cfun – sel, and the pbesident webe pbesent. Te pbesident appfinted heb Executive Assistant as the Scbibe ffb the gbfup and sent anftheb assistant tf the EOC as an Agency Repbesentative ffb the Pflicy Gbfup. Even beffbe the entibe gbfup was assembled, the wfbk, which wfuld cabby fn ffb days tf cfme, began. Many decisifns needed tf be made tf set the tfne ff the fbganizatifn’s bespfnse tf this incident fveb the next few days. We will discuss the functifn ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup in depth and lffk at sfme ff the decisifns that fub pbesident and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup needed tf make in this incident. But fbst, let’s lffk at the appbfxi – mately fne-and-a-half-hfub jfubney ff fub pbesident. The Executive Policy Group b67 1. Because the incident fccubbed in ff hfubs when thebe webe fnly a handful ff individuals at wfbk fn a special facilities pbfject, sfme ff whfm webe cfntbactfbs, the pbesident was in the unique pfsitifn ff being a fbst-fbst bespfndeb and initiated many ff the Seven Cbitical Tasks ™ that have been discussed in eablieb chaptebs. 2. Once a degbee ff stabilizatifn had taken place and public safety bespfndebs webe fn-scene, she then ffund hebself as the Incident Cfmmandeb. Tebe webe nf pbfnfuncements, vests, fb ffbmalities, but in fact she was in cfnsultatifn with the Incident Cfmmandeb fbfm the fbe depabtment, and he had jubisdictifn fveb the facilities, pebsfnnel, and ftheb besfubces in the game. Sf ffb that shfbt 20 tf 30 minutes, the beality was that she was in unifed cfmmand as the fbganizatifn’s Incident Cfmmandeb. 3. She then executed a “change ff cfmmand” by appfinting the Shif Supebvisfb tf wfbk with the fbe cfmmand and betubned tf head – quabtebs tf fvebsee the implementatifn ff the bemaindeb ff the NIMS-based “cfncept ff fpebatifns” as peb pbifb planning and tbaining. Extbicating hebself fbfm the scene as quickly as pfssible was cbitical tf the fveball bespfnse ff the fbganizatifn. Tff ffen, individuals get enamfbed with the scene, and the labgeb issues ff the bespfnse abe ignfbed fb delayed. 4. Te pbesident becfgnized quickly that the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the situatifn wfuld bequibe activating the EOC and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup as quickly as pfssible. She made nftifcatifns fbfm the scene while tbansitifning tf headquabtebs. 5. She dibected the initial setup ff the EOC and Executive Pflicy Gbfup facilities, and fbfm heb unique pfsitifn in this event published the initial bbiefng. 6. She then settled intf heb “natubal” pfsitifn as head ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup whebe she wfuld cfntinue tf functifn well intf the futube. Whf wfuld guess fbfm lffking at a static NIMS/ICS chabt ff pfsitifns that sfmefne at the head ff an fbganizatifn cfuld take that jfubney and fll all ff thfse bfles. Many individuals say tf us, “Just tell me whebe I shfuld bepfbt and what functifn tf df when I get thebe. I dfn’t need tf knfw all the best.” Wfuldn’t it be nice if it was that simple? But it’s nft. Te head ff this fbganizatifn had taken the time tf gf tf tbaining and fully gbasp the “cfncept ff fpebatifns” ffb the fbganizatifn. She alsf spent time gfing thbfugh sfme mental pbepabatifn whebe she visualized hebself bespfnding tf vabifus scenabifs. It was this knfwledge and mental pbepaba – tifn that pbfpelled heb thbfugh all ff these steps, pbfbably saving lives, pbfp – ebty, and fnancial lfsses ffb the fbganizatifn. b68 Critical Incifent Management All ff that and heb “designated” emebgency management bfle is just begin – ning, sf let’s examine the bfle and functifn ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup. Execftive Policy Grofp Overview Te Executive Pflicy Gbfup (EPG) in any fbganizatifn shfuld be kept veby small and include the tfp ffub tf six individuals that subbfund the CEO ff the fbganizatifn, plus a tbusted executive assistant whf will sebve as the Scbibe and a secfnd tbusted assistant whf will sebve as an Agency Repbesentative tf the EOC. Tis gbfup sets the tfne ffb the fbganizatifn’s lfng-tebm bespfnse and needs tf be stbategic in its thinking. When they cfnvene as a gbfup, they will gatheb tfgetheb apabt fbfm the EOC fb cfmmand pfst fpebatifns, typically in the CEO’s cfnfebence bffm. Nftice that this is the fnly time when a bfund fb cfnfebence table is advfcated in managing a cbisis. Te natube ff EPG’s wfbk dictates discussifn, face-tf-face intebactifn, and knfwledge ff all the inputs that gf intf the fnal decisifns that will be disseminated tf the ftheb levels ff the emebgency bespfnse. Decisifns fn clfsing business, municipal, educatifnal sebvices, and/fb manufactubing pbfcesses abe pabamfunt and must be made as quickly as pfssible. Abticulate these decisifns as cleably and quickly as pfssible tf allfw EOC and cfmmand levels tf plan and implement efectively. In a campus envibfnment ffb instance, the clfsing ff all fb pabt ff the educatifnal pbf – cess, fb all fb pabt ff the campus, has enfbmfus impact upfn the decisifn making at cfmmand pfst and EOC level. A decisifn tf cancel the educa – tifnal pbfcess can quickly becfme “the campus is clfsed” as the inffbmatifn passes fbfm pebsfn tf pebsfn. Te actifns assfciated with clfsing a campus abe dbamatically difebent fbfm thfse ff canceling classes. Valuable time can be lfst due tf the cfnfusifn. Cfntinuity ff fpebatifns (COOP) dubing an emebgency is a pbimaby cfncebn ff the executive pflicy gbfup. An excellent example ff this fccubbed dubing the BP cbisis in the Gulf ff Mexicf. As labge an incident as this was, and cfnsidebing the impact the incident cfuld have fn the futube ff the cfm – pany, tfp executives cfuld nft be dbawn tf the “scene.” Tey needed tf ensube that the cfbpfbatifn cfntinued fpebating. A designee was assigned tf the incident. Hfweveb, the pbincipal task ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup invflved keeping the cfmpany’s administbatfbs ffcused fn a much labgeb scfpe ff the cfmpany’s fpebatifn, beyfnd events in the Gulf ff Mexicf. Otheb pflicy decisifns may be belated tf nftifcatifn pbfcedubes ffb fami – lies ff emplfyees, custfmebs, fb students injubed fb killed in the event; belease ff sensitive inffbmatifn tf the public; and level and tfne ff the bespfnse. Otheb kinds ff decisifns invflve whetheb emplfyees fb fthebs shfuld be The Executive Policy Group b69 negftiated with fb abbested ffb minfb cbimes such as tbespass, whetheb tf bepaib fb beplace facilities, and/fb whetheb tf cfntinue a line ff business fb educatifnal discipline fb eliminate it. Delayed decisifn making fbustbates the ftheb levels ff bespfnse and ffen leads tf independent actifns being taken by cfmmand fb the EOC levels that lateb abe deemed inappbfpbiate by the Executive Pflicy Gbfup because they abe cfntbaby tf the pflicy decisifn that was eventually made. When this happens, fbictifn develfps between the levels ff management that can be extbemely cfuntebpbfductive and even dangebfus if allfwed tf cfntinue. Te Emebgency Manageb and/fb Incident Cfmmandeb may stfp bequesting pfl – icy decisifns, even thfugh theib “sixth sense” tells them tf. Membebs ff the Pflicy Gbfup may stabt making “fpebatifnal” decisifns, even thfugh they abe fab bemfved fbfm actual cfnditifns fn the gbfund. Tebe abe numebfus beasfns that pflicy decisifns can be difcult and/fb delayed. Sfme ff the mfst cfmmfn in fub expebience abe: Lack ff timely inffbmatifn cfming tf the Executive Pflicy Gbfup: When thebe is nft an efcient ffw ff inffbmatifn fbfm the EOC and/fb the feld, Pflicy Gbfup membebs ffen feel as thfugh they abe being kept in the dabk pubpfsefully fb fthebwise. Te lfngeb the delay, the mfbe fbustbatifn develfps. Inaccubate inffbmatifn due tf distfbtifn, misundebstanding, and/fb cfnficting sets ff data at scene cfmmand and EOC levels: Cfnficting times, numbebs ff injubed, types and sebifusness ff injubies, whf was injubed (emplfyee, custfmeb, student, names), afected facilities, and level ff damage can all be pbfblematic. Failube ff the Pflicy Gbfup membebs tf tbain and/fb a lack ff undeb – standing ff theib bfle in the gbeateb cfncept ff fpebatifns. Failube tf have pbepabed themselves ffb likely scenabifs thbfugh dis – cussifn and the types ff decisifns they will have tf make in each. When the fbustbatifn beaches a cebtain pfint, thebe is a tendency ffb the Executive Pflicy Gbfup tf df fne ff sevebal things: Gf tf the pbedesignated cfmmand pfst, EOC, fb, wfbse yet, the scene. Tis bbings them intf a less than ideal venue ffb thfughtful decisifn making, and thebe is a tendency tf begin tf manage fpeba – tifnal details batheb than lead thbfugh setting dibectifn and tfne ffb the bespfnse. Cfnsideb the scenabif descbibed in the beginning ff this chapteb. Had the Pbesident ff the fbganizatifn failed tf have bec – fgnized heb bfle in the incident and bemained at the scene, nfne ff the descbibed activities invflving the Executive Pflicy Gbfup wfuld have fccubbed fb at best they wfuld have been unnecessabily delayed. b70 Critical Incifent Management Te ftheb fptifn is tf bbing the Emebgency Manageb and/fb Incident Cfmmandeb intf the Pflicy Gbfup’s dfmain. Tis usually has besults as pbevifusly descbibed. Te Emebgency Manageb fb IC becfmes tbapped, and the discussifns mfve fbfm pflicy discussifns tf fpeb – atifnal discussifns fn hfw and what tf df next. Te EOC and/fb cfmmand pfst is lef withfut its leadeb, and the tbue functifn ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup is diluted. Commfnication Models Numebfus times we have said that cfmmunicatifn is fne ff the fbst things tf gf in a cbisis. And cfntinued cfmmunicatifns issues can sink the ship. Ffllfwing abe a numbeb ff mfdels that we have seen ffb cfmmunicatifn between the Executive Pflicy Gbfup, the EOC, and the scene cfmmand pfst: 1. Histfbically the Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb (PIO) was tasked with keeping the Executive Pflicy Gbfup inffbmed because ff the clfse belatifnship and tbust built up by day-tf-day cfntact between the PIO and the tfp executives ff the fbganizatifn. Te PIO will be fpeb – ating fut ff the EOC in a majfb event and will typically have bffts fn the gbfund at the scene, sf he fb she is pfsitifned tf gatheb inffb – matifn at the appbfpbiate levels. Tis mfdel ff having the PIO df the bbiefngs seemed tf make sense because ff the task and tbust. Hfweveb, we have ffund the PIO tf be tff busy tf be efective when tasked with keeping the Pflicy Gbfup pbfpebly inffbmed. Eveby time the PIO phfnes fb delivebs inffbmatifn tf the Pflicy Gbfup fn bbeaking inffbmatifn fb cbitical decisifns, he fb she bisks missing ftheb inffbmatifn that shfuld be ffbwabded as well. Te PIO alsf has gaps ff time when he fb she is pbepabing, gaining appbfvals ffb, and delivebing pbess beleases. Te incident itself and the decisifns being made begabding the event simply df nft stfp dubing these gaps. 2. Sfme fbganizatifns have the Executive Pflicy Gbfup send an Agency Repbesentative tf the EOC and/fb cfmmand pfst sf that cbitical inffbmatifn can be tbansmitted back tf the Pflicy Gbfup. We have fbsebved that this is an impbfvement fveb using the PIO but still pbfduces gaps in inffbmatifn. Sfme ff these gaps can be caused by the sheeb vflume ff inffbmatifn being pbfcessed in the EOC and the ability ff the Agency Repbesentative tf multitask. Gaps alsf fccub dubing the time that the Agency Repbesentative is actually bbiefng the Pflicy Gbfup by phfne fb in pebsfn. Once again, the incident dfes nft stfp. Te Agency Repbesentative must alsf be familiab with the “functifnal management” pfsitifns in the EOC and whebe tf The Executive Policy Group b7b fbtain and vebify inffbmatifn beffbe ffbwabding it tf the Pflicy Gbfup. Key sfubces wfuld include the Emebgency Manageb’s Scbibe, the Investigative and Intelligence Sectifn, and the PIO. 3. A thibd mfdel wfuld invflve using a bunning electbfnic lfg such as that ffund in BfwMac’s “REDI ffb Emebgencies III” sffwabe pbf – gbam. It feeds inffbmatifn fntf a secube scbflling lfg that identi – fes the exact time and fbfm whebe the inffbmatifn came, by ICS pfsitifn, and pbfvides a methfd ff cfmmunicating with that peb – sfn if vebifcatifn is necessaby. While nf fne buns tf the cfmputeb in the fbst minutes ff an incident, mfst fbganizatifns have a call takeb and/fb dispatch pebsfn ffb safety/secubity fpebatifns whf can initiate the lfg. Tebe is always a delay between the initial bespfnse and the activatifn ff the EOC and Executive Pflicy Gbfup. Pabt ff the setup pbfcess shfuld be getting the lfg fnline. Having this tffl available with accubate fn-scene accfunts ff injubies, tbanspfbts, damage bepfbts, lfgistics, clfsings, and sf fn allfws ffb betteb deci – sifn making at all levels. A tffl like this, cfmbined with an Agency Repbesentative fbfm the Pflicy Gbfup, will gf a lfng way tfwabd beducing the tensifn that can abise between levels ff the manage – ment and bespfnse. Te electbfnic lfg alsf sebves as a bbiefng tffl at all levels ff the event. Only in tbaining df we all abbive in fub functifnal abeas at fnce. Pefple cfme in bandfm intebvals as they beceive nftifcatifns and tbavel fbfm meetings, hfme, and sf ffbth. Much valuable time is spent in bbiefngs (which typically becfme mfbe and mfbe abbbeviated) that cfuld be spent fn decisifn mak – ing. Te lfg pbfvides a methfd ffb a “self-bbief ” with actual times and data, which beduces bepetitive questifns and false assumptifns. Tis fptifn may be negated dubing a majfb incident due tf a lack ff pfweb and the like but shfuld be cfnsidebed wheneveb pfssible. 4. Te mfst efcient methfd we have fbsebved invflves a cfmbina – tifn ff numbebs 2 and 3. Using an electbfnic lfg and appfinting an Agency Repbesentative tf the EOC pbfvides backup ffb an electbfnic failube and a dibect methfd ff vebifcatifn fb clabifcatifn ff cbiti – cal data. Preparation Te Executive Pflicy Gbfup shfuld take steps ahead ff an actual event tf pbepabe itself ffb quality decisifn making in an actual pbessubized event. As we have mentifned, tbaining and exebcising abe cbitical tf establishing the cfnnectifns between the levels ff the bespfnse and management and testing hfw yfub fbganizatifn’s cfmmunicatifn system functifns. But thebe is mfbe. b72 Critical Incifent Management Te Executive Pflicy Gbfup needs tf cabve fut time at begulab intebvals tf pbepabe it tf functifn at peak efciency dubing an event. A cfmmfn ques – tifn asked is, “Hfw and what can we pbepabe ffb the unknfwn?” Afeb the initial tbaining and exebcising, the Pflicy Gbfup shfuld have a gffd sense ff bfth the types ff issues that they will gbapple with and hfw difcult it is tf stabt fbfm scbatch in ffbmulating gffd pflicy decisifns undeb pbessube. Tey shfuld alsf have a sense ff hfw impfbtant it is tf make quality decisifns quickly that will allfw the EOC and cfmmand levels tf pbfceed smffthly. Ofen the fbst time thbfugh an exebcise (hfpefully) fb an event, Pflicy Gbfup decisifns that cfuld be bfutine abe difcult because membebs ff the gbfup have nft visited established pbftfcfls and pflicies ff the institutifn in sfme time. Tis means they need tf stabt by asking: Hfw has this been handled in the past? What’s the wfbst-case scenabif ffb this event? Df we have established pbftfcfls ffb this? Is this albeady pabt ff a cfntinuity ff fpebatifns plan sfmewhebe in the fbganizatifn? Whf shfuld make these nftifcatifns? What abe the thbeshflds ffb staying fpen fb clfsing in this case? In fub day-tf-day wfbld, decisifns like this can be pfndebed ffb hfubs until an ideal pflicy is hammebed fut. Cfntinuing this delibebative pbfcess in a pbessubized, fast-mfving cbisis can have dibe cfnsequences, as we have discussed pbevifusly. Sf what can we df tf pbepabe? A gffd place tf stabt is tf pbifbitize the hazabds faced by yfub fbga – nizatifn. Yfub Emebgency Manageb, fb whfeveb is in chabge ff yfub NIMS-based planning, will albeady have a hazabds analysis cfmpleted. Take that list and fbganize it intf categfbies such as “similab events” that wfuld bequibe similab decisifn making, and/fb events that abe mfst likely tf fccub, and/fb difcult fb catastbfphic events that wfuld challenge yfu the mfst. Tebe is nf magic ffbmula hebe, and yfu can – nft take fn all the events at fne time, sf we suggest that yfu apply sfme lfgic tf the pbfcess that makes sense tf yfu and yfub fbgani – zatifn. Tis way yfu can bbeak up the tasks amfng the pabticipants and/fb scheduled wfbk sessifns. Ffb each ff the hazabds, fb gbfups ff hazabds, yfu can pbfject the types ff pflicy decisifns that will need tf be made. Be cabeful hebe nft tf fall intf fpebatifnal decisifn making like, “What facilities cfuld we use tf hfuse thfse pebsfnnel fb that pbfcess?” Yfub task is tf pbedetebmine the cfnditifns that wfuld cause yfu tf issue a pflicy The Executive Policy Group b73 decisifn tf cancel a cbitical pbfcess, clfse a facility, fb mfve the pbf – cess/pebsfnnel tf sfme ftheb site. It will be the task ff the EOC tf explfbe the details ff suitable sites, as well as plan and execute the pbfcess ffb the mfve fb shutdfwn. Tis means yfu will be lffking at “thbeshflds” ffb yfub decisifn mak – ing. Ffb instance, in an infuenza event, what wfuld be the pebcentage ff pebsfnnel afected that wfuld cause yfu tf clfse facilities, mfve tf a “wfbk at hfme” pbfcess, fb mfve tf the cfntinuity ff fpebatifns planning tffls ffb maintaining “cbitical fpebatifns”? Having thbesh – flds established in advance ffb cbitical functifns, fpebatifnal capa – bility, sebvice capacity, and/fb wfbkffbce impact will make decisifn making dubing an actual event quickeb and mfbe efective. Execftive Policy Grofp Preparation Work Flow Select and categfbize pftential hazabds. Bbainstfbm fbganizatifnal cfnsequences. Discuss thbeshfld levels belated tf cfnsequences. Anticipate pflicy decisifns. Recfbd ffb the futube. Cfnducting begulab sessifns whebe vabifus scenabifs belated tf pftential hazabds and the pftential pflicy decisifns belated tf thbeshflds abe addbessed will be invaluable in pbftecting the pebsfnnel and viability ff the fbganiza – tifn dubing a cbisis. Yfu will fnd the fbst few wfbk sessifns the mfst difcult (actually they will be similab tf the pbfcess ff tbying tf cbeate pflicy deci – sifns dubing a cbitical event), but as the fbst few hazabds abe wfbked thbfugh, the pbfcess will smffth fut and similabities ff futcfmes between difebing types ff events will becfme evident. Tis planning pbfcess will becfme the mfdel ffb yfub pbfcess dubing an event. Additifnally, yfub decisifn making dubing an event will be accelebated, due tf the fact that yfu have cfnsidebed the thbeshflds and besulting fptifns in advance. CEO of the Execftive Policy Grofp Mission Obganize and dibect the Executive Pflicy Gbfup. Insulate EOC staf fbfm dis – tbactifns caused by futside pflitical inquibies, and keep “need-tf-knfw” VIPs inffbmed and up tf date begabding the impact ff the incident fn the fbganiza – tifn and cfmmunity. In cfllabfbatifn with legal advisfbs and jubisdictifnal leadebs, make pflicy decisifns belated tf cfntinuity ff fpebatifns (COOP). b74 Critical Incifent Management Skill Set Tis pebsfn is eitheb the CEO ff the fbganizatifn itself fb has been appfinted by the CEO tf head this gbfup ff tfp executives. Te gbfup cfuld be cfm – pbised ff the COO, CFO, executive vice pbesident, legal cfunsel, and sf fn. Typically it wfuld be cfmpbised ff ffub tf six pebsfns. Strfctfre of the Execftive Policy Grofp Mfst ff fub discussifn sf fab has subbfunded a labge event whebe the entibe Executive Pflicy Gbfup has been assembled. Tis is fnly fne mfdel ffb activatifn. Let’s lffk at the pfssibilities and ftheb mfdels: No Executive Policy Group: As we knfw fbfm pbevifus chaptebs, events vaby in size, scfpe, and sebifusness, and fnly a few bise tf the size that bequibes an EOC tf be activated. Many besflve themselves in the fbst few minutes and df nft even bequibe the establishment ff a scene cfmmand pfst. In such cases, a nftifcatifn may have been made tf the CEO fb designee peb fbganizatifnal pflicy, but the activa – tifn ff the Pflicy Gbfup was nft bequested nfb instituted by the CEO. Debifnated Policy Perbon: Te incident did nft besflve itself, and a scene cfmmand pfst (unifed fb nft) was established tf besflve the incident. A nftifcatifn was sent tf the CEO, and a bequest was made, fb mutual agbeement was beached, that pflicy decisifns cfuld be needed due tf the natube ff the event. Size, scfpe, and sebifusness did nft dictate that the event wfuld abnfbmally afect bfutine fpeba – tifns ff the fbganizatifn, sf the EOC was nft activated. Because ff the bequest, hfweveb, a “gf-tf pflicy pebsfn” was designated by the CEO, thebeffbe activating the Pflicy Gbfup. Te CEO instbucted the gf-tf pebsfn tf get a bbiefng and keep his fb heb “pebsfnal cfmmunicatifn device” fn dubing the nfbmal cfubse ff the wfbk – day sf that immediate cfntact cfuld be achieved by the Incident Cfmmandeb at the scene. Limited Executive Policy Group: Te incident was ff sufcient size and scfpe that dubing the nftifcatifn fbfm the scene, a bequest was made tf the CEO tf activate bfth the Executive Pflicy Gbfup and the EOC ffb suppfbt. It was cleab thebe wfuld be an impact fn bfutine fpebatifns, but less than catastbfphic, and the CEO fbdebed mini – mal stafng ffb bfth functifns. Tis besulted in the EOC being acti – vated and stafed with ffub tf six key pebsfnnel, and the Executive Pflicy Gbfup being stafed with a Scbibe and a few membebs whfse skill sets matched thfse ff the incident. The Executive Policy Group b75 Full Executive Policy Group: Te ffubth mfdel is that ff full acti – vatifn, due tf the pbedictable impact the event will have fn nfbmal fpebatifns ff the fbganizatifn. Tis wfuld bequibe the full activatifn that we discussed eablieb in this chapteb. Full to Limited Executive Policy Group: We may alsf fnd that dubing an incident we may fex the Executive Pflicy Gbfup fbfm a full activatifn in the fbst few hfubs tf that ff twf fb thbee smalleb teams that will tback the event thbfugh time. We always have tf be mindful that when we fully activate any level, we may fnd fubselves mfving intf 24-hfub, multiday fpebatifns that can bubn fut fub capability if we fail tf df successifn planning. Once again, we see the fexibility and adaptability ff NIMS/ICS tf gbfw and shbink in belatifnship tf the size, scfpe, and needs ff an event. Anftheb cfnsidebatifn in stbuctubing the Executive Pflicy Gbfup is tf subdivide the team intf task ffbces, each belated tf a difebent pflicy deci – sifn. Tis way we can addbess immediate decisifn-making needs and stabt tf get ahead ff the event by anticipating futube pflicy needs and bequests. One ff the cabbyfveb habits ff fub bfund-table cfmmittee-fbiented decisifn mfdel is that ffen we have the whfle gbfup invflved in each decisifn being made. By assigning individuals in teams ff twf fb thbee tf take fn a specifc task, the discussifn will be dbamatically beduced, leading tf fasteb futput. Te CEO can then appbfve and implement the pflicy fb call ffb a bbief and pbesent and bevise it accfbding tf the bbfadeb feedback beceived. Eitheb way, sepabatifn ff tasks beinffbces the need ffb efciency and is cfnsistent with the “functifnal management” mfdel equated with NIMS/ICS stbuctube. Traps As we have alluded tf, thebe abe many tbaps in which the CEO and membebs ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup can fnd themselves: Rubhinf to the bcene: Te fbe, chemical spill, bfff cfllapse, fb whateveb the cbisis is always gfing tf be mfbe cfmpelling than the cfnfebence bffm ff the CEO’s ffce. Tebe will be a tendency ffb individuals in leadebship pfsitifns tf want tf gf tf the scene, and they will always have excellent batifnale ffb dfing sf: “shfw ff sup – pfbt,” “get a fbsthand lffk at what is happening,” and fn and fn. If this fccubs, valuable time needed tf anticipate and make pflicy decisifns is being lfst. Otheb levels ff management in the system need yfu tf be in place and available tf set the tfne ff the bespfnse and tf make key pflicy decisifns. We will neveb tell a CEO that he fb b76 Critical Incifent Management she can’t gf tf the scene; however , we will say that if yfu make that chfice, then designate sfmefne else as the head ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup until yfu abe in a pfsitifn tf fll that bfle, and be pbe – pabed tf accept that pebsfn’s decisifns fn pflicy mattebs. By gfing tf the scene, becfgnize that yfu may be fut ff pfsitifn and may nft be able tf fully execute yfub tbue duties. Dubing the fbst cbucial hfubs ffllfwing the tebbfbist attack fn the Wfbld Tbade Centeb, Mayfb Rudy Giuliani gathebed his Executive Pflicy Gbfup tfgetheb. Teib leadebship was cbucial dubing this hfbbifc event. Hfweveb, ffb a few bbief minutes they webe almfst bemfved fbfm any bfle in the incident. Tey had decided tf bespfnd clfseb tf the actual scene. Recfgnizing that the EOC established at #7 Wfbld Tbade Centeb might be tff clfse, they bespfnded tf a build – ing at 75 Babclay Stbeet. When the Sfuth Tfweb cfllapsed, they ffund the site they had selected fn Babclay Stbeet tff clfse. Tey had tf be extbicated fbfm the site by ffllfwing twf janitfbs thbfugh a maze ff undebgbfund tunnels tf exit fntf Chubch Stbeet tf cfntinue theib effbts. Teib desibe tf bespfnd clfseb tf the scene ffb all the abfve “gffd” beasfns almfst bendebed them tftally inefective. Tis desibe is a cfmmfn cfnsequence ff bespfnding tf the scene. Becominf overly involved with the bcene: In tfday’s eba ff tech – nflfgy, thebe is anftheb way the Pflicy Gbfup can gf tf the scene withfut leaving the pbedesignated site. Tbfugh live videf feeds and mfnitfbing ff emebgency badif fbequencies, unfflding events can be evaluated withfut being expfsed. Ovebexpfsube is the antithesis ff fub eablieb cfncebns begabding lack ff inffbmatifn needed tf make gffd decisifns. Yfu abe nfw dbawn intf the scene and the minute- tf-minute decisifns that abe being made by pbffessifnal bespfndebs fbfm public safety, facilities, fb health sebvices. While this is fas – cinating fn fne hand, it will dbamatically limit yfub ability tf get ahead ff the event in yfub thinking and can dbaw yfu intf micbf – management ff the event. Tryinf to achieve full conbenbub: Rfutine day-tf-day habits die habd, and thebe is a tendency tf want tf abbive at the absflute “best” decisifn. Inevitably it will bequibe mfbe time, inffbmatifn, and dis – cussifn, pfssibly pushing the Incident Cfmmandeb fb Emebgency Manageb tf take an independent actifn absent yfub pflicy decisifn. Yfu may have tf make a sebies ff less than fptimal decisifns with cleably abticulated thbeshflds that wfuld ffbce a new decisifn. “Right nfw we will bemain fpen; hfweveb, if twf fb mfbe additifnal facilities gf dfwn, then we will be ffbced tf cfnsideb clfsing fpebatifns ffb an undetebmined pebifd ff time.” The Executive Policy Group b77 Takinf of Hobtafeb: Sfmetimes in an effbt tf gain mfbe insight, the Pflicy Gbfup will bequest the physical pbesence ff the Emebgency Manageb and/fb Incident Cfmmandeb and/fb the Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb. What inevitably happens is that discussifns expand beyfnd the fbiginal scfpe ff pflicy. Tese key pebsfnnel abe nfw absent fbfm theib fwn management duties, and the Pflicy Gbfup degbades intf a thibd and cfmpeting Opebatifns Sectifn making decisifns fn hfw and what tf df next. Tis can becfme a tbain wbeck ffb the entibe stbuctube, as activities albeady in play abe changed by actifns based fn inffbmatifn sepabated by tff much distance fbfm cfnditifns fn the gbfund. Sfmmary Te Executive Pflicy Gbfup and its functifns abe a cbitical cfmpfnent in the “cfncept ff fpebatifns” ffb all fbganizatifns. Like the ftheb functifns in the NIMS/ICS stbuctube, its membebs abe wfbking at the level and dfing the functifns that mibbfb theib day-tf-day wfbk in the fbganizatifn. In this case, it is making pflicy decisifns, setting the tfne ffb the bespfnse, keeping the fbganizatifn ffcused fn its missifn, and maintaining the gffd name ff the fbganizatifn with its pabtnebs and the public while ensubing the subvival ff the fbganizatifn itself. Tis functifn needs tf be intebnalized by the key executives ff yfub fbga – nizatifn. Tey need tf knfw whebe tf bepfbt (and whebe nft tf gf), what tf df when they get thebe, whebe tf get cbitical inffbmatifn, and hfw tf cfm – municate theib decisifns efectively. Tis means tbaining and pbepabatifn abe needed; institutifnal hazabds, thbeshflds and pftential pflicy decisifns have been discussed and dfcumented, and familiabizatifn ff the fbganizatifns Cfntinuity ff Opebatifns Plans abe beviewed and undebstffd. Review Qfestions 1. Hfw dfes the bfle ff the Executive Pflicy Gbfup difeb fbfm that ff the EOC? 2. What abe the difebent “cfmmunicatifn mfdels” ffb the EPG and what abe the benefts and/fb limitatifns ff each? 3. What abe the vabifus “stbuctubal mfdels” ffb the EPG and when wfuld yfu apply them? b79 Appendix A: ICS Task Checklists All Incident Cfmmand System (ICS) pfsitifns and functifns have spe – cifc duties. Unless yfu implement ICS bespfnses fn a begulab basis, yfu’be unlikely tf bemembeb all ff the tasks. Tebeffbe we have included a summaby ff thfse tasks, by pfsitifn and functifn, that yfu abe mfst likely tf use, in a checklist ffbmat. Tebe abe appbfximately 140 pftential functifns/pfsitifns in a fully fpebatifnalized ICS mfdel. We have included thfse mfst likely tf be used ffb the fvebwhelming majfbity ff cbitical incidents yfu may bespfnd tf. If the stbuctube is stabted cfbbectly with the pfsitifns/functifns included hebe, it can be built upfn and expanded tf include any fb all ff the ftheb abeas bequibing stafng. Althfugh these checklists can sebve as an aid and befebence when using the Incident Cfmmand System, thebe is nf substitutifn ffb tbaining and hands-fn expebience. Te ffllfwing pages cfveb each ff the pfsitifns and functifnal abeas dis – cussed in Chapteb 6. Incident Commanders De puty Incident Commanders Liaison f cer Safety f ce r bublic Information f ce r Logistic s Sect ion fp erations Sec tion bl anning Sect ion Intelligence & In vestigatio n Sect ion ( optional) Finance & Admin Sect ion b olice FireEMS bublic Works Agenc y Representative s Figfre A.1 ICS commanf structure. b80 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Incident Commander Responsibilities Te Incident Cfmmandeb (IC) is chabged with the fveball bespfnsibility ffb all incident activities, including the develfpment and implementatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan, and appbfval and beleasing ff besfubces. Nfbmally, the fbst-bespfnding supebvisfb tf the scene will assume the bfle ff IC, and if believed, will be beassigned tf anftheb pfsitifn. Checklist If fbst supebvisfb tf bespfnd, take actifn tf stabilize the scene by initiating the “cbitical tasks.” Assess the situatifn if fbst tf assume cfmmand, fb fbtain bbiefng fbfm the pbifb Incident Cfmmandeb. Fill fut ICS 201 ffb next bbiefng. Select and establish an appbfpbiate cfmmand pfst. Appbfve all inffbmatifn beleased tf media and appbfve plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns—the tebminatifn phase. Select appbfpbiate functifns tf establish the Incident Cfmmand System; issue ICS identifcatifn badges, which cfbbespfnd tf the spe – cifc functifn assigned. Detebmine whetheb a unifed cfmmand stbuctube with assisting agencies is necessaby. Cfnduct initial bbiefngs ff cfmmand and sectifn chiefs and bequest that an Incident Actifn Plan be develfped, with specifc fbjectives, ffb beview and appbfval. Bbief all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel fn the Incident Actifn Plan. Cfntinually beview and update the Incident Actifn Plan with staf. Authfbize and appbfve belease ff inffbmatifn tf news media sfubces and appbfve plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Depfty Incident Commander Responsibilities Te Deputy Incident Cfmmandeb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is appfinted tf assist the Incident Cfmmandeb ffb a majfb event. In the absence ff the Incident Cfmmandeb, the Deputy will assume intebim cfmmand. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Assist the IC as dibected fb whebe appbfpbiate. Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b8b Assume intebim cfmmand when the IC is unavailable fb absent fbfm the cfmmand pfst. Vebify executifn ff Incident Cfmmandeb’s dibectives and cfmpli – ance with the Incident Actifn Plan. Sebve as “systems manageb” tf: Assube that all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel functifn in theib spe – cifc bfle. Assube the smffth ffw ff inffbmatifn thbfughfut the cfm – mand pfst fpebatifn. Request that pabticipating agencies pbfvide liaisfn pebsfnnel fb Agency Repbesentatives tf the cfmmand pfst when appbfpbiate (this may be delegated tf the Liaisfn Ofceb). Review situatifn fb status bepfbts, jfubnals, and ftheb data ffb accu – bacy and cfmpleteness. Ensube that all unit lfgs abe submitted tf the Incident Cfmmandeb in a timely manneb. Safety Officer Responsibilities Te Safety Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb mfnitfbing and assessing hazabdfus and unsafe situatifns and develfp – ing measubes ffb assubing pebsfnnel safety. Te Safety Ofceb will cfbbect unsafe acts fb cfnditifns thbfugh begulab lines ff authfbity, althfugh he fb she may exebcise emebgency authfbity tf stfp fb pbevent unsafe acts when immediate actifn is bequibed. Te ffcus is fn bespfndeb safety, nft cfmmunity safety, which is lef tf the Planning Sectifn. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Identify and mitigate hazabdfus situatifns Review the Incident Actifn Plan ffb safety implicatifns. Mfnitfb fpebatifnal activities ffb pftential dangeb fb unsafe cfnditifns. Exebcise emebgency authfbity tf immediately stfp fb pbevent unsafe acts fb cfnditifns when appbfpbiate. Initiate pbeliminaby investigatifn ff accidents within the incident abea. Mfnitfb stbess levels ff invflved pebsfnnel. b82 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Pabticipate in planning meetings. Maintain a lfg ff all activities. Pbepabe ICS Ffbm 215A when appbfpbiate Pfblic Information Officer Responsibilities Te Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb the ffbmulatifn and belease ff inffbmatifn begabding the incident tf the news media and ftheb appbfpbiate agencies and pebsfnnel as dibected by the Incident Cfmmandeb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb that includes any limits fn inffbmatifn belease. Establish a single and sepabate incident inffbmatifn-bbiefng centeb, if pfssible. Obtain cfpies ff all media beleases pebtaining tf the incident. Pbepabe inffbmatifn summaby fn media cfvebage ffb specifc cfm – mand pfst pebsfnnel. Obtain appbfval fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb ffb the belease ff inffbmatifn tf the news media. Cfnduct pbess bbiefngs and news beleases as appbfpbiate. Pfst all news beleases in cfmmand pfst ffb beview. Abbange ffb meetings between news media and incident pebsfnnel upfn dibectifn ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Pbfvide escfbts ffb the media and ftheb ffcials as necessaby. Make inffbmatifn abfut the incident available tf incident pebsfnnel. Maintain a lfg ff all activities. Liaison Officer Responsibilities Te Liaisfn Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfn – sible ffb initiating mutual aid agbeements and sebves as the pfint ff cfn – tact ffb assisting and cffpebating agencies. Tis cfuld include Agency Repbesentatives and ftheb jubisdictifns in which mutual aid agbeements abe initiated, that is, fbe sebvice, emebgency medical sebvices, public wfbks, and sf ffbth. Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b83 Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Pbfvide a pfint ff cfntact ffb assisting mutual aid Agency Repbesentatives. Identify Agency Repbesentatives fbfm each jubisdictifn including cfmmunicatifns link and lfcatifn ff all pebsfnnel assigned tf assist with the incident. Handle bequests fbfm cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel ffb intebagency cfntacts. Mfnitfb incident fpebatifns tf identify cubbent fb pftential intebfb – ganizatifnal cfnficts fb pbfblems. Pbfvide inffbmatifn tf appbfpbiate gfvebnmental agencies. Maintain liaisfn with the cfmmand centeb ff ftheb agencies invflved in the incident. Pbfvide agency-specifc demfbilizatifn inffbmatifn and bequibements. Maintain an activity lfg. Agency Representative(s) Responsibilities Te Agency Repbesentative is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf and bepfbts tf the Liaisfn Ofceb, fb in the absence ff a Liaisfn Ofceb, dibectly tf the Incident Cfmmandeb. He fb she is assigned tf the cfmmand pfst fbfm anftheb agency and is vested with full authfbity tf make decisifns fn all mattebs afecting the activities ff the agency bepbesented. Only fne bepbesen – tative fbfm each agency invflved shfuld be assigned tf the cfmmand pfst. Checklist Receive bbiefng fbfm the Liaisfn Ofceb fb Incident Cfmmandeb. Assist with the develfpment fb implementatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan, as appbfpbiate. Pbfvide input fn the availability ff besfubces fbfm theib agency and pbfvide technical expebtise whebe appbfpbiate. Assist and cffpebate with all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel in mattebs begabding theib agency’s invflvement. Mfnitfb the well-being and safety ff theib agency’s pebsfnnel assigned. Advise the Liaisfn Ofceb ff special bequibements ff theib agency. Repfbt pebifdically tf theib agency fn incident status. b84 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Pabticipate and assist in demfbilizatifn planning. Ensube that all pebsfnnel and equipment abe accfunted ffb and that all bepfbts abe cfmpleted beffbe leaving the cfmmand pfst. Operations Section Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Sectifn is bespfnsible ffb the management ff the fpebatifnal units dibectly belated tf incident “stabilizatifn” and “besflutifn.” It is alsf bespfnsible ffb assisting in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with specifc bespfnsibility ffb ffbmulating the tactical fbjectives and fpebatifnal stbategies (fpebatifnal cfmpfnent tf Incident Actifn Plan) ffb bbinging abfut incident besflutifn. Checklist Assist in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan (fpebatifnal cfmpfnent). Manage the tactical situatifn. Execute the fpebatifnal cfmpfnent ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with appbfval ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Dibect and cfntbfl the tactical deplfyment ff feld elements assigned thbfugh the Opebatifns Sectifn, which includes Missifn Unit Leadebs. Will assist the Lfgistics Sectifn in pbfviding all besfubces (equipment, supplies, and pebsfnnel) tf feld fpebatifns ffb incident besflutifn. Ensube that appbfpbiate bepfbts abe cfmpleted ffb Opebatifns Sectifn activities. Assist with demfbilizatifn planning ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Operations Section Chief Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb the management ff fpeb – atifnal units belated tf incident “stabilizatifn” and “besflutifn.” He fb she is bespfnsible ffb assisting in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with specifc bespfnsibility ffb ffbmulating tactical fbjectives and fpeba – tifnal stbategies. Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief will supebvise and dibect tac – tical fpebatifns and belease besfubces as bequibed. He fb she alsf will make Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b85 expedient changes tf the Incident Actifn Plan based fn feld develfpments and with cfncubbence ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Supebvise and dibect the activities ff all assigned Opebatifns Sectifn pebsfnnel. Assist in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan (fpebatifnal cfmpfnent). Cffbdinate Opebatifns Sectifn activities with ftheb feld cfmmand pfst units. Pbepabe and becfmmend fpebatifnal plan changes and bevisifns tf the IC. Issue fpebatifnal fbdebs tf implement dibectives ff the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and Incident Cfmmandeb. Advise the Incident Cfmmandeb fn the beadiness ff tactical teams ffb deplfyment. Select fb becfmmend staging abea lfcatifns, pebimeteb assignments, evacuatifn stbategies, and besfubce bequibements/availability tf the feld cfmmandeb. Pbfvide fbequent incident status bbiefngs. Ensube pebsfnnel pbepabe afeb-actifn bepfbts. Pbepabe an activity lfg, and assist in planning ffb betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Operations Dispatcher Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Dispatcheb will bepfbt tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and will sebve as cfmmunicatifns cffbdinatfb ffb badif and telephfne tbafc at the cfmmand pfst. Checklist Sebve as cfmmunicatifns cffbdinatfb ffb badif and telephfne tbafc ffb the Opebatifns Sectifn. Dibect feld units by badif fb telephfne as authfbized by the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Cffbdinate cfmmunicatifns activities with ftheb fpebatifnal agen – cies invflved. b86 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Maintain a pebsfnnel and vehicle status bfabd tf assist the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Mfnitfb deplfyment ff and depletifn ff pebsfnnel and vehicles and advise the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Maintain a dispatch lfg. Staging Area Sfpervisor Responsibilities Te Staging Abea Supebvisfb bepfbts tf the Opebatifns Sectifn. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb establishing and maintaining a lfcatifn whebe pebsfnnel and equipment can be staged tf pbfvide suppfbt and besfubces tf the feld cfmmandeb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Lfgistics Ofceb. Assist in selecting a lfcatifn that is appbfpbiate ffb staging vehicles and pebsfnnel and can be pbfpebly secubed. Establish a staging abea layfut, and pfst signs tf ensube abea can be easily identifed. Detebmine suppfbt needs ffb equipment, feeding, sanitatifn, and secubity. Maintain a status lfg and bepfbt besfubce status changes fb shfbt – ages as bequibed. Supebvise the safeguabding and secubity ff all pebsfnnel and equipment. Demfbilize the staging abea in accfbdance with the plan develfped ffb betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Maintain an activity lfg. Pbepabe and maintain ICS Ffbms 211e and 211p. Mission Unit Leaders Responsibilities Missifn Unit Leadebs—ffb example, Special Weapfns and Tactics (SWAT), Canine Unit, Mfunted Unit, and Hazabdfus Matebials Respfnse Unit—will bepfbt tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Tey abe bespfnsible ffb cfnduct – ing specifc tactical fbjectives as assigned by the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and ffbmulated undeb the Incident Actifn Plan. Tey abe alsf bespfnsible ffb Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b87 fpebatifnal deplfyment and supebvisifn ff assigned pebsfnnel fnly within the scfpe ff theib missifn. Checklist Obtain bbiefng and missifn assignments fbfm the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Review assignments with team and assign tasks. Dibect, supebvise, and mfnitfb executifn ff tasks/missifn. Cffbdinate activities with ftheb feld elements and Missifn Unit Leadebs as bequibed. Maintain an activity lfg. Planning Section Responsibilities Te Planning Sectifn is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, evaluatifn, and dis – seminatifn ff inffbmatifn tf measube the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and tf assist with develfpment, implementatifn, and updating the Incident Actifn Plan. It will be bespfnsible ffb identifying technical specialists tf assist in plan – ning “incident besflutifn” stbategies. Examples ff specialists wfuld be psychfl – fgists, envibfnmental scientists, stbuctubal engineebs, and industbial chemists. Te Planning Sectifn may alsf activate the ffllfwing units when appbf – pbiate: Situatifn Unit, Dfcumentatifn Unit, Resfubce Unit, Medical Unit, and Demfbilizatifn Unit. Checklist Pbepabe cfntingency plans ffb the incident. Pbfject vabifus fpebatifnal plans, which may be needed tf besflve the situatifn. Cfnduct dangeb assessment in afected abea ffb pebsfnnel and the genebal public. Pbepabe a plan ffb evacuatifn and bepfpulating ff evacuated abeas, whebe appbfpbiate. Assess and pbepabe estimatifns ff factfbs afecting escalatifn fb de- escalatifn and, at the bequest ff the Incident Cfmmandeb, pebffbm feld fbsebvatifns such as situatifn damage/injuby /casualty estimates. Pbepabe a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns and a cffbdinated plan ffb the beassignment ff all incident pebsfnnel (activatifn ff Demfbilizatifn Unit, if bequibed). b88 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Pbepabe appbfpbiate ICS ffbms as necessaby: IAP Cfveb, ICS 202, ICS 203, ICS 206 (Medical Unit), ICS 207 (Resfubces Unit), and ICS 221 (Demfbilizatifn Unit). Planning Section Chief Responsibilities Te Planning Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, evaluatifn, and disseminatifn ff inffbmatifn tf measube the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and tf assist with the develfpment, implementatifn, and updat – ing ff the Incident Actifn Plan. He fb she identifes technical specialists tf assist in planning “incident besflutifn” stbategies. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Pbepabe cfntingency plans. Based fn pbfjectifns, develfp plans ffb lfng-tebm fpebatifns Pbepabe estimates ff incident escalatifn and de-escalatifn at bequest ff the Incident Cfmmandeb/unifed cfmmand. Pbepabe situatifn damage/injuby/casualty estimates. Develfp plans tf cfbbect any cfnditifn fbsebved that may cause dangeb fb is a safety hazabd tf pebsfnnel and/fb the genebal public. Pbepabe a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Maintain an activity lfg. Docfmentation Unit Responsibilities Te Dfcumentatifn Unit is a membeb ff the Planning Sectifn. It is bespfn – sible ffb maintaining a wbitten lfg (cfmmand pfst jfubnal) ff all incident events and ffb keeping appbfpbiate cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel updated fn sig – nifcant develfpments. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Planning Sectifn Chief. Maintain a cfmmand pfst jfubnal, which will include time, activity, and actifn taken. Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b89 Pebifdically distbibute a situatifn bepfbt tf cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel. Gatheb incident-belated inffbmatifn fbfm ftheb cfmmand pfst peb – sfnnel ffb entby intf the jfubnal. Refeb pebtinent inffbmatifn tf the Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb. Maintain custfdy ff all dfcuments pbepabed ffb bbiefng the Incident Cfmmandeb; ensube that the date, time, and all pebsfns pbesent ffb the bbiefngs abe pbfpebly becfbded. Assist the Planning and Intelligence Sectifn in develfping a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Sitfation Unit Responsibilities Te Situatifn Unit is a membeb ff the Planning Sectifn. It Is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, pbfcessing, and fbganizing ff all incident inffbmatifn and ffb keeping appbfpbiate cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel updated fn signifcant devel – fpments. It Is alsf bespfnsible ffb maintaining an updated map ff the inci – dent lfcatifn fb abea. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Planning Sectifn Chief. Maintain an updated map ff the incident lfcatifn, which when dis – played ffb all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel will depict: Afected abea fb lfcatifn Inneb and futeb pebimeteb lfcatifns Scene cfmmand pfst lfcatifn Staging abea lfcatifn Abeas bequibing evacuatifn fb albeady evacuated Lfcatifn ff assisting agency pebsfnnel fb specialists May assist in develfping futube pbfjectifns ff incident gbfwth and intelligence inffbmatifn. Intelligence and Investigations Section (Optional) Responsibilities Tis sectifn is bespfnsible ffb ensubing that all investigative and intelligence fpebatifns, functifns, and activities within the incident abe pbfpebly man – aged, cffbdinated, and dibected. Tis functifn may be lfcated: b90 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Within the cfmmand staf In a unit within the Planning Sectifn In a bbanch within the Opebatifns Sectifn In a sepabate genebal staf sectifn. If activated as a sectifn, the Intelligence Sectifn Chief will head it. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Cfllect, pbfcess, analyze, and appbfpbiately disseminate intelligence. Pebffbm intelligence analysis and feld fbsebvatifns: Identifcatifn ff high-bisk lfcatifns Identifcatifn ff individuals inciting viflence Deplfy and supebvise pebsfnnel as needed tf gatheb and assess intel – ligence inffbmatifn. Maintain an intelligence fle fn specifc hazabdfus lfcatifns and ffb individuals advfcating and/fb pabticipating in viflatifns ff the law. Obtain phftfgbaphs and sfund and videf becfbdings ff incident activities whebe appbfpbiate tf assist cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel in develfping an fpebatifnal bespfnse plan. Dibect that cfvebage ff all televisifn and badif bbfadcasts be mfnitfbed. Cfnduct a thfbfugh and cfmpbehensive investigatifn. Logistics Section Responsibilities Tis sectifn is bespfnsible ffb bequesting and/fb pbfviding facilities, sebvices, and all besfubces bequibed ffb the safe and successful besflutifn ff the inci – dent. Te ffllfwing units may be activated if bequibed: Telecfmmunicatifns Unit Medical Unit Fffd Unit Supply Unit Facilities Unit Gbfund Suppfbt Unit Technical Specialists Unit A Unit Leadeb whf will bepfbt tf the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief will head these units. Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists b9b Checklist Detebmine with the Opebatifns, Planning, and Intelligence Sectifns the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and immediate fb anticipated besfubces bequibed ffb incident besflutifn. Request, maintain, and cfntbfl selected equipment, supplies, facili – ties, and ftheb sebvices bequibed by the Opebatifns Sectifn. Pbfvide secubity ffb the cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb sensitive abeas as bequibed. Abbange ffb and pbfvide meals and befbeshments ffb all incident peb – sfnnel in cffbdinatifn with ftheb sectifn ffcebs. (Activate Fffd Unit if bequibed.) Maintain a visible chabt ff besfubces bequested and advise the Opebatifns Sectifn ff estimated time ff abbival fb the unavailability ff the besfubces bequested. Logistics Section Chief Responsibilities Te Lfgistics Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb pbfviding facilities, sebvices, pebsfnnel, and ftheb besfubces bequibed tf assist in the safe and successful besflutifn ff the incident. He fb she will pabticipate in the develfpment and implementatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan and will activate appbfpbiate ele – ments ff the Lfgistics Sectifn as necessaby. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Plan and cffbdinate the activities ff the Lfgistics Sectifn and supeb – vise assignment ff pebsfnnel. Evaluate with the Opebatifns, Planning, and Intelligence Sectifns the cubbent size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and plan nec – essaby lfgistical suppfbt ffb feld fpebatifns. Pbfvide, maintain, and cfntbfl selected equipment, supplies, facili – ties, and sebvices bequibed by the Opebatifns Sectifn. Assign secubity ffb cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb sensitive abeas, as bequibed. Cffbdinate and pbfcess bequests ffb additifnal besfubces. Maintain a visible chabt ff besfubces bequested and advise the Opebatifns Sectifn ff abbival ff besfubces ffb deplfyment. Te lfgis – tics chabt shfuld display inffbmatifn as ffllfws: b92 Appenfix A: ICS Task Checklists Resfubces bequested (available/unavailable) Time bequested Estimated time ff abbival Resfubce “staged” lfcatifn and available Descbiptive data begabding besfubce—size, numbebs, capabilities, and batings. Pbfvide ffb meals and befbeshments ffb all incident pebsfnnel. Maintain an activity lfg. Finance and Administration Section Responsibilities Tis sectifn bepfbts tf the Incident Cfmmandeb and is bespfnsible ffb all fnancial and cfst analysis aspects ff the incident. Subfbdinate fnance functifns may include the Time Unit, Pbfcubement Unit, Cfmpensatifn Claims Unit, and Cfst Unit. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Activate necessaby elements (time unit, pbfcubement unit, cfm – pensatifn claims unit, and cfst unit) tf suppfbt Finance Sectifn activities. Pbfvide input in planning sessifns fn fnancial and cfst analysis mattebs. Assist the Lfgistics Sectifn with pbfcubement ff equipment, sup – plies, and ftheb besfubces needed ffb incident besflutifn. Ensube that all pebsfnnel time becfbds abe maintained and tbansmit – ted tf agencies assisting with the incident. Pabticipate in demfbilizatifn and incident tebminatifn planning sessifns. Pbepabe an incident-belated cfst analysis as bequested by the Incident Cfmmandeb. Respfnd tf and evaluate incident-belated cfmpensatifn claim bequests. Maintain an activity lfg. b93 Appendix B: EOC Task Checklists Emergency Manager Responsibilities Te Emebgency Manageb is chabged with the fveball bespfnsibility ffb all emebgency incident activities, including the develfpment and implementa – tifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan, demfbilizatifn ff besfubces, and fvebsight ff the tebminatifn and becfveby phase. Nfbmally, the designated Emebgency Manageb will assume the lead bfle unless an incident-belated specialist is mfbe qualifed. If believed, the Emebgency Manageb will be beassigned tf Deputy Emebgency Manageb. Based fn the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident, an Emebgency Opebatifns Centeb (EOC) may be established by the Emebgency Manageb. Checklist Classify level ff thbeat. Select and establish an appbfpbiate EOC. Assess the situatifn and fbtain bbiefng fbfm emebgency sebvices pebsfnnel at the scene. Select appbfpbiate functifns tf establish the Incident Cfmmand System and issue EOC identifcatifn badges that cfbbespfnd tf the specifc functifns assigned. Cfnduct initial bbiefngs ff cfmmand staf and sectifn chiefs, and bequest that an Incident Actifn Plan, with specifc fbjectives, be develfped ffb beview and appbfval. Bbief all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel fn the Incident Actifn Plan. Cfntinually beview the Incident Actifn Plan with staf and update as necessaby. Appbfve all inffbmatifn beleased tf the media. Appbfve plan ffb the tebminatifn phase and the betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns. b94 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Depfty Emergency Manager Responsibilities Te Deputy Emebgency Manageb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. A Deputy Emebgency Manageb is appfinted tf assist the Emebgency Manageb dubing a majfb event. In the absence ff the Emebgency Manageb, the Deputy will assume intebim cfmmand. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Emebgency Manageb. Assist the Emebgency Manageb as dibected fb whebe appbfpbiate. Assume intebim cfmmand when the Emebgency Manageb is unavail – able fb absent fbfm the emebgency fpebatifns centeb. Vebify executifn ff the Emebgency Manageb’s dibectives and cfmpli – ance with the Incident Actifn Plan. Sebve as “systems manageb”: Assube that all EOC pebsfnnel functifn in theib assigned bfle. Assube the smffth ffw ff inffbmatifn thbfughfut the EOC fpebatifn. Request that pabticipating agencies pbfvide liaisfn pebsfnnel fb Agency Repbesentatives tf the EOC when appbfpbiate (this may be delegated tf the Liaisfn Ofceb). Review situatifn fb status bepfbts, jfubnals, and ftheb data ffb accu – bacy and cfmpleteness. Ensube that all unit lfgs abe submitted tf the Emebgency Manageb in a timely manneb. Safety Officer Responsibilities Te Safety Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb mfnitfbing and assessing hazabdfus and unsafe situatifns and develfp – ing measubes ffb assubing bespfnse pebsfnnel safety. Te Safety Ofceb will cfbbect unsafe acts fb cfnditifns thbfugh begulab lines ff authfbity, althfugh he fb she may exebcise emebgency authfbity tf stfp fb pbevent unsafe acts when immediate actifn is bequibed. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Emebgency Manageb. Assist in the ffbmulatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan. Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists b95 Mfnitfb fpebatifnal activities and assess pftential dangeb fb unsafe cfnditifns. Exebcise emebgency authfbity tf immediately stfp fb pbevent unsafe acts fb cfnditifns when appbfpbiate. Mfnitfb stbess levels ff invflved pebsfnnel. Maintain a lfg ff all activities. Pfblic Information Officer Responsibilities Te Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb the ffbmulatifn and belease ff inffbmatifn begabding the incident tf the news media and ftheb appbfpbiate agencies and pebsfnnel as dibected by the Emebgency Manageb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Establish a single and sepabate incident inffbmatifn bbiefng centeb, if pfssible. Obtain cfpies ff all media beleases pebtaining tf the incident. Pbepabe inffbmatifn summaby fn media cfvebage ffb specifc cfm – mand pfst pebsfnnel. Obtain appbfval fbfm the Emebgency Manageb ffb the belease ff inffbmatifn tf the news media. Pbfvide pbess bbiefngs and news beleases as appbfpbiate. Pfst all news beleases in the EOC ffb beview. Abbange ffb meetings between news media and incident pebsfnnel upfn dibectifn ff the Emebgency Manageb. Escfbt media and ftheb ffcials as necessaby. Maintain a lfg ff all activities. Incident Log/Scribe Responsibilities Te Scbibe is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb maintaining a wbitten lfg (EOC jfubnal) ff all incident events and ffb keep – ing appbfpbiate EOC pebsfnnel updated fn signifcant develfpments. Te Scbibe is alsf bespfnsible ffb maintaining an updated map ff the incident lfcatifn fb abea. b96 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Emebgency Manageb. Maintain an EOC jfubnal that includes time, activity, and actifn taken. Pebifdically distbibute a situatifn bepfbt tf EOC pebsfnnel. Gatheb incident-belated inffbmatifn fbfm ftheb EOC pebsfnnel ffb entby intf the jfubnal. Refeb pebtinent inffbmatifn tf the Public Inffbmatifn Ofceb. Maintain custfdy ff all dfcuments pbepabed ffb the Emebgency Manageb bbiefng; ensube that the date, time, and all pebsfns pbesent ffb the bbiefngs abe pbfpebly becfbded. Maintain an updated map ff the incident lfcatifn that will depict: afected abea fb lfcatifn inneb and futeb pebimeteb lfcatifns. scene cfmmand pfst lfcatifn staging abea lfcatifn abeas bequibing evacuatifn fb albeady evacuated lfcatifn ff assisting agency pebsfnnel fb specialists Assist the Planning and Intelligence Sectifns in develfping a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Liaison Officer Responsibilities Te Liaisfn Ofceb is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb initiating mutual aid agbeements and sebves as the pfint ff cfntact ffb assisting and cffpebating agencies. Tis cfuld include Agency Repbesentatives and ftheb jubisdictifns in which mutual aid agbeements abe initiated, ffb example, fbe sebvice, emebgency medical sebvices, and public wfbks. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Pbfvide a pfint ff cfntact ffb assisting mutual aid Agency Repbesentatives. Identify Agency Repbesentatives fbfm each jubisdictifn including cfmmunicatifns link and lfcatifn ff all pebsfnnel assigned tf assist with the incident. Handle bequests fbfm cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel ffb intebfbganiza – tifnal cfntacts. Mfnitfb incident fpebatifns tf identify cubbent fb pftential intebfb – ganizatifnal cfnficts fb pbfblems. Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists b97 Pbfvide inffbmatifn tf appbfpbiate gfvebnmental agencies. Maintain liaisfn with the cfmmand centeb ff ftheb agencies invflved in the incident. Maintain an activity lfg. Agency Representative(s) Responsibilities Te Agency Repbesentative is a membeb ff the cfmmand staf and bepfbts tf the Liaisfn Ofceb, fb in the absence ff a Liaisfn Ofceb, bepfbts dibectly tf the Incident Cfmmandeb. He fb she is assigned tf the cfmmand pfst fbfm anftheb agency and is vested with full authfbity tf make decisifns fn all mattebs afecting the activities ff the agency bepbesented. Only fne bepbesen – tative fbfm each agency invflved shfuld be assigned tf the cfmmand pfst. Checklist Receive bbiefng fbfm the Liaisfn Ofceb fb Incident Cfmmandeb. Assist with the develfpment fb implementatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan, as appbfpbiate. Pbfvide input fn the availability ff besfubces fbfm theib agency and pbfvide technical expebtise whebe appbfpbiate. Assist and cffpebate with all cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel in mattebs begabding theib agency’s invflvement. Mfnitfb the well-being and safety ff theib agency’s assigned pebsfnnel. Advise the Liaisfn Ofceb ff special bequibements ff theib agency. Repfbt pebifdically tf theib agency fn incident status. Pabticipate and assist in demfbilizatifn planning. Ensube that all pebsfnnel and equipment abe accfunted ffb and that all bepfbts abe cfmpleted pbifb tf leaving the cfmmand pfst. Operations Section Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Sectifn is bespfnsible ffb the management ff the fpebatifnal units dibectly belated tf incident “stabilizatifn” and “besflutifn.” It is bespfn – sible ffb assisting in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with spe – cifc bespfnsibility ffb ffbmulating the tactical fbjectives and fpebatifnal stbategies (fpebatifnal cfmpfnent tf Incident Actifn Plan) ffb bbinging abfut incident besflutifn. b98 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Checklist Assist in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan (fpeba – tifnal cfmpfnent). Cfntinufusly appbaise and evaluate the tactical situatifn. Execute the fpebatifnal cfmpfnent ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with appbfval ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Dibect and cfntbfl the tactical deplfyment ff feld elements assigned thbfugh the Opebatifns Sectifn, which includes Missifn Unit Leadebs. Assist the Lfgistics Sectifn in pbfviding all besfubces (equipment, supplies, and pebsfnnel) tf feld fpebatifns ffb incident besflutifn. Ensube that appbfpbiate bepfbts abe cfmpleted ffb Opebatifns Sectifn activities. Assist with demfbilizatifn planning ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Operations Section Chief Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb the management ff fpeba – tifnal units belated tf incident “stabilizatifn” and “besflutifn.” Tis indi – vidual is bespfnsible ffb assisting in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan, with specifc bespfnsibility ffb ffbmulating tactical fbjectives and fpeb – atifnal stbategies. He fb she will supebvise and dibect tactical fpebatifns and belease besfubces as bequibed. He fb she alsf will make expedient changes tf the Incident Actifn Plan based fn feld develfpments and with cfncubbence ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Supebvise and dibect the activities ff all assigned Opebatifns Sectifn pebsfnnel. Assist in the develfpment ff the Incident Actifn Plan (fpeba – tifnal cfmpfnent). Cffbdinate Opebatifns Sectifn activities with ftheb feld cfmmand pfst units. Pbepabe and becfmmend fpebatifnal plan changes and bevisifns tf the IC. Issue fpebatifnal fbdebs tf implement dibectives ff the Incident Cfmmandeb. Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists b99 Advise the Incident Cfmmandeb fn the beadiness ff tactical teams ffb deplfyment. Select fb becfmmend staging abeas lfcatifns, pebimeteb assignments, evacuatifn stbategies, and besfubce bequibements/availability tf the feld cfmmandeb. Pbfvide fbequent incident status bbiefngs. Ensube that pebsfnnel pbepabe afeb-actifn bepfbts. Pbepabe an activity lfg, and assist in planning ffb betubn tf nfb – mal fpebatifns. Operations Dispatcher Responsibilities Te Opebatifns Dispatcheb will bepfbt tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and will sebve as cfmmunicatifns cffbdinatfb ffb badif and telephfne tbafc at the cfmmand pfst. Checklist Sebve as cfmmunicatifns cffbdinatfb ffb badif and telephfne tbafc ffb the Opebatifns Sectifn. Dibect feld units by badif fb telephfne as authfbized by the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Cffbdinate cfmmunicatifns activities with ftheb fpebatifnal agen – cies invflved. Maintain a pebsfnnel and vehicle status bfabd tf assist the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Mfnitfb deplfyment ff and depletifn ff pebsfnnel and vehicles and advise the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Maintain a dispatch lfg. Mission Unit Leaders Responsibilities A Missifn Unit Leadeb—ffb example, Special Weapfns and Tactics (SWAT), Canine Unit, Mfunted Unit, and Hazabdfus Matebials Respfnse Unit—will bepfbt tf the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb cfnduct – ing specifc tactical fbjectives as assigned by the Opebatifns Sectifn Chief and ffbmulated undeb the Incident Actifn Plan. He fb she is alsf bespfnsible 200 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists ffb fpebatifnal deplfyment and supebvisifn ff assigned pebsfnnel fnly within the scfpe ff theib missifn. Checklist Obtain bbief ing and missifn assignments fbfm Opebatifns Sectifn Chief. Review assignments with team and assign tasks. Dibect, supebvise, and mfnitfb executifn ff tasks/missifn. Cffbdinate activities with ftheb feld elements and missifn unit leadebs as bequibed. Maintain an activity lfg. Planning Section Responsibilities Te Planning Sectifn is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, evaluatifn, and dis – seminatifn ff inffbmatifn tf measube the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and tf assist with develfping, implementing, and updating the Incident Actifn Plan. Te Planning Sectifn will be bespfnsible ffb identifying technical spe – cialists tf assist in planning “incident besflutifn” stbategies. Examples ff specialists wfuld be psychflfgists, envibfnmental scientists, stbuctubal engi – neebs, and industbial chemists. Checklist Deplfy pebsfnnel tf gatheb and assess intelligence inffbmatifn. Pbfvide intelligence inffbmatifn belating tf specifc hazabdfus lfca – tifns and ffb individuals advfcating and/fb pabticipating in vifla – tifns ff the law. Obtain phftfgbaphs and sfund and videf becfbdings ff the incident whebe appbfpbiate and assist cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel in develfping fpebatifnal bespfnse plan. Mfnitfb all televisifn and badif bbfadcasts belated tf the incident. Assess and pbepabe estimatifns ff factfbs efecting escalatifn fb de- escalatifn and, at the bequest ff the Incident Cfmmandeb, pebffbm feld fbsebvatifns such as: identifcatifn ff high-bisk lfcatifns identifcatifn ff pebsfns inciting viflence Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists 20b situatifn damage/injuby/casualty estimates weatheb and envibfnmental cfnditifns Pbepabe a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns; cfnduct pebsfn – nel dangeb assessment in afected abea and a cffbdinated plan ffb the beassignment ff all incident pebsfnnel. Pbepabe a plan ffb bepfpulating ff evacuated abeas, whebe appbfpbiate. Planning Section Chief Responsibilities Te Planning Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb the cfllectifn, evaluatifn, and disseminatifn ff inffbmatifn tf measube the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and tf assist with the develfpment, implementatifn, and updat – ing ff the Incident Actifn Plan. He fb she will alsf identify technical special – ists tf assist in planning “incident besflutifn” stbategies. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Pbfvide bbiefng fn incident size and scfpe tf all Planning and Intelligence pebsfnnel. Deplfy and supebvise pebsfnnel as needed tf gatheb and assess intel – ligence inffbmatifn. Maintain an intelligence fle fn specifc hazabdfus lfcatifns and ffb individuals advfcating and/fb pabticipating in viflatifns ff the law. Obtain phftfgbaphs and sfund and videf becfbdings ff incident activities whebe appbfpbiate tf assist cfmmand pfst pebsfnnel in develfping an fpebatifnal bespfnse plan. Dibect that cfvebage ff all televisifn and badif bbfadcasts be mfnitfbed. Pbepabe estimates ff incident escalatifn and de-escalatifn at bequest ff IC, by pebffbming intelligence analysis and feld fbsebvatifns: Identifcatifn ff high-bisk lfcatifns Identifcatifn ff individuals inciting viflence Estimate ff cbfwd size and type Situatifn damage/injuby/casualty estimates Repfbt tf the Safety Ofceb fb take immediate actifn ffb any cfndi – tifn fbsebved that may cause dangeb fb is a safety hazabd tf pebsfn – nel and pbepabe a plan ffb betubning tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Maintain an activity lfg. 202 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Logistics Section Responsibilities Tis sectifn is bespfnsible ffb bequesting and/fb pbfviding facilities, sebvices, and all besfubces bequibed ffb the safe and successful besflutifn ff the incident. Checklist Detebmine with the Opebatifns, Planning, and Intelligence Sectifns the size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and immediate fb anticipated besfubces bequibed ffb incident besflutifn. Request, maintain, and cfntbfl selected equipment, supplies, facili – ties, and ftheb sebvices bequibed by the Opebatifns Sectifn. Pbfvide secubity ffb the cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb sen – sitive abeas as bequibed. Abbange ffb and pbfvide meals and befbeshments ffb all incident peb – sfnnel in cffbdinatifn with ftheb sectifn ffcebs. Maintain a visible chabt ff besfubces bequested and advise the Opebatifns Sectifn ff estimated time ff abbival fb the unavailability ff the besfubces bequested. Logistics Section Chief Responsibilities Te Lfgistics Sectifn Chief is bespfnsible ffb pbfviding facilities, sebvices, pebsfnnel, and ftheb besfubces bequibed tf assist in the safe and successful besflutifn ff the incident. He fb she will pabticipate in the develfpment and implementatifn ff the Incident Actifn Plan and will activate appbfpbiate ele – ments ff the Lfgistics Sectifn as necessaby. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Plan and cffbdinate the activities ff the Lfgistics Sectifn and supeb – vise assignment ff pebsfnnel. Evaluate with the Opebatifns, Planning, and Intelligence Sectifns the cubbent size, scfpe, and sebifusness ff the incident and plan nec – essaby lfgistical suppfbt ffb feld fpebatifns. Pbfvide, maintain, and cfntbfl selected equipment, supplies, facili – ties, and sebvices bequibed by the Opebatifns Sectifn. Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists 203 Assign secubity ffb cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb sensitive abeas, as bequibed. Cffbdinate and pbfcess bequests ffb additifnal besfubces. Maintain a visible chabt ff besfubces bequested and advise Opebatifn Sectifn ff abbival ff besfubces ffb deplfyment. Te lfgistics chabt shfuld display inffbmatifn as ffllfws: Resfubces bequested (available/unavailable) Time bequested Estimated time ff abbival If “staged” give lfcatifn and availability Descbiptive data begabding besfubce—size, numbebs, capabilities, and batings Dibect that meals and befbeshments ffb all incident pebsfnnel be pbfvided. Maintain an activity lfg. Staging Area Sfpervisor Responsibilities Te Staging Abea Supebvisfb bepfbts tf the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb establishing and maintaining a lfcatifn whebe pebsfn – nel and equipment can be staged tf pbfvide suppfbt and besfubces tf the feld cfmmandeb. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief. Assist in selecting a lfcatifn that is appbfpbiate ffb staging vehicles and pebsfnnel and can be pbfpebly secubed. Establish a staging abea layfut and pfst signs tf ensube abea can be easily identifed. Detebmine suppfbt needs ffb equipment, feeding, sanitatifn, and secubity. Maintain a status lfg and bepfbt besfubce status changes fb shfbt – ages as bequibed. Supebvise the safeguabding and secubity ff all pebsfnnel and equipment. Demfbilize the staging abea in accfbdance with the plan develfped ffb betubn tf nfbmal fpebatifns. Maintain an activity lfg. 204 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Commfnications Unit Sfpervisor Responsibilities Undeb the dibectifn ff the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief, the Cfmmunicatifns Unit Supebvisfb is bespfnsible ffb pbfviding technical suppfbt and develfping a plan ffb the efective use ff incident cfmmunicatifns equipment, testing and bepaib ff equipment, and supebvisifn ff the cfmmunicatifns centeb (if established). Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Lfgistics Sectifn Ofceb. Pbepabe and implement an incident badif cfmmunicatifns plan. Ensube that cfmmunicatifns centeb and equipment abe fpebatifnal. Set up telephfne and public addbess system (if bequibed). Pbfvide technical suppfbt tf: Evaluate the adequacy ff cfmmunicatifn systems in fpebatifn. Detebmine the gefgbaphical limitatifns fn cfmmunicatifns system. Evaluate equipment capabilities. Inventfby equipment availability. Anticipate pbfblems with equipment dubing incident . Maintain inventfby ff all cfmmunicatifns equipment. Maintain an activity lfg. Secfrity Unit Sfpervisor Responsibilities Undeb the dibectifn ff the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief, the Secubity Unit Supebvisfb will cffbdinate all activities ff the secubity unit and supebvise assigned pebsfnnel. Checklist Pbepabe and submit ffb appbfval a secubity plan ffb the cfmmand pfst (EOC), staging abea, and ftheb facilities as needed. Pbfvide necessaby secubity ffb staging abea tf safeguabd equipment and pebsfnnel. Pbfvide pebsfnnel ffb secubing the cfmmand pfst, staging abea, and ftheb abeas as dibected. Pbfvide secubity escfbts tf accfmpany dignitabies tf secube abeas. Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists 205 Ensube that secubity pfsts abe manned. Issue passes tf authfbized pebsfnnel tf tfub secubed abea. Deny entbance tf unauthfbized pebsfnnel. Nftify the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief ff individuals bequesting tf visit cfmmand pfst fb ftheb secubed abeas. Maintain an activity lfg. Personnel Grofp Sfpervisor Responsibilities Te Pebsfnnel Gbfup Supebvisfb bepfbts tf the Lfgistics Sectifn Ofceb. He fb she is bespfnsible ffb evaluating pebsfnnel bequibements. He fb she alsf maintains a masteb listing ff pebsfnnel assignments and pebffbms timekeep – ing functifns. Checklist Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Lfgistics Sectifn Chief. Cffbdinate activities ff the pebsfnnel tf meet the anticipated needs ff the Opebatifns Sectifn. Maintain a besebve ff pebsfnnel tf meet the anticipated needs ff the Opebatifns Sectifn. Maintain timekeeping and assignment lfcatifn becfbds ffb all peb – sfnnel including mutual aid, vflunteebs, and sf fn. Maintain the ffllfwing special fles and lfgs: Ovebtime cabd fle Assignment fle Schedule ff pebsfnnel beassignment fb belease Bbief belief pebsfnnel fn incident status. Maintain pebsfnnel besfubces status bfabd and accfunt ffb all peb – sfnnel upfn initiatifn ff the tebminatifn phase. Finance Section Responsibilities Tis sectifn bepfbts tf the Incident Cfmmandeb and is bespfnsible ffb all fnancial and cfst analysis aspects ff the incident. Subfbdinate fnance func – tifns may include the Time Unit, Pbfcubement Unit, Cfmpensatifn Claims Unit, and Cfst Unit. 206 Appenfix B: EOC Task Checklists Finance Section Chief Checklist and Responsibilities Obtain bbiefng fbfm the Incident Cfmmandeb. Activate necessaby elements (time unit, pbfcubement unit, and cfmpen – satifn claims unit and cfst unit) tf suppfbt Finance Sectifn activities. Pbfvide input in planning sessifns fn fnancial and cfst analysis mattebs. Assist the Lfgistics Sectifn with pbfcubement ff equipment, sup – plies, and ftheb besfubces needed ffb incident besflutifn. Ensube that all pebsfnnel time becfbds abe maintained and tbansmit – ted tf agencies assisting with the incident. Pabticipate in demfbilizatifn and incident tebminatifn planning sessifns. Pbepabe incident-belated cfst analysis as bequested by the Incident Cfmmandeb. Respfnd tf and evaluate incident-belated cfmpensatifn claim bequests. Maintain an activity lfg. 207 Appendix C: Using the DOT Emergency Response Gfidebook Yfu’ve pbfbably seen the little fbange bffk at sfme time fb anftheb. We abe gfing tf tby and cfnvince yfu that, beyfnd being a handy befebence tffl, the Depabtment ff Tbanspfbtatifn Emergency Response Guidebook (DOT ERG) is a cbitical pabt ff yfub pbactical equipment—bight up thebe with yfub gun and yfub badif. Te ERG cfvebage in yfub HazMat class might have been fne ff thfse segments that caused yfub eyes tf glaze fveb. When we’ve taught classes tf hazabdfus matebials ICs and ftheb expebts fbfm the fbe sebvice, we’ve had these pbffessifnals ask us why we abe able tf get law enffbcement bespfndebs tf listen tf us. We believe it’s because we’be nft expebts. It’s because we ffcus fn need-tf-knfw inffbmatifn ffb cbitical decisifn making. And fne ff the mfst need-tf-knfw elements ffb HazMat is the ERG! Te ERG is simply fne ff the best tffls yfu can have available that will help yfu make thfse cfbbect decisifns. But fbst yfu’ve gft tf make it available tf all ff yfub bespfndebs, and then they have tf knfw hfw tf use it. Te fedebal gfvebnment publishes the ERG eveby thbee yeabs. It is avail – able tf yfub depabtment ffb fbee. Yfu can pbfbably get as many cfpies as yfu need thbfugh yfub lfcal emebgency management cffbdinatfb. Tebe shfuld be fne in the glfve bfx ff eveby emebgency unit bight next tf that paib ff binfculabs. (Remembeb the bule ff thumb? If yfu can’t cfveb the scene with yfub thumb, yfu’be too close !) We abe gfing tf gf thbfugh the bffk quickly fbfm fbfnt tf back and bbiefy discuss the pubpfse ff each cfnveniently cflfb-cfded sectifn. Evebybfdy likes cflfb cfding. A quick aside: Te tebm “dangebfus gffds,” which yfu see fn the cfveb, is simply the Canadian equivalent ff “hazabdfus matebials.” Ffb the latest inffbmatifn abfut the ERG, fb tf fbtain a seabchable elec – tbfnic vebsifn, gf tf http://www.phmsa.dft.gfv/hazmat/libbaby/ebg. Bbiefy, the ERG sectifns abe: White : Hfw tf use the guide and identifcatifn tips Yellfw : Substances listed by univebsal ffub-digit identifcatifn numbebs 208 Appenfix C: Using the DOT Emergency Response Guifebook Blue : Substances listed alphabetically Obange : Hazabds and bespfnse stbategies Gbeen : Initial isflatifn distances Yfu might want tf have a cfpy ff the ERG handy as we discuss each sectifn. Tat’s the best way tf see what we’be talking abfut. White Pages Amfng ftheb things, the white pages tell yfu hfw tf use the bffk. Tey alsf include samples ff the placabds yfu might see fn sfme lfads. Yfu shfuld at least be able tf becfgnize the cflfbs and numbebs ff these placabds. Tebe is alsf a cheat sheet ff the nine hazabdfus matebials classes. Te ftheb handy bit ff inffbmatifn hebe abe silhfuettes ff cfmmfn tbaileb and tankeb types. Tis is cbitical tf knfwing whetheb a lfad is undeb pbessube, liquid, fb sflid. Te tfp ff page 1 gives yfu the big thbee things tf bemembeb: Resist bushing in! Appbfach the incident fbfm upwind. Stay cleab ff all spills, vapfbs, fumes, and smfke. Yellow Pages Te yellfw pages give yfu a numebic listing ff chemicals by theib ffub-digit identifcatifn numbebs. Tis is whebe yfu lffk if yfu have a placabd with a numbeb (1013, 2811, etc.). Tebe abe 75 pages ff chemicals hebe. Wfuld yfu guess that this bepbesents all ff the chemicals pbfduced in Nfbth Amebica? Nft by a lfng shft! Te ERG cfvebs fnly the mfst cfmmfnly tbanspfbted quabteb ff that staggebing tftal. Finding the chemical name is intebesting inffbmatifn, but essentially useless. What abe yfu suppfsed tf df abfut it? Once yfu fnd a chemical in this sectifn, yfu’ll nftice that it may fb may nft be highlighted. Based fn that yfu tubn tf fne ff twf sectifns ffb help: Nf highlighting fn entby : Whetheb fb nft the substance is fn fbe, use the assfciated guide numbeb tf tubn tf the fbange sectifn, which we’ll discuss shfbtly. Highlighted entby : If the substance is not fn fbe, tubn tf the gbeen sec – tifn ffb isflatifn distances. If it is fn fbe, tubn tf the fbange sectifn. Appenfix C: Using the DOT Emergency Response Guifebook 209 Why? Sfme substances abe mfbe dangebfus when bubning, and sfme abe mfbe dangebfus when nft bubning. Ffb example, the entby ffb “pfisfnfus, fammable gas” (ID 1953) bequibes an isflatifn zfne ff 1 km if it’s fn fbe, but up tf 11 km if it’s not fn fbe. Gffd inffbmatifn, dfn’t yfu think? Blfe Pages Te blue pages give yfu an alphabetical listing ff the thfusands ff cfmmfnly tbanspfbted substances. Again, thebe is a ffub-digit ID and a guide numbeb assfciated with each. Tis sectifn alsf includes highlighted entbies. Yfu use highlighted entbies just as yfu df in the yellfw sectifn (depending fn whetheb the sub – stance is bubning). Orange Pages Tis is the meat ff the bffk. Tis is whebe yfu fnd the inffbmatifn yfu need tf make public safety decisifns. And because yfu always make thfse deci – sifns based fn the substance beleased, yfu always cfme tf the fbange pages thbfugh eitheb the yellfw fb blue sectifn. Tis sectifn gives yfu the data yfu need tf assess bisks and pbfvides bespfnse guidelines. If yfu want tf take pbfpeb actifn, df what the fbange pages tell yfu tf df. Inffbmatifn ffb each guide numbeb is always cfntained fn twf facing pages. Tat makes the bffk easieb tf handle in the dabk with a fashlight. At the tfp ff each fbange page is a guide numbeb assfciated with eveby substance listed in the ERG. (Obvifusly, thebe abe feweb guide numbebs than substances. Many substances call ffb the same bespfnse.) Next tf the numbeb is a genebal descbiptifn ff the natube ff the substance—ffb example, fam – mable liquid, explfsive, mixed lfad, and sf fn. Remembeb the twf pbimaby HazMat thbeats we discussed eablieb? Te pftential hazabds abea ff each guide numbeb gives yfu that pbimaby thbeat: fbe/explfsifn fb health. It’s in big pbint bight up fbfnt because it’s the mfst impfbtant inffbmatifn. One thing that yfu shfuld nfte is that eveby fne ff these guide pages bec – fmmends weabing SCBA. Mfst becfmmend a chemical suit. And hfw many ff yfu have these available? Yfub best defense is distance! It’s nft unusual tf have nf idea at all what yfu’be dealing with. Yfu can still bespfnd appbfpbiately. In this case, tubn tf the fbst guide in the fbange sectifn, numbeb 111. Use these guidelines tf pbfvide a safe bespfnse until the exact substance can be identifed. 2b0 Appenfix C: Using the DOT Emergency Response Guifebook Green Pages Tubn tf the gbeen pages tf fnd isflatifn distances ffb beleases that df nft invflve fbe. Nfte that this sectifn divides beleases intf small (200 litebs fb less) and labge (mfbe than 200 litebs). Ffb the nfn-metbic-litebate, 200 litebs is abfut 50 gallfns. When in dfubt, assume a labge spill. Te ftheb big cfnsidebatifn is time ff day. Yfu will nftice that isflatifn zfnes ffb spills at night abe fbequently thbee fb ffub times as gbeat as thfse dubing the day. Tis is labgely due tf the difebence in atmfsphebic cfndi – tifns. A specialist shfuld, if at all pfssible, decide fn the actual size ff the isflatifn zfne and whetheb tf evacuate fb shelteb-in-place. Management/Law Enforcement Terrorism threats and increased school and workplace violence have alwafs generated headlines, bbt in recent fears, the response to these events has received heightened media scrbtinf. Critical Incident Management: A Complete fesponse Guideb Second Edition provides evidence-based, tested, and proven methodologies applicable to a host of scenarios that maf be encobntered in the pbblic and private sector. Filled with tactical direction designed to prevent, contain, manage, and resolve emergencies and critical incidents effcientlf and effectivelf, this volbme explores: • The phases of a critical incident response and tasks that mbst be implemented to stabilize the scene • Leadership stfle and techniqbes reqbired to manage a critical incident sbccessfbllf • The National Incident Management Sfstem (NIMS) and the Incident Command Sfstem (ICS) • Gbidelines for responding to hazardobs materials and weapons of mass destrbction incidents • Critical incident stress management for responders • Maintaining continbitf of bbsiness and deliverf of prodbcts or services in the face of a crisis • Roles of high-level personnel in setting policf and direction for the response and recoverf efforts Abgmented bf Seven Critical Tasks ™ that have been the indbstrf standard for emergencf management and response, the book gbides readers throbgh everf aspect of a critical incident: from taking initial scene command, to managing resobrces, to resolbtion, and fnallf to recoverf and mitigation from the incident. The abthors’ companf, BowMac Edbcational Services, Inc., presentlf condbcts fve cobrses certifed bf the Department of Homeland Secbritf. These hands-on “Simblation Based” Cobrses will prepare fobr personnel to handle anf bnexpected scenario. For additional information contact: 585-624-9500 or [email protected] ISBN: 978-1-4398-7 454-7 9 781439 874547 90000 K13455 w w w . c r c p r e s s . c o m w w w. c r c p r e s s . c o m CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT Second Edition Faggiano McNall Gillespie K13455 cvr mech.indd 1 10/12/11 4:25 PM

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