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One of the tools that I need to implement to address SDOH is indices. Based on the analysis, the
Health Opportunity Index (HOI) is a univariate method that can be utilized more effectively to recognize
and  comprehend  the  complex  interactions  of  intricate  social  determinants  of  health  (SDH)  at  the  census
tract  level  that  affect the  ability to attain optimal  health.  The  vulnerability index for  each  census tract  is
found  by  adding  up  the  number  of  flags  in  that  area.  The  Robert  Wood  Johnson  Foundation  and  the
Commonwealth Fund developed this tool. When calculating the HOI, people use a method called principal
component analysis, which is a kind of data reduction, to identify the influence SDH has on optimum health
in  lower  census  areas.  People  highlight  the  potential  effectiveness  of  using  13-input  factors  to  derive  a
reinforced metric of health (HOI) score to help recognize the most vulnerable members of society during
the current pandemic (Ataguba & Ataguba, 2020). This is done amid continuing health inequities and
the  current  COVID-19  pandemic.  As  indicated,  the  findings  pinpointed  census  tracts  associated  with
populations at risk for unequal COVID-19-related health outcomes.
The HOI is one example of a tool that can be used to illustrate how the SDOH can improve the
health of a community as a whole. The Health Outcomes Index (HOI) is a way to find the local factors that
lead to bad health outcomes. To better target health improvement efforts, the HOI can be used to pinpoint
low-performing areas and eliminate health inequalities (Ataguba & Ataguba, 2020). This way, census
tracts with the poorest values for diverse health outcomes were easily identified using convergence analysis.
Based  on  our  findings,  the  HOI  composite  score  and  the  creation  of  additional  scores  may  guide
mitigation/intervention practices, potentially allowing for more precise targeting of mitigation/intervention
tactics for susceptible populations during outbreaks like the current pandemic. 

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