- The 7 basic quality tools for process improvement. http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/seven-basic-quality-tools/overview/overview.html and sub-pages related to the 7 tools.
- Quality tools, the basic seven. Download the pdf.
- Using 5-step workplace management for continuous improvement. http://profsite.um.ac.ir/~ahad/5step.doc or download the pdf.
- What are the five S’S (5S) of lean. http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/lean/overview/five-s-tutorial.html
- Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA). http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/process-analysis-tools/overview/fmea.html
- A toolkit to optimize the delivery of IUD care. https://iuddeliverytoolkit.uchicago.edu/page/overview
- 7 Quality tools presentation. Download the pdf.
- FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) presentation. Download the pdf.
In your opinion, which of the tools explored in this unit is the most efficient at improving quality? Explain why.
Please answer in 200 words or more. As usual, use your own words – please do not copy and paste from a web site. Be sure to reference your sources.
Case Study 2: Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company
Ritz-Carlton. The name alone evokes images of luxury and quality. As the first hotel to win the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, The Ritz treats quality as if it is the heartbeat of the company. This means a daily commitment to meeting customer expectations and making sure that each hotel is free of any deficiency.
In the hotel industry, quality can be hard to quantify. Guests do not purchase a product when they stay at the Ritz: they buy and experience. Thus, creating the fight combination of elements to make the experience stand out is the challenge and goal of every employee, from maintenance to management.
Before applying for the Baldrige Award, company management undertook a rigorous self-examination of its operations in an attempt to measure and quantify quality. Nineteen processes were studied, including room service delivery, guest reservation and registration, message delivery, and breakfast service. This period of self-study included statistical measurement of process work flows and cycle times for areas ranging from room service delivery times and reservations to valet parking and housekeeping efficiency. The results were used to develop performance benchmarks against which future activity could be measured.
With specific, quantifiable target in place, Ritz-Carlton managers and employees now focus on continuous improvement. The goal is 100% customer satisfaction: if a guest’s experience does not meet expectations, the Ritz-Carlton risks losing that guest to competition.
One way the company has put more meaning behind its quality efforts is to organize wits employees into “self-directed” work teams. Employee teams determine work scheduling, what work needs to be done, and what to do about quality problems in their own areas. In order that they can see the relationship to their specific area to the overall goals, employees are also given the opportunity to take additional training in hotel operations. Ritz-Carlton believes that a more educated and informed employee is in a better position to make decisions in the best interest of the organization.
- In what ways could the Ritz-Carlton monitor its success in achieving quality? What exactly should they check? (Use your experience, common sense, and, if needed, assumptions – if using assumptions, state them explicitly.)
- What actions do you expect from a company that intends quality to be more than a slogan?
- How could control charts, Pareto diagrams, and cause and effect diagrams be used to identity quality problems at a hotel? Provide examples as needed.
- What are some nonfinancial measures (minimum 4) of customer satisfaction that might be used by the Ritz-Carlton?
- Develop a fish-bone diagram illustrating the quality variables for a customer who just checked in at Ritz-Carlton. Causes and sub-causes need to be identified.
- Imagine one problem Ritz Carlton might be facing and explain the steps they need to follow in order to solve it. You need to use at least 2 quality tools and simulate figures if needed.
In the learning journal, you should record your activities, and record problems you may have encountered, as well as your notes and thoughts about the material. In addition, you should consider the following questions for reflection:
Choose one of the processes from these (ensuring the meetings are well facilitated, arranging meetings, ensuring meetings are well scheduled, making decisions and inspections to ensure the teams are functioning perfectly), and apply the 5S methodology to it. Explain each step. How is the resulting process different?
Please answer these questions in 300 words or more. Your answer should reflect your personal experience and should be thoughtful and introspective.
Reading: The 7 basic quality tools for process improvement. http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/seven-basic-quality-tools/overview/overview.html and sub-pages related to the 7 tools.Quality tools, the
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) With the FMEA method, risks can be localized, their probabilities and consequences estimated, and precautions taken to prevent problems from happening. Different constitutencies: System-FM EA Design-FM EA Process-FM E A Conce ptual phase De sign phase Re alisation T e st phase System- FMEA –Customer –Customer service –Marketing –Process specialists –Development team Design- FMEA – Customer service -Calculations engineers -Manufacturing specialists -Assembly personnel -Development team Process- FMEA -Customer -Inspector/Q -Development team FMEA: ORGANIZATION OF FUNCTIONS Function 1 Function 1.3 Function 1.2 Function 1.1 Function 3 Function 3.1 Function 3.1.1 Function 3.1.2 Function 6 Function 2 Function 2.1 Function 2.2 Function 4 Function 4.1 Function 5 Ov e rall- Function Step 1: Generating a functional tree EXAMPLE FUNCTION TREE Provide rotation Bra ke Rota te dh Acce l e ra te activ ate he ad Move head engage su c t i o n Stop Funktion 2 Function 2.1 Function 2.2 Function 4 Function 4.1 Function 5 CD Player Seal Seal Step 2: for each Function identify and localize extreme risks and dangers: what happens, when ……? which failures can happen ? what are the consequences, when…..? FMEA ANALYSIS Pot. failure Pot. failure reason Effects A B E RPA Action Date responsible A B E RPA* FMEA FUNCTION: A: Probability of occurance B: Seriousness of consequences E: Probability of detection Values : 1……10 Risk Probability Assessment RPA = A *B *E Compare to limit x : RPA > xStep 3: Determining sources, controlling consequences, weighting Actions, so that RPA* < x FMEA •Function / component / process step • Lists of parts to be analyzed and/or process steps. Indicate how functions are fulfilled. • Within the framework of the error analysis, the following steps are executed for every function of the part and/or every process. The results are entered in the corresponding column of the reply form FMEA Column 1: Potential failure • All conceivable types of failures must be entered for the individual part or process. Check list (incomplete): • Functional performance general • Deformation •Fatigue • Dissolution • Misalignment •Clamps • Corrosion • Dirt entry •Attrition FMEA Column 2: Cause of failure All conceivable failure causes are assigned to every potential failure. The description of the error causes must guarantee that corresponding correcting-measurescan be determined . Check list (incomplete): • Component failure • Defective assembly • Defective maintenance • False acceptances, specifications • False dimensioning • Defective construction • Defective Material • Quality problemsin the manufacturing process • False heat treatment • False operation • Defective measurement • False instrument FMEA Column 3: Effect of failure • Starting point is the actual occurrence of the failure. The implications of the failure on the customer and/or user. Check list (incomplete): • Function not accomplished • Accident of different severity • complicated assembly or disassembly • weakening of the component (leading to rupture?) • Noise pollution • complicated repair • Pollution • unpleasant appearance Compute Probabilities • A: Probability of occurance • B: Seriousness of consequences • E: Probability of detection • Values :1......10 • Compute Risk Probability Assessment RPA = A*B*E (also called RPN, Risk Probability Number) Action • Start dealing with the highest RPA functions, and change the designs to mitigate that problem • Act on all “critical RPAs” • List person responsible for modification, what action is taken, and date. • Once done, re-compute new RPAs Illustration FMEA • Useful and systematic approach to failure identification and mitigation. • Also Root Cause Analysis and other similar tools exist and are used in industry • Many web sites have downloadable software and additional information Worksheet Pot. failure Pot. failure reason Effects A B E RPA Action Date responsible A B E RPA* Reading: The 7 basic quality tools for process improvement. http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/seven-basic-quality-tools/overview/overview.html and sub-pages related to the 7 tools.Quality tools, the 7 Quality Tools The 7 Quality Tools for Process Improvements Pareto Chart Flow Charts Cause-Effect Diagrams Where did the Basic Seven come from? Kaoru Ishikawa • Known for “Democratizing Statistics ” • The Basic Seven Tools made statistical analysis less complicated for the average person • Good Visual Aids make statistical and quality control more comprehendible. What Is a Flowchart? A diagram that uses graphic symbolsto depict the nature and flow of the steps in a process. Benefits of Using Flowcharts • Promote process understanding • Provide tool for training • Identify problem areas and improvement opportunities " Draw a flowchart for whatever you do. Until you do, you do not know what you are doing, you just have a job.” -- Dr. W. Edwards Deming. Keys to Success • Start with the big picture • Observe the current process • Record process steps • Arrange the sequence of steps • Draw the Flowchart What Is a Cause and Effect Diagram? A graphic tool that helps identify, sort, and display possible causes of a problem or quality characteristic. Benefits of Using a Cause-and-Effect Diagram • Helps determine root causes • Encourages group participation • Uses an orderly, easy-to-read format • Indicates possible causes of variation • Increases process knowledge • Identifies areas for collecting data Data Collection • Where • What • Who • How √√√ √√√√ √ √√√ √√ √√√ √√√ √√ √ Shifts Shifts Defect Type Defect Type √√√√ Pareto Principle Pareto Principle • Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian economist – 20% of the population has 80% of the wealth • adapted by Joseph Juran. • Remember the 80/20 rule states that approximately 80% of the problems are created by approximately 20% of the causes. Pareto Charts Acme Pizza Slices Frequency % 010.3 13 313.0 9 26 525.7 9 38 3.1 7 41 24.7 6 50 0 60 0 71 0.3 Acme Pizza • The completed Pareto Analysis results in the following: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1234567 Slices of Pizza # t i m es o rd ere d 2 1 4 3 7 5 6 Scatter Diagrams Slide 1 of 4 • Scatter Diagrams Defined – Scatter Diagrams are used to study and identify the possible relationship between the changes observed in two different sets of variables. Constructing a Scatter Diagram – 1. collect two pieces of data and create a summary table of the data. – 2. Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes. • 3. It is common that the “caus e” variable be labeled on the X axis and the “effect” variabl e be labeled on the Y axis. – 4. Plot the data pairs on the diagram. – 5. Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength. Scatter Diagram Scatter Diagram .