Psychopathology and diagnostic reasoning

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 Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology. 


 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

            Research by Sadock et al. (2015) demonstrates the complexity of biological components in psychopathology. Even though improvements in neuroscience and genetics have allowed for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of mental health disparities, it is still crucial to consider the client’s social, cultural, psychological, and interpersonal environments while providing care. Improvements in neuroscience have been a boon to evidence-based medicine by providing the most accurate way to predict whether or not a treatment will work (Quinlan et al., 2020). Understanding which brain regions and neurotransmitters play a role in psychosis is vital for developing effective treatment strategies. Since most psychopathologies originate from heritable biological impairments mixed with high-risk situations, combining cognitive behavioral therapy and medication may produce the maximum benefits conceivable if the client is amenable.

           The development, maintenance, and resurgence of psychopathological diseases are all thought to have a psychological component. Examples include things like cognitive biases, impairments, and unhelpful worldviews. Given that these cognitive dysfunctions are inextricably related to relational and emotional processes (Brandes et al., 2019), they may be the underlying cause of some psychopathological symptoms or disorders. People with mental health issues may also have cognitive impairments that prevent them from recognizing they need help or reaching out for it.

         Many people model their actions after what society considers “acceptable” (Smith et al., 2020). Mental health may be affected by socioeconomic status, race, gender, and sexual orientation, in addition to any preexisting medical conditions (Smith et al., 2020). Having a mental health disorder is still socially stigmatized in some communities. When diagnosing patients from different cultural backgrounds, it is crucial to have accurate translations done by translators with experience in mental health. The shortage of translators is a real problem, in my opinion. The ability to speak the language is no substitute for familiarity with the culture. For some clients, the whole picture of their predicament will not become apparent for years. Providing and receiving care may need more time than is available when translations are unavailable due to dialect and lack of social support.

         Conversations with other people are indicated by the term “interpersonal.” When people have problems speaking, it can strain their mental health. Several mental diseases may benefit from the incorporation of interpersonal competence into treatment. Barriers between individuals can lead to the emergence of new behaviors (Smith et al., 2020). A person who has problems articulating their emotions or shies away from group situations is a good illustration of this—potential signs of anorexia nervosa. Interviews can be used to assess mental health symptoms and interpersonal behaviors. The lack of communication and placement options for patients with no close relatives or identification documents is a continual reminder of the shortcomings of the current healthcare system. As advanced practice nurses, we can make a difference and alleviate some of the world’s injustices.




Brandes, C. M., Herzhoff, K., Smack, A. J., & Tackett, J. L. (2019). The p factor and the n factor: Associations between the general factors                  of psychopathology and neuroticism in children. Clinical Psychological Science, 7(6), 1266-1284.

Quinlan, E. B., Banaschewski, T., Barker, G. J., Bokde, A. L., Bromberg, U., Büchel, C., & Schumann, G. (2020). Identifying biological                          markers for improved precision medicine in psychiatry. Molecular psychiatry, 25(2), 243-253.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Smith, G. T., Atkinson, E. A., Davis, H. A., Riley, E. N., & Oltmanns, J. R. (2020). The general factor of psychopathology. Annual review of clinical psychology, pp. 16, 75–98.



Initial PosT

Developmental psychopathology teaches how mental health disorders and identifies problems related to cause and effect throughout an individual’s development (Isaksson et al.,2021). Focused studies explained biological, psychological, and social factors in psychopathology’s lifecycle from infancy through adulthood (Campbell & Osborn,2021). Studying factors and differences in psychopathology seeks to enhance our advanced healthcare knowledge as clinical professionals improve mental health and well-being throughout the lifespan.

Biological factors, including genetic variations, can increase an individual’s vulnerability to developing specific mental health disorders associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.  Neuroscientific mechanism’s role in shaping the development of psychopathology by influencing regulating mood, emotions, and overall brain function. Understand that imbalances in neurotransmitters susceptibility related to mental health disorders example, reduced serotonin levels, have been linked to depression (Filtova et al., 2021).

Factor social thinks regarding socioeconomic access to resources and social support systems for social factors. They contribute to increased stress and limited access to mental health services, impacting mental health outcomes (Zhang et al., 2020). Next, consider cultural norms, beliefs, and values that shape individuals’ mental health experiences, significantly influence an individual’s mental health, and contribute to the development of psychopathology (Coll & Cicchetti, 2000).



Campbell, S., & Osborn, T. L. (2021). Adolescent psychopathology and psychological wellbeing: a network analysis approach. 
BMC Psychiatry
21(1), 1–13. to an external site.

Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), 
APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. to an external site.

Coll, C. G., Akerman, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). Cultural influences on developmental processes and outcomes: Implications for the study of development and psychopathology. 
Development and psychopathology
12(3), 333-356.

Filatova, E. V., Shadrina, M. I., & Slominsky, P. A. (2021). Major Depression: One Brain, One Disease, One Set of Intertwined Processes. 
10(6), 1283.

Isaksson, J., Zetterqvist, V., & Ramklint, M. (2021). Psychological and social risk factors associated with development of psychopathology, controlling for biological influence. 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry
34(6), 600–607. to an external site.

Zhang, H., Lee, Z. X., White, T., & Qiu, A. (2020). Parental and social factors in relation to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognitive function. 
Translational Psychiatry
10(1), 80. 

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