Psychology Psyc 510 Paired Samples T-Tests Assignment

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PSYC 510

Homework: Two-Paired Samples
t -tests Assignment Instructions

Overview

This
Homework: Two-Paired Samples
T-Tests Assignment
is designed to assess your understanding of the concepts and applications covered thus far in this course. Concepts specific to this module include the assumptions for a correlated groups
t test, how to calculate it both by hand and using SPSS, and how to present it using professional conventions. Its strengths and weaknesses as compared to the independent samples
t test from our previous module is also discussed. Development of knowledge and skills for appropriate use of this popular test, as required in this
Homework: Two-Paired Samples
T-Tests Assignment
, will prepare you to be a more informed consumer and producer of research both professionally and non-professionally.

Instructions

Be sure you have reviewed this module’s
Learn section before completing this
Homework: Two-Paired Samples
T-Tests Assignment
. This
Homework: Two-Paired Samples
T-Tests Assignment
is worth 60 points. Each question is worth 3 points. Six points are awarded for mechanics/structure.

· Part I contains general concepts from this module’s
Learn section.

· Part II requires use of SPSS. You will have to take screen shots and/or copy and paste from your SPSS to place answers within this file. Make sure you only insert
relevant and
legible images.

· Part III is the cumulative section. These may include short answer and/or use of SPSS but will review material from previous module(s).

· Directions for each subsection are provided in the top of each table (in the blue shaded areas).

· Answers should be placed where indicated (wherever there is “
ANSWER”).

· Submit the file as a WORD document (.doc or .docx). Make sure the filename of your submission includes your full name, course and section.

· Example: HW8_JohnDoe_510B01

Make sure to check the
Homework Grading Rubric before you begin this
Homework: Two-Paired Samples
T-Tests Assignment
.

Part I: General Concepts


These questions are based on the concepts covered in this module’s assigned readings and presentations.

Answer the following questions using your own words.

1.

Explain what counterbalancing is, how it is achieved, and which confound it helps to minimize.

ANSWER

2.

Using your own words, discuss how a correlated-groups
t test has more statistical power in comparison to an independent-groups
t test.

ANSWER

3.

Discuss one strength and one weakness of a within-subjects design using your own words. (Do not include statistical power, as it is assessed in a previous question)

ANSWER

SCENARIO: A researcher believes exercise may affect anxiety in women, but research appears inconclusive. She identifies a group of women (N = 30) who had not exercised before, but are now planning to begin exercising. She gives them a 50-item anxiety inventory before they begin exercising and administers it again after 6 months of exercising. The anxiety inventory is measured on an interval scale and higher numbers indicate higher anxiety. In addition, scores on the inventory are normally distributed. The mean of the difference scores is 3.4, SD = 1.8, and there were 30 in the sample. Using this information, answer the following questions showing all work when calculations are required to earn up to full credit.

4) Calculate the correlated-groups
t test to determine the
tobt. (Note you will first have to solve for the standard error of the difference score).

Work:

ANSWER
t obtained:

5) Calculate the effect size using Cohen’s
d. Interpret it using the appropriate conventions (small, medium, or large).

Work:

ANSWER

6) Is this a directional or non-directional study, and what is the
t cv? (Note you will have to first calculate the df)

Work:

ANSWER

7) Calculate the 95% confidence intervals (make sure you use the two-tailed
t cv ).

Work:

ANSWER

8) Write an APA-style Results section based on your analyses. All homework “Results sections” should follow the examples provided in the videos. Don’t forget to include the effect size, confidence interval, and a decision about the null hypothesis.

ANSWER

Part II: SPSS Application


These questions require the use of SPSS. Remember you must submit all of your work within this word document. You will need to take a screen shot of your data view if necessary, or copy and paste your output into the spaces below. Remember to report the exact p value provided by SPSS output – simply reporting p<.05 or p>.05 is not acceptable (unless SPSS output states p=.000 – in that case you can report p<.001).

Research Scenario: Do you cope better than peers when facing difficult situations? In one study, researchers reported that most individuals believe that they can cope better than their fellow students (Igou, 2008). A recent researcher wanted to replicate the study. In this design, participants read a scenario of a negative event and were asked to use a 10 point scale to rate how it would affect their immediate well being (1 – 10, the higher the score, the better the mood). They they were asked to imagine the event from the perspective of an ordinary fellow student and rate how it would affect that person using the same scale.

Using the information provided, create an SPSS data file and conduct the appropriate statistical test to determine whether people believe they can cope
better than their peers. Answer the following questions based on your analyses.

Self-rating

Rating of peer

4

4

8

6

7

6

5

5

7

6

5

4

3

2

5

4

2

2

7

7

8

7

6

5

9) Conduct a correlated groups t-test. Paste the appropriate SPSS output below.

ANSWER

10) Use the output to calculate r2 (show your work in the space provided and remember if a number is negative, when squaring it will lose its sign and be positive). Interpret it (small, medium, large) based on the conventions for this effect size calculation.

Work:

ANSWER

11) Paste an appropriate SPSS graph (make sure you use the procedures outlined in this module’s SPSS video– and don’t forget to label your y axis “Coping Ability”.

ANSWER

12) Write an APA-style Results section based on your analyses. All homework “Results sections” should follow the examples provided in the videos. Don’t forget to include the effect size, confidence interval, and a decision about the null hypothesis. If significant, make sure you interpret how the conditions differ (refer to the Figure or report the means and standard deviations).

ANSWER

Part III: Cumulative


These questions can be related to anything covered thus far in the course.

Does amount of information retained differ when participating in meetings in-person verses virtually? In this study, participants got to choose whether they attend a quarterly meeting in person or via Google Meet. After the meeting, they were given a brief assessment of information covered – percent correct for each condition is presented in the table below.

Using the information provided, create an SPSS data file and conduct the appropriate statistical test to determine whether there is a statistically significant
difference in amount of information retained based on whether attendance is in-person or virtual. Answer the following questions based on your analysis.

In-Person

Virtual

78

67

65

80

79

72

84

69

91

92

88

75

79

79

89

66

90

71

85

69

13)

Clearly identify the independent and dependent variables in this scenario.

ANSWER

14)

Paste the output of your statistical analysis below.

ANSWER

15)

Create an appropriate graph based on the data and paste it below (make sure to have axes labels and error bars).

ANSWER

16)

Write an APA-style Results section based on your analyses. Remember to use complete sentences, include the statistical notation, effect size, confidence interval, and include a decision about the null hypothesis. If it is significant, state how by reporting the means and standard deviations or refer the reader to the previous Figure.

ANSWER

17)

Discuss one threat to internal validity as it specifically relates to this research scenario.

ANSWER

Use this information to answer the following questions:

· Age at onset of dementia was determined in the general population to be  = 70 and  = 7.0.

18)

Based on the data above, what is the z score for someone being diagnosed with dementia at age 65 (can round to two decimal places)? What percentage of people might start to show signs of dementia
before this age ( DO NOT ROUND).

z score = ANSWER

% = ANSWER

Work:

Done!

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