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POST # 1 Reply to Talia

Caring Theory

A caring theoretical model that can systematically be applied to the day-to-day practice of advance practice nurses is Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. This theory can be applied to all areas of nursing, as it looks at nursing with a broad perspective (Watson, 2022). It was developed from Jean Watson’s personal belief system, and it suggests that the human spirit and life energies are connected by caring and are used to potentiate our capabilities (Watson, 2022). Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is broad and abstract which provides valuable insights to nursing practice (Utley et al., 2018).


There are three concepts included in Watson’s theory of human caring, carative factors, caring relationships, and caring moments. She further develops her theory based on the Ten Caritas Processes which are middle range theories. Middle range theories are narrow in scope and focus on specific aspects of the nursing profession (Utley et al., 2018). They relate to specific concepts that apply to nursing practice and provide data that can be directly tested or measured (Utley et al., 2018). A middle range theory in Watson’s framework is that humanistic-altruistic values are held up by practicing loving-kindness with self and others. She defines the concepts as universal mottos that can be applied to our personal and work lives (Watson, 2022).


As determined by a qualitative study describing perspectives of human caring in interdisciplinary teams, Watson’s Human Caring Theory can guide relationships and help create a healing environment (Wei & Watson, 2019). According to researchers, applying human caring to interprofessional teams can lead to an awareness to care for self and others (Wei & Watson, 2019). 

POST # 2 Reply to Charlotte

Research Based Evidence to inform Clinical Practice

 As an advanced practice nurse (APN), one of the responsibilities is to use research-based evidence to inform clinical practice. According to Pol-Castañeda et al (2020) evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the integration of the best available research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences to guide clinical decision-making. An example of applying research-based evidence to inform your clinical practice may be by conducting systematic reviews. One of the best ways to ensure that your practice is evidence-based is by conducting a systematic review of the available literature on a particular topic. This will allow you to identify the best available evidence, determine the quality of the evidence, and synthesize the findings in a way that can inform your clinical practice Pol-Castañeda et al, 2020). 

      In a research article by Fontaine et al (2019) regarding research-based evidence in clinical practice the focus was on changing nurses’ behavior in practice. More specifically, it included studies reporting on objective measure of nurses’ behavior. For example, clinical interventions reported in patients’ medical files, number of tests ordered or a subjective measure of nurses’ behavior such as self-reported performance of clinical interventions (Fontaine et al, 2019). The outcomes could be measured as objective or subjective measures of nurses’ intention to change behavior such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, subjective norms and skills. Objective measures were of patient health behavior, health status and well-being. This included physical health and treatment outcomes, psychological health and psychosocial outcomes, as long as they can be associated with nurses’ interventions performed in clinical practice. Data regarding the theory use, targeted mechanisms of action and included behavior change techniques in studies will be useful for reporting, replicating and synthesizing evidence (Fontaine et al, 2019). In summary as an APN I would be able to assess the quality and quantity of the data collected as evidence to support practice change or to challenge assumptions or existing practices and in turn use this evidence to inform clinical practice. 

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