- Pull your assignments from modules 1, 2, and 4 together into a logically organized assignment describing the population of interest, concern(s) identified, desired outcomes, PICOT question, literature review and strategy to collect data.
- is to be submitted this week so that you can prepare a power point presentation to share with your colleagues next week.
- should be formatted per current APA and 10-15 pages in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page. Incorporate a minimum of 5 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work.
Determinants of Health
St. Thomas University
Determinants of Health
Health determinants can be categorized by physical determinants, such as access to clean water and sanitation; environmental factors, such as education and economic development; social determinants, such as poverty and inequality; and cultural determinants, such as an individual’s sense of security and autonomy (Park et al ., 2019). It is important to understand the intricacies of each determinant in order to accurately assess and quantify the general well-being of a particular population.
In this paper, I will analyze the determinants of health and the potential national outcomes that could improve the health of a particular population. The population studied in this paper will be the adults in the United States. First, I will define the determinants of health in adults in the US, followed by an analysis of the relevancy of these determinants and the implications of their presence upon the health of the population. This analysis will be used to derive the potential outcomes that should be included in a program designed to improve the health of the adults in the United States.
To begin, the physical determinants of health in the adult population in the US must be defined. Physical determinants are those factors which can be observed and can affect the health of an individual directly or indirectly, such as access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene, availability of nutritious food, and access to healthcare. In the US, adults have access to clean water from public sources, as well as through their own private wells and other water providers. Affordable and available sanitation systems, including sewage disposal and wastewater treatment, are also readily available to American adults. Access to nutritious food is typically available through commercial vending machines, grocery stores, convenience stores, and even farmers markets (Gomes et al ., 2022). Access to healthcare is also widely available, with a variety of private and public health insurance options as well as initiatives that focus on preventive care, such as the Affordable Care Act.
The environmental determinants of health in adults in the US can also be defined. Environmental determinants of health refer to the interactions and influences of human activities, resource availability, and biophysical resources that can have an impact on an individual’s health. These determinants include access to economic resources, education, housing, and transportation. In the US, there is a wide range of economic resources available to adults, from employment income to entrepreneurial opportunities. Education is universally available, from K-12 schooling to higher education institutions. There is also a variety of housing options available to adults in the US, from public housing to owning a home. Finally, adult Americans have access to a variety of transportation options, from public transportation to individual car ownership.
The social determinants of health in adults in the US must also be evaluated. Social determinants refer to the social, cultural, and economic systems that influence an individual’s health, such as income, education, and occupational status. For adults in the US, there is a wide range of income, educational attainment, and occupation opportunities. Income and educational attainment vary widely, from those who are highly educated and high earners to those with limited or no education and limited financial resources. Occupations also vary from individuals who are highly skilled and well-paid to those who are unskilled and underpaid. Social determinants of health also include access to healthcare services and health insurance, as well as access to social support networks.
The cultural determinants of health in adults in the US must also be considered. Cultural determinants refer to the set of beliefs, values, and norms that shape and influence an individual’s behavior. These include how an individual perceives health and disease, as well as how they prioritize different health topics and how they seek healthcare. In the US, adults have diverse cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values that shape their health-seeking behaviors.
Analysis of the determinants of health in adults in the US reveals that there are a variety of factors that can influence the health of an individual. First, access to clean water, sanitation systems, and nutritious food are all essential for overall health. Additionally, educational, economic, and housing options are significantly important in influencing an individual’s health. Finally, the level of income and education, access to healthcare services and health insurance, as well as access to social support networks, all have a significant impact on an individual’s health.
A thorough analysis of the determinants of health in adults in the US can reveal several potential national outcomes that could be pursued in order to improve the health of this population. First, increasing access to healthcare services and health insurance is essential in order to ensure that adults have the necessary resources to prevent and treat illnesses and injuries (Butkus et al ., 2020). Second, providing educational resources and opportunities to adults, such as GED preparation, college support, and job training, would allow them to increase their job skills and earnings potential. Third, extracurricular activities, such as recreation and sports, should be encouraged and promoted in order to promote mental and physical health. Finally, providing safe, affordable housing and increased access to transportation would also help to improve the health of adults living in the US.
From the analysis of the determinants of health, two to three outcomes can be identified that should be included in a program designed to improve the health of the adults in the United States. First, the federal government should prioritize providing healthcare services and health insurance to those adults that do not have access to these resources. This goal can be met through initiatives such as expanding Medicaid and expanding access to other public and private health insurance options. Second, the creation of job and educational opportunities should be a top priority in order to reduce poverty and inequality. These initiatives could include increased investments in public education, job training programs, and incentives for businesses to create jobs. Finally, extracurricular activities should be promoted and encouraged in communities in order to promote mental and physical health. These initiatives could include recreational activities and sports leagues.
In conclusion, the determinants of health, when properly understood and analyzed, can reveal potential outcomes that can be used to improve the health of a particular population. In this paper, the determinants of health among adults in the United States were identified and analyzed, resulting in the identification of 2-3 outcomes that should be included in a program to improve the health of the population. This includes increasing access to healthcare services and health insurance, providing educational and job opportunities, and promoting extracurricular activities. These strategies can be used in conjunction with other strategies to ensure that adults in the United States have access to the resources and services necessary to achieve optimal health.
Butkus, R., Rapp, K., Cooney, T. G., Engel, L. S., & Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians*. (2020). Envisioning a better US health care system for all: reducing barriers to care and addressing social determinants of health.
Annals of internal medicine,
Gomes Cordeiro, N., Mendes, L. L., Jardim, M. Z., Claro, R. M., Pessoa, M. C., Granado, F. S., … & de Lima Costa, B. V. (2022). Do Food and Nutrition Public Establishments Influence Availability to Healthy Food in Neighborhood?.
Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 1-18.
Park, M. B., & Nam, E. W. (2019). National level social determinants of health and outcomes: Longitudinal analysis of 27 industrialized countries.
St. Thomas University
March 15, 2023
Improvements in health outcomes or decreases in healthcare expenditures are common motivations for community-based health treatments, which aim to affect large groups in communities or the entire population. Institutions and community groups can implement measures such as new policies, educational initiatives, and other forms of intervention. This paper aims to identify three population-based and health-related initiatives, evaluate their efficacy in influencing outcomes and lowering health-related expenditures, and then examine the parameters employed in these interventions and any accompanying policy shifts.
Smoking Cessation Programs
Programs to help smokers kick the habit are a popular form of population-based intervention with the dual goals of lowering smoking rates and enhancing health outcomes. Everyone who smokes at our facility, including staff members and patients, can participate in smoking cessation programs. Counseling, therapy with nicotine replacement, and behavioral support are frequently included in these programs (CDC, 2022). These programs are designed to assist individuals in giving up smoking and lowering their chance of acquiring smoking-related diseases, such as lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke.
It is well-documented that smoking cessation programs successfully alter outcomes and cut the expenses of providing healthcare to their participants. Quitting smoking, as reported by the CDC, can cut the chance of developing lung cancer by as much as 90%, the risk of developing heart disease by as much as 50%, and the risk of developing a stroke by as much as 30% (CDC, 2022). In addition, it has been demonstrated that smoking cessation programs can save healthcare expenses by lowering the prevalence of smoking-related diseases and the costs associated with treating those disorders.
For this intervention, the target population consists of all people who smoke, regardless of age or other demographic factors. Counseling, therapy with nicotine replacement, and behavioral support are the components that make up this method. Some policy shifts have occurred as a result of smoking cessation initiatives (CDC, 2022). These shifts have included higher tariffs on tobacco products, smoke-free workplace laws, and public education campaigns regarding the risks connected with smoking.
Vaccination campaigns are another type of population-based intervention for better health outcomes. Vaccination campaigns against infectious illnesses like pneumonia, influenza, and COVID-19 are available to staff members and patients at our facility. These campaigns are intended to stop the spread of these diseases (Rodrigues & Plotkin, 2020). In most cases, these campaigns consist of educating people about the significance of vaccinations, administering vaccines, and tracking the rates at which people are vaccinated.
It is also well-documented that vaccination programs effectively modify outcomes and reduce the expense of providing medical care. The CDC estimates that immunization could avert as many as three million fatalities annually worldwide (Rodrigues & Plotkin, 2020). Also, it has been demonstrated that vaccination programs can save healthcare expenses by avoiding the transmission of infectious illnesses and the healthcare costs involved with treating infectious diseases.
Despite their age or demographic factors, all people at risk of developing an infectious disease are included in the overall group that this intervention is intended to help. Education, the distribution of vaccines, and the monitoring of vaccination rates are the components that make up this intervention (Rodrigues & Plotkin, 2020). Vaccination campaigns have resulted in policy changes such as vaccine distribution plans, public education campaigns regarding the significance of vaccinations, and mandatory vaccination obligations for schools and healthcare staff.
Community Nutrition Programs
Another population-based strategy for better health outcomes is community nutrition initiatives. Community nutrition programs are available at our school for those who are food insecure or at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease due to poor dietary habits (Lawrence & Worsley, 2020). Healthy eating instruction, increased availability of nutritious foods, and emotional and practical support are common components of such initiatives.
Although there is less evidence supporting the efficacy of public nutrition programs in altering outcomes and lowering healthcare costs than there is for smoking cessation initiatives and immunization campaigns, several studies have demonstrated encouraging results. One research indicated that those participating in community nutrition programs were likelier to eat a healthy diet and more fruits and vegetables (Lawrence & Worsley, 2020). Community nutrition initiatives may also help save healthcare expenses by lowering the prevalence of illnesses directly linked to poor diet.
People of all ages and demographics who are vulnerable to food insecurity or at risk for acquiring nutrition-related illnesses are included in the target group for this intervention. The intervention’s guiding principles are education on eating healthy, availability of nutritious food alternatives, and encouragement to make positive lifestyle changes (Lawrence & Worsley, 2020). Food assistance programs like Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) have undergone policy modifications due to the establishment of public nutrition education, as have farm-to-school efforts and rules governing the marketing of unhealthy foods to children.
Population-based health treatments improve health and save healthcare costs. Smoking cessation, immunization, and community nutrition initiatives can improve health outcomes for huge populations. Community nutrition initiatives have shown potential benefits but need additional investigation, whereas smoking cessation and immunization efforts have changed outcomes and reduced healthcare expenditures. These programs target health-risked people of all ages and groups. These initiatives employ education, funding, and policy changes. These measures have resulted in cigarette levies, mandated vaccinations, and food assistance program reforms. These treatments show the value of population-based healthcare and preventative and public health investments.
CDC. (2022, August 24).
Smoking and Cancer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/cancer.html
Lawrence, M., & Worsley, T. (2020).
Public Health Nutrition: From principles to practice. Routledge.
Rodrigues, C. M., & Plotkin, S. A. (2020). Impact of Vaccines; Health, Economic and Social Perspectives.
Frontiers in Microbiology,
Module 4 Assignment
St. Thomas University
April 9, 2023
Module 4 Assignment
The PICOT question drawn from assignments in modules one and two is “How effective are smoking cessation programs(I) in reducing cases of cancer and diabetes(O) in smokers (P) as compared to continuing the habit during medication (C) when applied for six months(T).”
Treatment for patients suffering from heart conditions and cancer, especially lung cancer, proves non-effective when a smoker is still in the habit (Stone & Paul, 2022). It applies to other types of cancer as well. Also, smoking patients under treatment for heart conditions have a rough recovery time. Additionally, their recovery procedure also takes longer than expected. In cases where they have undergone surgery, chances of long-term survival become low. This is because tobacco slows down the effectiveness of the drugs they are on.
Article Review for Smoking Cessation Programs
The first article was a study on how effective smoking cessation is for patients in cancer clinic centers. The article explains that cancer patients have a high tobacco exposure rate. According to the report, cancer patients are more likely to experience hardships while trying to quit smoking than the general population. Therefore, smoking cessation programs are an essential part of cancer therapy (Stone & Paul, 2022). The smoking cessation programs that would best serve this purpose include tobacco quitting campaigns and imposing heavy taxation on tobacco products.
Additionally, the federal government can set up policies governing tobacco use in collaboration with the world health organization. These cessation programs should emphasize the need to quit, provide warnings about the dangers of using tobacco and raise smoking bans (Stone & Paul 2022). The use of smoking cessation programs would help reduce the number of people smoking tobacco, positively enhance their health concerning cancer, have fewer diagnoses of cancer cases, and lower the demand for tobacco products. Contrary to this, when compared to quoting the habit without utilizing these programs, the demand and supply for tobacco products will still be the same, with high chances of bouncing back to the habit due to ready availability and decline in the recovery process.
The second article emphasizes smoking among healthcare facilities’ leading causes of high mortality rates. It causes premature deaths, especially in patients who are suffering from diabetes as a result of tobacco abuse (Zamzuri et al., 2021). The article also highlights that the deaths caused by this habit are preventable. To ensure the problem is addressed, the report suggests using smoking cessation programs to achieve positive health outcomes. The smoking cessation utilized in this article is the quit smoking clinics. With great commitment from the nursing fraternity, the program has successfully achieved the target of quitting smoking in all public healthcare facilities. The study was conducted on 285 smokers, and upon implementation of the program, 30.2% of the smokers had successfully quit smoking (Zamzuri et al., 2021). Additionally, reported cases of diabetes deterioration went down. The article recommended expanding smoking cessation programs to private sectors as they proved effective.
Data Collection Methods
While researching how effective smoking cessation programs are in quitting tobacco for smokers, several data collection methods can be utilized. In this case, one data collection method will be most suitable. A review of registry data and clinical notes collected from public health clinics will be utilized to compare smokers who enrolled on the cessation programs (Tsourtos et al., 2019). The basis of comparison for the collected data is the frequency with which smokers honored appointments and the presence of diabetes and cancer co-occurring cases. In summary, a drop in the number of smokers will be evidence of the success rate of the utilization of smoking cessation programs as compared to personal quitting approaches.
Stone, E., & Paul, C. (2022). The tobacco endgame—a new paradigm for smoking cessation in cancer clinics.
Tsourtos, G., Foley, K., Ward, P., Miller, E., Wilson, C., Barton, C., & Lawn, S. (2019). Using a nominal group technique to approach consensus on a resilience intervention for smoking cessation in a lower socioeconomic population.
BMC Public Health,
Zamzuri, M. A. I. A., Kamarudin, S. A. A., Ariffin, A. H., Ibrahim, A. A., Othman, M. H., Johari, A., … & Pang, N. T. P. (2021). Rate of smoking cessation and factors associated with successful quit smoking in Seremban District of Malaysia.
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health,