I need help organizing a paper to make a final paper for criminal justice. I will give you the outline. I need you to format and make it make sense.
I was hoping you could make it a final paper with headlines
Identifying the problem
expert and society views
law enforcement policy reform
need help organizing paper to make a final paper for criminal justice. I will give you the outline. Just need you to format and make it make sense.
0 Miscarriage of Justice: Wrongful Convictions in the Criminal Justice System Hattie L Isaac The University of Arizona Global Campus CRJ312: Crime and Society Professor : Brett Cross 4/1/2021 Miscarriages of Justice- Wrongful Convictions in the Criminal Justice System Introduction The United States’ justice structure is special in that it gives persons convicted or guilty of wrongdoing a variety of procedural protections. Many citizens now than in the past, are convicted and charged annually for small, minor crimes. The primary cause of procedural protection is to shield innocent citizens from detention, conviction or punishment for offences they have not committed, to the greatest extent practicable. One of the core concepts of our legal structures is, unless proved guilty, that an individual is presumed innocent. Yet citizens are indeed victims of miscarriage of justice, despite the perhaps most sophisticated form of due process legislation in the country. It is confirmed that at least five thousand primary defendants were omitted from the first 18,000 DNA test reports at the FBI, and other criminal labs until the trial in their case. In other sentences, about 25% of the primary victims have been misrepresented. An investigation was done on false prosecution instances of justice at one point only. Defective proof was found when the suspect was taken into custody, but never accounted for as documentation was hidden at the time of his detention. The findings are taken from a sampling of the data. Unfortunately, there is no public register in the criminal justice system,and therefore no one knows the amount of miscarriages happening. Method Nevertheless, to provide some idea as to the extent of the problem, a study was conducted of wrongful convictions-miscarriages of justice at just one of the stages in the administration of justice. In the study, wrongful convictions were defined as cases in which a person convicted of a felony was later found to be innocent beyond a reasonable doubt. Because of a confession by the actual offender, evidence that had been available but was not sufficiently used at the time of conviction became available. The conclusions of the study are based on the findings of a survey. All attorney generals in the United States and its surrounding territories were surveyed. Ohio, all presiding judges of common pleas courts, all county prosecutors, all county public defenders, all county sheriffs, and the chiefs of police of several major cities were also surveyed. The study’s conclusion was based on the findings of a survey. All the attorney’s general in the United States and the surrounding territories were surveyed. The authors of the study estimated that approximately 0.5 percent of all the felony convictions are in error. That means that of every 1,000 persons convicted of felonies in the United States, about five percent are probably innocent. The authors also believe that the frequency of error is probably higher in crimes that are less serious, like felony and misdemeanor cases. Factors to wrongful convictions Wrongful prosecutions are nearly often the product of recognition by an eyewitness. In this report, the Innocence Project showed that 80% of false prosecutions may be due to mistaken eyewitness and/victim misidentification. The other two major causes of incarceration problems are police and prosecutorial errors. In the inquiry by the Innocence Project, about sixty-five percent of the individuals who have been cleared are people of color. Biased prosecutors and police officers and law enforcement, who have convinced themselves that a criminal or convict is guilty, can coerce witnesses into offering testimony that may be untruthful or even perjure themselves. An inaccurate or injectable forensic technology such as “junk science” (traced hair, firearm mark and bite mark analysis, footwear impression) has a significant effect in many instances. Any of these scientific methodologies and expertise have questionable credibility, and are thus outside the scope of case studies that exist.Our criminal justice system has relied on faulty forensic science to convict individuals in this country for decades. We know that jurys place great weight on scientific-sounding evidence, disregarding all other evidence to the contrary. The mistakes, which have led to hundreds of individuals being wrongfully convicted and imprisoned, have been proven through DNA testing and exonerations. Yet the statute (and the system of justice) refuses to see any scientific change, maintaining that the precedents must be upheld. To protect and guarantee that any experimental statements or facts accepted is appropriate and admissible when it comes to court trials that include empirical disciplines, studies has found that courts appear to place more focus on the expertise and certainty of the professional witness than on the quality and credibility of his statements. Forensic labs first have a duty to discourage fraud. The second law to scientists who offer professional evidence or testimony in a criminal or civil court is to avoid confusing terms. The third prerequisite is for trained forensic scientists is to provide unbiased and reasonable findings based on true and effective techniques. In addition, as mistakes arise, it is important to work on identifying the root causes to avoid their recurrence. Most importantly, testimony does not stray outside the borders of the existing science. In cases where the crime is less severe, people unwilling to post bail can confess guilt so that they can be released. with the majority of the population, getting out of prison is more essential than having a small criminal record. Moreover, claiming one’s innocence is complicated. The burden of evidence for felony proceedings in the U.S. is “beyond a reasonable doubt”. The duty of evidence is on the convicted, not on the suspects. Problems that occur in the case of an innocent person convicted of a crime involve the failure to provide an alibi, being convinced of one’s guilt by others who claim to have seen the accused commit the crime, or the lack of time or money to prepare a defense. If one of the main causes of a death penalty prosecution is shortage of lawyers, that is highly troublesome. A third of the false convictions were included in the Innocence Project report. Miscarriages of justice come from cultural pressures, particularly for interracial and abuse, computerized record keeping problems, and from juridical mistakes. Due to a multitude of causes, there are frequent miscarriages of justice. This report discussed miscarriages of justice, not as much as wrongful convictions. Overworked and Underpaid Counsel The location is essential when you are searching for a qualified attorney. It is because the court’s jurisdiction is crucial in determining the attorney. The processes are well-understood for a lawyer who works in the court’s jurisdiction. For example, the D.A. of one state takes a no-plea-bargaining stance in some legal cases, while in others, certain crimes are open to plea bargaining. However, the D.A. in another county might not have such a policy. Furthermore, the regional attorney may be acquainted with the court’s laws and demeanor with which the defendant expected to testify. For example, a district attorney in one county might be familiar with the prosecutor’s tactics. A robust criminal protection system will save costs by eliminating false convictions, preventing innocent citizens from going to prison, and ensuring that defendants who cannot afford legal counsel should not face unnecessarily lengthy sentences. Public defenders, on the other hand, maybe naive and young. They have little flexibility to consult with witnesses, find detectives, visit the crime scene, and evaluate facts when they have more lawsuits than private attorneys. Both causes limit the defendant’s willingness to be enthusiastically represented and add to the criminal justice system’s socioeconomic inequalities. Almost all lawyers experience a degree of stress and emotional burn-out during their careers. The number of cases that public defenders handle can be very large. Any criminal defense attorney can own over one hundred active lawsuits. There is not enough opportunity for them to employ a private detective to do investigations for them. It ensures that proof in certain situations can never found and consequently may affect the outcome of the case. Public defenders also depend on the police’s materials to establish the basis of their case (Cholodofsky, 2013). They have fewer options available for making decisions in either situation. The average length of time spent in a misdemeanor case is about 45 minutes. It is difficult for public defenders to accept conditions that need more time and effort because they have a great deal of caseload. Wrong-sided lawyering is often induced by inept and inexperienced attorneys that refuse to contest facts based on other causes. Many examples of ineffective assistance of poor counsel include failing to investigate alibis, failing to make opening, and closing remarks, failing to plan, and falling asleep at trial. To help solve an overburdened public defense system, we need to have access to lawyers that are not overworked and unfamiliar with our case. Having counsel means nothing if they do not have the time, money, or the necessary expertise (Cavanaugh & Lane, 2012) to get their point across in court. Their mission is to serve a wide range of customers, no matter their financial or social status. When the public defender has a lesser caseload, they focus on building a better case for their client and have more time to communicate with the prosecution to find additional information on their points in the case. Too many cases mean that the assigned lawyer has a high caseload and maintains poor case planning, putting them on the short end and at a loss (Gould, 2008). The lack of effective defense systems violates the constitution and leaves everyone under pressure and poorly resourced. We can also encourage our government to spread court assignments out by hiring more defense lawyers for the counties they serve. Looking for money in the budget can eliminate some other programs that are not as beneficial (like police uniforms, additional police vehicles, street decorations, renovations of offices, etc.). Social Inaccuracy Our law enforcement and the judicial system misconduct is not a myth. There is evidence that members of the criminal justice system ignore the basis made a concerted effort to present a false narrative. The new evidence is the National Registry of Exoneration’s alarming analysis. The researchers identified over 2,400 trials to determine whether an individual was later proven guilty or proved liable of any wrongdoing at any point in the court process, and from the investigation to the conviction. They distinguished this form of misconduct into five categories: a) any attempt to influence the results of a judicial proceeding by providing false or misleading information, by causing evidence to be withheld, or altered, or by directing an unwilling witness to withhold or alter an existing evidence Interrogation impropriety fabrication of new proof Hiding exculpatory evidence: careless mistakes made during a trial The reports of police and lawyer brutality resulted in fifty-seven percent of the cases of Black people and fifty-two percent of those of White persons as suspects. It went up dramatically in opioid prosecutions (47% to 22%), and cases where the death penalty was imposed (78% to 64%) (87 percent to 68 percent ). These results are, for the most part, both frustrating and unsurprising. The result of this report emphasizes the need for better police recruitment and resources. Yet much still needs to be accomplished to clear the criminal justice system of unjust sentences. Identifying the Problem “Misconduct by officers, lawyers, judges, and other authorities is a daily occurrence,” one co-founder said in the Washington Post. It will take time, commitment, and money to fix this. There are also professionals in the criminal justice system who want to help if you have been harmed by abusive practices. The investigation showed that it was present in over half of the investigated incidents. On Tuesday, a comprehensive study was published that argues police and judges are partially liable for the huge numbers of wrongful convictions in America’s prisons, sometimes inflating charges or committing procedural errors when in obtaining convictions against hundreds of innocent men, often African American, individuals. the 204-page study from the register, titled “Government Misconduct Convicts the Innocent: Exonerating Prosecutors, Police, and Other Law Enforcement,” is an in-depth review of 2,400 cases examining cases they’ve done since 1989, the National Repository of Innocence Project. New guidelines are proposed to promote information collection methods, such as videotaping interrogations and photo lineups, as well as to decrease the odds of corruption. “Some of the laws we need are already in effect,” said Gross.” We will require compliance, but also sufficient funding, attentive oversight, and overall leadership to carry it out our responsibilities. Michigan has generated 120 post-conviction DNA exonerations. The highest three hundred and eighty-eight have been fully exonerated. In comparison, the study found that the figures reveal that 57% of the Black defendants were casualties of official prejudice relative to 52% of the White defendants As the penalties handed out for opioid offences are greater than twice those offered to those for homicide. This is eighty-seven to sixty-eight percent in favour of choices taken before the implementation of a new execution process. Expert Reviews- Sorting Through the Process Global Register of Exonerations published a report in 2009 on the significance of race in false trials and determined that black people are more likely to be proven guilty and complete longer terms owing to ethnic disparity in the three-racial innocence issues in the same year.” More rigor and experience are also required on the part of law enforcement officers is described as a simple reality in the study.” Imran Syed, who is assistant professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School, claims that this paper provides a very simple, introductory glance at what he terms a “top of the iceberg” of the issues that have afflicted the American legal system’s approach to prosecuting and convicting criminals. More than 100 wrongful convictions have been overturned by the Innocence Project which was founded in 1997, and is currently receives over 6,000 applicants each year from those who want to clear their cases. The report reveals just what we’ve been telling citizens for months,” said Syed said. becoming aware of this information would bring the issue of global population growth to light. Despite the results and figures that could total as much as 2,000 prisoners who were locked up on the basis of being accused of a crime they did not commit; Attorney Wolf is not disappointed since he has already helped get eight inmates released from prison due to a lack of proof. Mueller who has worked as a counsel representing many exonerees in instances where allegations of police brutality have been made against him in the federal and state courts suggests that part of the remedy is eliminating eligible immunity for law enforcement officials. He said, “toss out the license and let the officers and lawyers do away with their own immunities” Furthermore, Mueller claims that investigators should have proper experience in questioning methods and forensics is also needed. [In 2001], his brother and co-inmate had] spent about two decades in jail since being accused of a second time for the murders were freed this year, with the help of this advocate, and the restitution fund is compensating him for his lack of civil liberties. Detroit police Sergeant Ernest Wilson’s federal lawsuit accuses him of fabricating facts although perjury, and he has denied the allegations in court. .A federal judge declined to withdraw the case against Wilson after it was discovered that the officer falsely classified the car in which Ahmed was claimed he was seated at the time of the shooting, thereby raising the amount of proof the officer Hodari required. This lawsuit also set forth the possibility of revealing the identities of all officers who have been found guilty of being untruthful under oath to the media to act as role models for local attempts to combat wrongdoing in the Wayne County Prosecutor’s Office The Detroit News this summer published a list including the lists of 35 law enforcement officials. We have agreed to make the list public because in the new reform period, we’re moving outside the spirit of the law to giving voice to fairness for the public is the greatest thing we can do One positive evaluation is that her agency has called attention to the program with the investigation into those who claim they have been wrongfully convicted. Law Enforcement Since serving almost 30 years in jail over a wrongful conviction, Danny Burton has now begun to regain his freedom. His conviction was suspended when it was discovered that the witnesses who testified for the Wayne County Prosecutor that Burton helped to dispose of the dead victim Leonard Ruffin’s body had been bribed by the police were unavailable. Burton said he figured it might happen to someone. In my situation, the police overstepped their authority (and), which just served to compromise my credibility when a bit more people looked on to them for help in the case It was found through an examination by the Prosecutor’s Conviction Team on December 6th that Wayne County’s convictions to be expanded, and then vacated by the Prosecutor’s Office on the Prosecutor’s appeal. Since he was released from jail, he is [now] free. it supports the stories shared by those who are interested with the exoneration services, according to those who authored the analysis, who note in their own self-reports that they were convinced Pastor Terrence Devein of the police of the United Kingdom and Missionary Baptist Church in Detroit says that he acknowledges that wrongdoing by law enforcement agents is unfair, but they are most involved in securing a charge, particularly though it entails an innocent citizen heading to jail. It is devoid of all heart and humanity because they would never know whether it is their loved ones are in danger. There are many routes we should take to increase the size of our congregations. Apart from just praying, we must explore other avenues to find more individuals to flock to our faith. stated he considered services like the Wayne County Prosecutor’s Conviction Integrity Unit a first step toward getting justice for innocent individuals who have been convicted. This website will include details on the number of police, prosecutors, and other governmental officials, who have committed crimes by specifically as well as their agencies in addition to track their locations through which it will all be available to the public. Misconduct Several official corruptions could have culminated in the wrongful prosecutions of those subsequently found to be innocent of their allegations. As the likelihood of a certain type of wrongdoing increases, the rate of that it increases as well. this research indicates that withholding exculpatory information is the most frequently discovered wrongdoing in post-conviction proceedings, of which the individuals typically challenge, accounted for 44% of the overall exonerations found. While Whites who had their charges expunged were still far more likely to see their innocence confirmed, African Americans who had their convictions reexamined had a small improvement in the probability of being innocent of being charged with wrongdoing. Police officers find data in 35% of instances to be tainted in samples. most of the witnesses, as well as all of the bad questioning, as well as the much of the testimony that was fabricated. prosecutors, 30% of the time, who perjured themselves in 30% of the situations. Many of the exculpatory material was kept out of the public eye, and there was also significant tampering with witnesses by the whole time of the proceedings. although the number of instances of prosecutors and police brutality is roughly the same in the same of all state and federal court courts, prosecutors had performed misconduct at a pace twice as great as their colleagues. Seven times as many white-collar lawyers as officers were found to have undertaken corruption when conducting investigations into white- or blue-collar offenses. Trusting the Criminal Justice System The integrity within our criminal justice system is a function of its power to punish convicted parties as well as exonerate the innocent. As I say, but we also realize that those who are falsely accused are victimized as well as those who have done nothing wrong. All of the effects of a false prosecution are for the wrongfully accused as well as the surviving victims and the victims being that it extends far and impacts to the extended. Though there has been a lot of focus on the underlying causes of false prosecutions, there has been relatively few on the follow-up effect: people who were falsely incarcerated for decades will get their tales told in the documentary Exactly Wrong: The Aftermath of Mistaken Convictions. It uses multiple speakers from the past sessions to provide the attendees with an opportunity to talk about life changes after false convictions, and the effects on them today. Alternative Solutions Look at “Just Plain Wrong” to see the tales of three people who have their life permanently altered after being incarcerated due to a false prosecution. When the false prosecution is resolved, the immediate demands are to extend and meet all the interests of the exonerated and the initial victims of crime. There are many obstacles now ahead for many who have been exonerated as well as for others still in the system and fighting for justice in the criminal justice system These people, moreover, come from all walks of life and experience, having been proven innocent of the crimes that victimized them as well as having suffered much pain and suffering, have an essential need for targeted attention, personalized care. Whenever a specific person or a community are proven innocent, citizens are viewed as if they have been defrauded. Whether a person or people are found guilty, they can be regarded as defrauded, while a class verdict demonstrates a lack of justice. At the conference, many topics came up which were important to their interests. There is a vital need for help in the procedures leading up to and after a false verdict as well as encouragement in order to obtain a right one. You must take precautions to protect your identity and educate yourself on how to communicate with the media after being wrongly convicted. Words used in the press can injure victims and suspects while exonerating them. When critics have labeled us, we have always been wronged in one manner or another. Remember how it feels when you have been found guilty of a felony you only to have your self-esteem undermined as well consequently. A significant demand for an array of resources like emotional and physical wellbeing care and having all of those who have done their sentence and those who have been given a “exoneration” to pursue new accommodation and work preparation, as well as availability of new identity. Additionally, this sort of help is important for those that have suffered false trials, but the assistance that those that are either in jail or newly released offer to those who have been through the criminal justice system to be overlooked in the situations of those that have had their sentences reversed is not always provided to those that have been proven innocent. The standards for these programs may be re- or could be reviewed, and assistance for those of a false prosecution victim may be made accessible, even on a different basis. Concerns were raised at the dialogue session regarding false convictions and advocacy for the innocent; third, people had there are many points of our criminal justice system that it does not fulfill its stated purpose, avoiding wrongful trials and aiding others who have already been wronged. We at NIJ have no choice but to go ahead and to truly recognize the consequences of false convictions, but still work to improve solutions to stop them from occurring and provide initial claimants and others who have been wrongfully accused with the assistance they need with better lives. To improve our educational system and our medical schools issues must be completed. It is important that we reconstruct our social safety net. Finally, it is imperative that the criminal justice system no longer be permitted to keep up with its past practices, which has previously perpetuated oppression against people in minority groups of the United States. Conclusion “The Criminal Interdiction Unit (CIU) | mpdc.” https://mpdc.dc.gov/ciu. caused by government misconduct, a study finds. The Washington Post. Cavanaugh, M. & Lane, P. (2012). The quality of a legal defense: Does it matter if you are rich or poor? [Audio clip]. On KPBS Midday Edition. Jon B. Gould. The Innocence Commission : Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. NYU Press; 2008. Accessed March 6, 2021. https://search-ebscohost-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsebk&AN=219442&site=eds-live&scope=siteAuthor, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume #(issue #), pp–pp. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx Collica, K. & Furst, G. (2012). Crime & society [Electronic version] https://content.ashford.edu Colvin, E. (2009). Convicting the innocent: A critique of theories of wrongful convictions. Conviction Integrity Unit (CIU).” https://jeffcobessemerda.org/conviction-integrity-unit/. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17, 468-492. Google Scholar | SAGE journals. Criminal Justice System, New York University Press, 2007. ProQuest E-book Central, Criminal Law Forum, 20(2-3), 173-192. DOI:http://dx.doi.org.proxy- David Lazer. DNA and the Criminal Justice System : The Technology of Justice. The MIT Press; 2004. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://search-ebscohost-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsebk&AN=472623&site=eds-live&scope=siteAuthor, A. (Year). Title of work. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of eBooks/detail.action?docID=865483. Foglia WD, Connell NM. Distrust and Empathy: Explaining the Lack of Support for Capital Punishment Among Minorities. Criminal Justice Review (Sage Publications). 2019;44(2):204-230. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://search-ebscohost-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=136224562&site=eds-live&scope=siteAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. http://doi.org/xxx.xxxx.xxxxxxxx anthology. Publisher. https://non-database-URL (Original work published date) Gould, Jon B. The Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/lib/ashford- https://www.waynecounty.com/elected/prosecutor/conviction-integrity-unit.aspx. Huff, C. R., Rattner, A., & Sagarin, E. (1996). Convicted but innocent: Wrongful conviction and Jackman, T. (2020, September 16). More than half of all wrongful criminal convictions are Kaplan AB, Paracel JC. It is Not a Match: Why the Law Can’t Let Go of Junk Science. Albany Law Review. 2017;81(3):895-939. Accessed March 28, 2021. https://search-ebscohost-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=130844376&site=eds-live&scope=siteAuthor, A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. Director, A. (Director). (Year). public policy. SAGE Publications, Inc., https://www-doi-org.proxy- Zalman, M. (2006). Criminal justice system reform and wrongful conviction: A research agenda.