Introduction to Emergency Management

Introduction to Emergency Management

Fourth Edition

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Introduction to Emergency Management

Fourth Edition

George D. Haddow

Jane A. Bullock

Damon P. Coppola


Butterworth -Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier

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Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods or professional practices, may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information or methods described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Haddow , George D.

Introduction to emergency management / George D. Haddow, Jane A. Bullock, Damon P. Coppola. — 4th ed.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-85617-959-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Emergency management. 2. Emergency management — United States. 3. Communication in management. I. Bullock, Jane A. II. Coppola, Damon P. III. Title. HV551.2.H3 2010 363.34�80973 — dc22 2010014614

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN : 978-1-85617-959-1

Printed in the United States of America

10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

For information on all BH publications visit our website at

This book is dedicated to Lacy Suiter. Lacy taught us all the responsibility, privilege, and honor of serving people as emergency managers. He singlehandedly made emergency management an important discipline to the safety of our citizens. He was a gentleman, a mentor, a teacher, a cheerleader, and an impromptu singer, but most of all, he was the best friend anyone could ever have.

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Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Introduction xvii

1 . The Historical Context of Emergency Management 1

What You’ll Learn 1

Introduction 1

Early History: 1800 – 1950 2

The Cold War and the Rise of Civil Defense: the 1950s 3

Changes to Emergency Management: the 1960s 4

The Call for a National Focus on Emergency

Management: the 1970s 5

Civil Defense Reappears as Nuclear Attack Planning: the 1980s 8

An Agency in Trouble: 1989 – 1992 9

The Witt Revolution: 1993 – 2001 10

Terrorism: 2001 12

The Steps Leading to the Katrina Debacle 20

Post-Katrina Changes 20

The Future Environment of Emergency Management 23

Important Terms 26

Self-Check Questions 26

Out-of-Class Exercise 27

2 . Natural and Technological Hazards and Risk Assessment 29

What You Will Learn 29

Introduction 29

Natural Hazards 30

Technological Hazards 51

viii Contents

Chemical 56

Biological 56

Radiological 57

Nuclear 58

Hazards Risk Management 59

Risk Management Technology 62

Social and Economic Risk Factors 62

Conclusion 64

Important Terms 65

Self-Check Questions 66

Out-of-Class Exercises 67

3 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Mitigation 69

What You’ll Learn 69

Introduction 69

Mitigation Tools 70

Hazard Identification and Mapping 73

Impediments to Mitigation 83

Federal Mitigation Programs 84

The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program 91

Nonfederal Mitigation Grant Programs 93

Conclusion 93

Important Terms 94

Self-Check Questions 94

Out-of-Class Exercises 94

4 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Preparedness 97

What You’ll Learn 97

Introduction 97

A Systems Approach: The Preparedness Cycle 98

Mitigation versus Preparedness 102

Preparedness: The Emergency Operations Plan 102

Education and Training Programs 107

Emergency Management Exercises 111

Evaluation and Improvement 114

Contents ix

Preparedness: A National Effort 116

Preparedness Grant Programs 118

Business Continuity Planning and Emergency Management 121

Conclusion 123

Important Terms 130

Self-Check Questions 130

Out-of-Class Exercises 130

5 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Communications 133

What You’ll Learn 133

Introduction 133

The Mission 134

Audiences/Customers 139

Communicating in the Era of Homeland Security 140

Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World 142

Building an Effective Disaster Communications Capability in a

Changing Media World 151

Creating Effective Disaster Communications 151

Conclusion 162

Important Terms 163

Self-Check Questions 163

Out-of-Class Exercises 163

6 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Response 165

What You’ll Learn 165

Introduction 165

Local Response 171

State Response 172

Volunteer Group Response 173

Incident Command System 175

The Federal Response 178

Federal Assistance 185

Key Federal Response Officials 203

Other FEMA Response Resources 206

The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) 209

x Contents

Conclusion 210

Important Terms 211

Self-Check Questions 211

Out-of-Class Exercises 212

7 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Recovery 213

What You’ll Learn 213

Introduction 213

The National Response Framework for Disaster Recovery

Operations 220

FEMA’s Individual Assistance Recovery Programs 226

FEMA’s Public Assistance Grant Programs 232

Other Federal Agency Disaster Recovery Funding 236

Recovery Planning Tools 240

Long-Term Recovery Planning Annex 241

Community Long-Term Recovery

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