Infectious disease ppt

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using the document attached create a PPT  for each topic described, and 1 slide for student information, etc ( 1st slide  and 1 slide for references at the end).

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Infectious Disease

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Infectious Disease

Infectious diseases remain a significant public health problem despite advances in prevention, treatment, and control (Zortea et al., 2020). The focus on infectious diseases has declined in recent years in terms of research funding and public awareness. This is troubling, given these diseases’ continued threat to global health. With the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the reemergence of old foes such as measles, it is clear that individuals cannot afford to take a hands-off approach to infectious diseases. Only through a sustained commitment to prevention, treatment, and control will we be able to address this complex and ever-changing problem. According to Blomström-Lundqvist et al. (2020), infectious diseases are a massive burden on society, costing billions of dollars in healthcare costs and lost productivity. They are also a leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for millions of deaths yearly. There is a great need for better prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens, which are microorganisms that can invade the body and cause disease. According to Agrebi and Larbi (2020), these pathogens can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by vaccinations and good hygiene (Agrebi & Larbi, 2020). However, even with these measures, infectious diseases are still a significant problem worldwide. There are many challenges in treating infectious diseases. First, many of the most effective treatments are expensive. Second, some pathogens resist the drugs currently used to treat them. This is a major problem because treatments may become less effective over time. Finally, some infectious diseases are difficult to diagnose, which can delay treatment and lead to worse outcomes.

Healthy People 2030 is a national initiative that provides a roadmap for improving the health of all Americans. The initiative sets forth a vision for a healthier nation and establishes national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans (Heffernan et al., 2019). The Healthy People 2030 initiative is based on the premise that all Americans should have the opportunity to live long and healthy life. The initiative sets forth a vision for a healthier nation and establishes national goals and objectives for improving the health of all Americans. One of the goals of Healthy People 2030 is to reduce the spread of infectious diseases (Healthy People 2030, n.d). One way to reduce the spread of infectious diseases is to promote vaccination and immunization programs (Petrosillo, 2020). Vaccination and immunization programs help reduce the number of people susceptible to diseases. Another way to reduce the spread of infectious diseases is to promote hygiene and cleanliness (Agrebi & Larbi, 2020). Hand-washing, for example, is a critical way to reduce the spread of germs and bacteria.

Social Determinant Risk Factors

Global epidemics of infectious diseases have increased in frequency and severity over the last few decades (Findlater & Bogoch, 2018). As a result, there is an increasing need to understand the social determinants that influence their spread and impact on human health. Poverty is one of the social determinants and risk factors of infectious diseases. Poverty can lead to poor nutrition and weaken the immune system, making people more susceptible to infection. Poor living conditions can lead to a lack of access to clean water, leading to the spread of waterborne diseases (Haleem et al., 2018). It is also interesting to note that the lack of money or resources available to people who are poor can make it difficult for them to find medical treatment when they become sick with an infection. This can lead to severe illness and death if they do not receive proper treatment.

The opioid epidemic has exacerbated rising infectious disease rates by increasing the number of people who use injection drugs (Vaida, 2018). This has increased the number of people at risk for contracting HIV and other blood-borne diseases. In addition, the opioid epidemic has also contributed to the spread of hepatitis C, as people who use injection drugs are more likely to share needles. The increased use of opioids has also been linked to an increase in the number of people who contract bacterial infections, as people who use opioids are more likely to suffer from skin infections (Vaida, 2018). The opioid epidemic has also contributed to the resurgence of tuberculosis, as people who use injection drugs are more likely to contract the disease. The increased use of opioids has also been linked to an increase in the number of people who suffer from mental health problems. The opioid epidemic has also had a negative impact on the economy, as the increased use of opioids has led to an increase in the number of unemployed people (Vaida, 2018).

Lack of access to healthcare can make it challenging to get timely diagnosis and treatment for infectious diseases (Manderson & Wahlberg, 2020). It is important to note that If people do not have access to health services, they cannot receive treatment for communicable diseases that could spread throughout the community. Furthermore, Uninsured individuals may not have access to preventative care like vaccines or regular checkups that could help prevent infections from spreading into their bodies and spreading more efficiently throughout their community. According to Greenway and Castelli (2019), overcrowded living conditions can spread infectious diseases through close contact with others. Crowded living conditions mean that people will likely be exposed to other people’s germs more often than they should, which increases their chances of getting sick or passing bad vibes onto others around them (such as coughing or sneezing). By understanding these social determinant risk factors, we can take steps to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases in our communities.

Health Risk/Problem

Several strategies can be implemented to prevent infectious diseases. Primary prevention strategies involve reducing the risk of exposure to infectious agents, while secondary prevention strategies focus on the early detection and treatment of infections. Some methods that can be used to reduce the rate of hospital admissions for UTIs among older people include vaccination against pneumococcal disease (Petrosillo, 2020), education about proper handwashing techniques, and adequate hydration. Other ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases include Prompt identification and treatment of infection sites, prompt isolation of infected individuals, and implementation of contact tracing programs. These strategies are essential for reducing the burden of infectious diseases and protecting vulnerable populations. According to Healthy People 2030, infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide, and the strategies for preventing them are constantly evolving. One of the most important things one can do to prevent infection is to practice good hygiene (Heffernan et al., 2019). This means washing their hands regularly, avoiding contact with people who are sick and disinfecting surfaces that may be contaminated.

One should also be vaccinated against common infections such as influenza and pneumonia. Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent infectious diseases (Findlater & Bogoch, 2018). Vaccines work by protecting people from the diseases they are vaccinated against. When enough people are vaccinated, it helps to create herd immunity, protecting even those who cannot vaccinate. In addition, if an individual is traveling to an area with a risk of contracting a disease, they are highly advised to take precautions (Findlater & Bogoch, 2018), such as wearing mosquito netting and avoiding contact with wildlife. By taking these simple steps, one can significantly reduce their risk of becoming sick. It is also vital to reduce tuberculosis and pertussis cases among infants. In order to achieve these goals, several strategies must be implemented. For tuberculosis, this includes increased coverage of BCG vaccination (Petrosillo, 2020), increased access to diagnosis and treatment, and reduced risk factors for exposure. For pertussis, it includes increased coverage of childhood vaccinations and strengthening surveillance and outbreak response capacity.

Healthy People 2030 Goal

The goal of Healthy People 2030 is to reduce rates of infectious diseases and improve health for people with chronic infections (Healthy People 2030, n.d). This goal correlates with infectious diseases because it seeks to improve the population’s overall health by reducing the incidence of these diseases. While the goal to reduce rates of infectious diseases is undoubtedly a laudable one, it is crucial to keep in mind that people with chronic infections are especially vulnerable to contracting new diseases. This is because their immune systems are already compromised, making it difficult for their bodies to fight off new infections. As a result, it is essential to focus on preventing new infections and providing treatment for those who already have chronic infections. Only by taking a comprehensive approach will it be possible to achieve the goal of reducing rates of infectious diseases. The rationale behind this goal is to reduce the burden of these diseases on the population. Infectious diseases can be debilitating and even deadly, so reducing their rates can significantly impact public health. Chronic infections can also lead to serious health complications, so improving health for people with these conditions can improve their quality of life. This goal is essential because it can help improve the health of the population as a whole. Reducing the rates of infectious diseases can lead to fewer people becoming sick and fewer people dying from these diseases.

Evidence-Based Intervention to Address the Healthy People 2030 Goal

One evidence-based intervention that can be used to address this goal is mHealth or mobile health. According to Bao et al. (2022), mHealth uses mobile technologies, such as text messaging and apps, to deliver health information and services. mHealth interventions are effective in various settings, including maternal and child health, mental health, and chronic disease management (Bao et al., 2022). For example, one study found that a text messaging intervention effectively reduced anxiety and depression symptoms among pregnant women. Another study found that an app-based intervention helped to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes. mHealth interventions are particularly well-suited to reach underserved populations, as they can be delivered remotely without needing in-person contact. As such, mHealth holds great promise for addressing the Healthy People 2030 goal.

Measurable Objective to Address The Healthy People 2030 Goal

The goal of reducing rates of infectious diseases is important, as these diseases can cause significant harm to both individual patients and the population at large (Heffernan et al., 2019). There are many ways to measure this goal, but one vital metric is the incidence rate of infectious diseases. This rate can be calculated by dividing the number of new cases of an infection by the total population at risk. By tracking the incidence rate of infectious diseases over time, it will be possible to gauge whether efforts to reduce these diseases impact them. Additionally, this metric can compare infection rates between different populations or geographic areas. By monitoring the incidence rate of infectious diseases, it will be possible to make progress toward reducing these diseases and improving the health of all Americans.

References

Agrebi, S., & Larbi, A. (2020). Use of artificial intelligence in infectious diseases. In 
Artificial intelligence in precision health (pp. 415-438). Academic Press.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-817133-2.00018-5

Bao, Y., Wang, C., Xu, H., Lai, Y., Yan, Y., Ma, Y., … & Wu, Y. (2022). Effects of a mHealth intervention for pulmonary tuberculosis self-management based on the integrated theory of health behavior change: randomized controlled trial. 
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
8(7), e34277.doi: 
10.2196/34277

Blomström-Lundqvist, C., Traykov, V., Erba, P. A., Burri, H., Nielsen, J. C., Bongiorni, M. G., … & Strathmore, N. (2020). European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) international consensus document on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cardiac implantable electronic device infections—endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS), International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in collaboration with the European Association for …. 
EP Europace
22(4), 515-549.
https://doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz246

Findlater, A., & Bogoch, I. I. (2018). Human mobility and the global spread of infectious diseases: a focus on air travel. 
Trends in Parasitology
34(9), 772-783.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2018.07.004

Greenaway, C., & Castelli, F. (2019). Infectious diseases at different stages of migration: An expert review. 
Journal of Travel Medicine
26(2), taz007.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taz007

Haleem, S., Niaz, S., Qureshi, N. A., Ullah, R., Alsaid, M. S., Alqahtani, A. S., & Shahat, A. A. (2018). Incidence, risk factors, and epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis: A complex socioecological emerging infectious disease in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Province of Pakistan. 
BioMed Research International
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https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5042430

Healthy People 2030. (n.d.). Infectious Disease.
https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/infectious-disease

Heffernan, M., Fromknecht, C. Q., McGowan, A. K., Blakey, C., & Oppenheimer, C. C. (2019). Healthy People for the 21st century: understanding use of Healthy People 2020 as a web-based initiative. 
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice
25(2), 121-127. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000784

Manderson, L., & Wahlberg, A. (2020). Chronic living in a communicable world. 
Medical Anthropology
39(5), 428-439.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01459740.2020.1761352

Petrosillo, N. (2020). Introducing infectious disease reports: Past, present and future.
Infectious Disease Reports,
12(3), 132–133.
https://doi.org/10.3390/idr12030024

Vaida, B. (2018).
Connecting the dots between social determinants and infectious diseases. Association of Health Care Journalists.
https://healthjournalism.org/blog/2018/09/connecting-the-dots-between-social-determinants-and-infectious-diseases/#:~:text=Infected%20needles%2C%20unprotected%20sex%2C%20homelessness

Zortea, T. C., Brenna, C. T., Joyce, M., McClelland, H., Tippett, M., Tran, M. M., … & Platt, S. (2020). The impact of infectious disease-related public health emergencies on suicide, suicidal behavior, and suicidal thoughts. 
Crisis.
https://doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000753

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