In this assignment, you will use PowerPoint to create a detailed diagram and timeline of eight domestic and international terrorist events that have occurred. Four events must have occurred before 9/11, and four events must be from after 9/11.
Further, you will be required to submit a paragraph that provides a brief synopsis of each terrorist event. Therefore, at least eight paragraphs should be present in your submission. Your synopsis of each event must include the following information.
Who was the terrorist or terrorist organization?
What was the terrorist’s or terrorist organization’s motive(s)?
Where did the terrorist events take place? Why did the terrorist or terrorist organization launch this attack?
When did the attack occur?
How did the terrorist or terrorist organization complete this attack? What tactics were used?
The length of the timeline will depend on how you organize the points. There is no specific length requirement as long as the criteria are met. You are required to use at least your textbook as an outside source. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to APA guidelines.
Please follow the directives to the letter. Study Guide attached
In this assignment, you will use PowerPoint to create a detailed diagram and timeline of eight domestic and international terrorist events that have occurred. Four events must have occurred before 9/1
MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 1 Cou rse Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 2. Explain in detail the events leading up to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. 2.1 Explain a sequence of events that led up to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. 2.2 Explain a sequence of events that followed the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. 5. Analyze global threats posed by terrorism. 5.1 Identify a significant event on the recruitment and radicalization process of lone wolf terrorists in the domestic United States and abroad. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 2.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit II Project 2.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit II Project 5.1 Chapter 13 Unit II Research Paper Topic Reading Assignment Chapter 13: An Introduction to Homeland Security Chapter 14: Organizing Homeland Security Unit Lesson Introduction: Terrorism Pre -9/11 and the Restructuring of the U.S. Federal Government After 9/11 It is important to understand that both domestic and international terrorism existed long before the September 11, 2001 , attacks. As you learned previously, t errorism has existed globally since the 11th century. However, it was the events of 9/11 that changed how the United States prepared for and responded to terrorist events through resiliency and reactionary -based planning. President George W. Bush restructu red the entire federal government in October 2001 due to the 9/11 attacks (U.S. Department of Homeland Security [DHS] , 2011 a). Further, the 9/11 terrorist attacks also changed how intelligence is shared between local, state, and fede ral agencies. In additi on to government agencies, the communication processes were changed among the tribal and private sector s as well. The 9/11 Commission Report and other publications have demonstrated that prior to 9/11, the communication and intelligence sharing that took p lace between government agencies and the private sector was subpar. This course lesson will discuss the revelations of the 9/11 Commission Report , provide examples of attacks that took place by Al Qaeda prior to 9/11, review the role and mission of the DHS because of the 9/11 events, discuss the Quadrennial Homeland Security Review (QHSR), and discuss the operational and support components of the DHS . UNIT II STUDY GUIDE Examining Terrorism Pre -9/11 MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The 9/11 Commission Report The 9/11 Commission Report was written by an independent commission created by congressional legislation endorsed by President George W. Bush to document the incidents that led up to the 9/11 attacks and to outline the full extent of the events that took place that day. The report was completed by reviewing tens of thousands of pages of documents, publications, interrogations, interviews, and other data sources from local, state, and federal government agencies. The report highlighted glaring concerns that existed well before 9/11 and the faults that existed in the intelligence sharing process between public and private sectors. In addition to highlighting the events of 9/11, the commission was tas ked with determining preparedness activities for the attacks and ways of immediate resp onse (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 2004 ). The 9/11 Commission Report is broken down into 13 specific sections , which are represented in the graphic below. The report covers both the threats and the responses to those threats. The events of 9/11 caused the United States to evaluate its national security in a new way, and this report sums up this process. If you would like to review the full 9/11 Commission Report , click on the link below. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). The 9/11 Commission report . Retrieved from https://www.9 -11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf Examples of Terrorist Events Leading to 9/11 There were several terrorist events that took place pri or to 9/11. Many of these terrorist attacks were orchestrated and carried out by Al Qaeda and were highlighted in the 9/11 Commission Report . These attacks are considered by scholars and researchers to be the deadliest attacks carried out by Al Qaeda on U.S. targets prior to the 9/11 attacks. 9/11 Commission Report components (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 2004 ) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Example #1: The 1998 U.S. Embassy bombi ngs took place in Kenya and Tanzania by truck bombs that left more than 200 innocent people dead (Central Intelligence Agency [CIA] , 2018 ). These attacks were led by Osama bin Laden and Ayman al -Zawahiri of Al Qaeda. Example #2 : The October 12, 2000 , attack on the USS Cole by Al Qaeda left 17 U .S. Navy sailors dea d and injured more than 40 others (Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] , 2016 ). To date, it is the deadliest attack against a U.S. Navy warship. The DHS and the QHSR The DHS (2011a ) was established on October 7, 2001 , in response to the attacks of 9/11. The vision of the DHS is to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards. The DHS ( 2011c ) outlines th e three key concepts that form the vision to include security , resilience , and customs and exchange . When discussing the term resilience in the vision and mission of the DHS, it is imperative to understand that to be resilient, a nation must also have a clear set of reactionary -based planning tactics and str ategies in place. To be resilient, the United States should understand, interpret, and prepare for any imminent types of terrorist attacks toward critical infrastructures ( e.g., U.S. embassies, overseas military installations, allied targets) that could oc cur on U.S. soil or abroad . The QHSR is a clear set of five missions , which allows the DHS to meet its goals to prevent, to protect, to respond, and to recover from domestic and international terrorist incidents (DHS , 2011b ). The core missions of the QHS R have been outlined below (D HS , 2011c) . Mission 1 – Prevent terrorism and enhanc e security: This mission focuses on preventing terrorist attacks against the United States and its critical infrastructures. This mission is completed through effective counterterrorism tactics and strategies (D HS , 2012). One of the key ways that its mission is completed is by ensuring that access to weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), to include chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosiv e material , is controlled with the highest priority. If access to these types of weapons is restricted , the vulnerabilities that exist to critical infrastructures in the United States and abroad are decreased . The DHS discusses that this specific mission i s not only applicable to general domestic homeland security but also to the following areas of security: aviation, cargo screening, and global partnerships with other foreign governments (D HS , 2012 ). Mission 2 – Secure and manage our borders: This mission focuses on protecting and effectively managing the borders of the Unit ed States, to include the Canada and Mexic o borders . Local, state, and federal agencies work together to protect the air, land, and sea to prevent criminal activity and acts of terroris m from occurring in the domestic United States. According to the D HS (2009c ), this mission focuses on three key goals that include securing air , land , and sea ; ensuring travel and trade fall within the parameters of U.S. law ; and disrupting transnational crimin als and terrorists . Three components of the DHS (DHS , 2011c ) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title In regard to trusted travel programs , the DHS developed several pre -screening programs after the attacks of 9/11. These screening programs were de sign ed to ensure that enhanced security practices are being followed when traveling inside and outside the United States. The trusted travel programs include the following screenings (D HS , 2017 ). Global Entry: This screening program is used when entering the United States from international locations. Kiosks can be used to clear U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Pre -Check : This screening program is used when traveling within the borders of the U nited States or abroad and permits travelers to not have to remove certain clothing, shoes, laptops, and belts. Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI): This screening program is used for individuals who travel extensively from Me xico into the United States. NEXUS: This screening program is used for individuals who travel between the United States and Canada. FAST (North or South): This screening program is for commercial truck drivers who transport low – level and risk shipment s into the United States from both Mexico and Canada. For additional information on domestic trusted travel programs endorsed and managed by the D HS , click the link below. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ( 2017 ). Trusted traveler programs. Retrieved fro m https://www.dhs.gov/trusted -traveler -programs Mission 3 – Enforce and administer immigration laws : This mission focuses on enforcing immigration laws in the United States. In recent times, the DHS has reformed several immigration policies and laws. This mission seeks to enforce the law on those who are criminal aliens and those who pose a threat to socie ty (D HS , 2009a ). Additionally, this mission focuses on employers who violate immigration laws and policies set forth to protect the citizens of the United States. One of the most important areas of this mission is directing efforts to counter human smuggli ng and trafficking across the Mexico and Canada borders. The DHS (2013) defines human trafficking as “modern -day slavery and involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labor or commercial sex act” (para. 1) . Human trafficking has a significant impact on society as it generates billions of dollars for criminals and terrorists. Miss ion 4 – Safeguard and secure cyberspace: This mission focuses on the importance of securing cyberspace in the public and private sectors. The D HS leads the effort of securing federal computer systems and networks. Today’s cyberspace is considered one of the top critical infrastructures and needs attention globally. This mission focuses on three key goals : analyzing and reducing cyber securit y threa ts and risks; communicating cyber threat warnings to all local, state, and federal agencies , includ ing the p rivate sector; and coordinating effective and efficient ways to respond to critical incidents on core computer systems, networks, and government sof tware applications. This ensures that cybercrimes and terrorism are addressed while securing public and private cyber networks (D HS , 2009b ). Mission 5 – Ensure resilience during disasters : This mission focuses on the DHS’s federal response efforts in the event of a terrorist attack, national disaster, or other small – to large -scale incidents (DHS, 2011b) . This mission also ensures that local, state, federal, tribal, and private agencies and organizations work together in an efficient manner to decrease th e impact that these events have on U.S. citizens. The DHS completes this task through three goals: streamlining information sharing , providing education and training to the public and government agencies , and rebuilding and recovery along the Gulf Coast of the United States. The DHS Operational and Support Components Prior to 9/11, the DHS did not exist. Federal government agencies were run as independent agencies , and collaboration between organizations took place as needed. The events that led up to 9/1 1 exhibited that a restructuring of the federal government needed to take place. As outlined above, the DHS was established Airport security (Wynn, n. d.) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title immediately following the events of 9/11. The DHS is made up of the following operational and support components . Conclusion In sum mary , terrorism has changed drastically since 9/11. The terrorist events that took place leading up to 9/11 demonstrated that Al Qaeda was well -organized and well -funded. In addition, the response to the 9/11 attacks confirmed that intelligence -sharing gaps and errors occurred among local, state, and federal government agencies. As a result, the 9/11 Commission ’s restructuring of the federal government had to take place, and this began with the est ablishment of the D HS . The commission’s r eport revealed that resiliency and reactionary -based methods that were in place were not working and th at significant improvements were needed. References Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). 20th anniversary of the US Embassy bombings in East Africa. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/news -information/featured -story -archive/2018 -featured -story – archive/anniversary -of-us -embassy -bombings -in-east -africa.html Federal Bureau of Investigation. ( 2016 ). USS Cole bombing . Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous -cases/uss -cole -bombing National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. ( 2004). The 9/11 Commission report . Retrieved from https://www.9 -11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf U.S. Depart ment of Homeland Security. ( 2009 a). Enforce and administer our immigration laws. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/administer -immigration -laws U.S. Depart ment of Homeland Security. ( 2009 b). Safeguard and secure cyberspace. Retrieved from https://www.dhs. gov/safeguard -and -secure -cyberspace The DHS operati onal and s upport components (DHS, 2015 ) MCJ 6453, Global Terrorism 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title U.S. Depart ment of Homeland Security. ( 2009 c). Secure and manage our borders. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/secure -and -manage -borders U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011a). Creation of the Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/creation -department -homeland -security U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011b). Ensure resilience to disasters. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/building -resilient -nation U.S. Department of Hom eland Security. (2011c) . Our mission. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/our – mission U.S. Depart ment of Homeland Security. ( 2012 ). Prevent terrorism and enhance security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/prevent -terrorism -and -enhance -security U.S. Depa rtment of Homeland Security. (2013). W hat is human trafficking? Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/blue -campaign/what -human -trafficking U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2015). Operational and support components. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/op erational -and -support -components U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017). Trusted traveler programs. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/trusted -traveler -programs Wy nn, M. K. (n.d.). Airport security ( ID 2244631 ) [Photograph]. Retrieved from https:// www.dreamstime.com/stock -image -airport -security -image2244631 Suggested Reading In order to access the following resources, click the links below. In the unit lesson, we discussed the 9/11 Commission Report , which was created after the 9/11 attacks. If you would like to review the full report, use the link below . National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). 9/11 Commission report . Retrieved from https://www.9 -11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf Within the unit lesson, we discussed the different trusted traveler programs managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) . If you would like to review the full list in detail, please use the link below. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ( 2017 ). Trusted traveler programs. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/trusted -traveler -programs Learning Activities (Nong raded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Reflect on the role and mission of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The role and mission of the DHS was established in 2001. Do you believe that the role, mission, and focus of the DHS should be revised based on the new domestic and international terrorism threats that exist now and m oving forward? Why, or why not?