Human growth

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After reading Chapters 1 through 10, how would you compare growth between children and adolescents? Provide examples from the book. Be elaborative with your answer. 

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What is Lifespan Development?

LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

  • Field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the lifespan.

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  • Remind students that LD involves study of ways in which we stay the same, as well as ways we grow and change over time.
  • Ask: In what ways is a person different when he is one week old and 100 years old? Now ask, how is this person the same?

Specialists in Lifespan Development

Focus

  • Biological processes
  • Genetic endowment
  • Cognitive development
  • Physical growth
  • Social development

Assumptions about Developmental Study

  • Scientific, developmental approach that focuses on continuous human development
  • Every period of life contains potential for growth and decline in abilities
  • Process of development persists throughout every part of people’s lives
  • Neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of human develop

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  • Scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development
  • Neither heredity nor environment alone can account for the full range of human develop
  • Development is continuing process throughout lifespan
  • Every period of life contains potential for growth and decline in abilities
  • Process of development persists throughout every part of people’s lives

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Table 1-1. Approaches to Lifespan Development

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*Numbers in parentheses indicate in which chapter the question is addressed.

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The Scope of the Field: Age and Range Differences

  • Prenatal period
  • Infancy and toddlerhood
  • Middle childhood
  • Adolescence
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Young adulthood
  • Middle adulthood
  • Late adulthood

Paint a Word Picture

Take a few minutes to quickly write down a phrase that describes each developmental period.

Share with your classmates.

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  • Ask: Are your conceptions of each of these broad age ranges the same as, similar to, or different than the authors. For example, if you are 19, do you still consider yourself an adolescent? How might your personal conceptions influence your interpretation of different age ranges presented in the text?
  • Ask: What role do individual differences play in the timing of events in people’s life? Can you give an example?

Cultural Factors and Developmental Diversity

Broad factors

  • Orientation toward individualism or collectivism

Finer differences

  • Ethnicity
  • Race
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Gender

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  • See How Cultural, Ethnicity, and Race Influence Development on page7
  • Define:
  • INDIVIUDALISM
  • COLLECTIVISM
  • RACE
  • ETHNIC GROUP and ETHNICITY

Key Issues in Field of Development

  • Continuous vs. discontinuous change
  • Critical periods vs. sensitive periods
  • Lifespan approach vs. particular periods approach
  • Nature vs. nurture

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  • (See Table 1-2)
  • CONTINUOUS VERSUS DISCONTINUOUS: define each term; either/or position is not appropriate.
  • CRITICAL VERSUS SENSITIVE: Define each term; both occur in development.
  • LIFESPAN APPROACH VERSUS FOCUS ON PARTICULAR PERIOD: Discuss each approach; encourage students to think about how these approaches may have changed over time.
  • RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF NATURE AND NURTURE ON DEVELOPMENT: Define each term; explain how nature is related to maturation; discuss why INTERACTION of genetic and environmental factors is complex and important in the understanding of human development.

Table 1-2. Major Issues in Lifespan Development

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Table 1-3 Freud’s and Erikson’s Theories

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Perspectives, Theories, and Approaches

Second, we can match theories and approaches with each perspective:

  • Psychodynamic
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Psychosocial
  • Behavioral
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Social-Cognitive Learning

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  • Each perspective:
  • emphasizes somewhat different aspects of development
  • steers developmentalists in particular directions
  • continues to evolve and change

Perspectives, Theories, and Approaches (continued)

  • Cognitive
  • Information Processing
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Humanistic
  • Contextual
  • Bioecological
  • Sociocultural
  • Evolutionary

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We will use theory maps that contain the following sections:

  • Perspective
  • Theory
  • Theorist
  • What develops
  • How development proceeds
  • Principles
  • Key terms

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  • Maps can be distributed for students to complete, completed with input from class, or presented in pre-completed format.

Theory Map

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Theory Map

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Psychodynamic Perspective: Assessing

Widely Accepted

FREUD

Notion of unconscious influences accepted by many

ERIKSON

Notion of development throughout lifespan receives considerable support

Widely Questioned or Rejected

FREUD

Effects of childhood stages on later development not validated

Generalizability to broader, multicultural populations not supported

Primary focus on male development criticized

ERIKSON

More focus on men than women

Vague and difficult to test rigorously in some parts

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  • Slogan for Psychodynamic Perspective: “Good past behavior described; imprecise future predicted”

Theory Map

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  • Define: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Theory Map

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  • Define: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Theory Map

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  • Define: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Behavioral Perspective: Assessing

Widely Accepted

WATSON AND SKINNER

Based on observable behaviors that are easier to quantify in research

Contributions to educational techniques for children with severe mental retardation

Widely Questioned or Rejected

WATSON AND SKINNER

Social learning theorists suggest oversimplification

Behaviorism does not account for free will, internal influences (e.g., moods, thoughts, feelings), or other types of learning

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  • Slogan for Psychodynamic Perspective: “Good past behavior described; imprecise future predicted”

Theory Map

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  • Define:
  • ASSIMILATION- process in which people understand an experience in terms of current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
  • ACCOMMODATION- changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events

Cognitive Perspective: Assessing

Widely Accepted

PIAGET

Theory profoundly influenced understanding of cognition

Broad view of sequence of cognitive development is accurate

Widely Questioned or Rejected

PIAGET

Some specifics questions about changes in cognitive capabilities over time (e.g., timing of emerging skills)

Universality of stages has been disputed

Cultural differences in emergence of particular cognitive skills suggested

Growth is more continuous than proposed

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  • Slogan for Cognitive Perspective: “Good past behavior described; imprecise future predicted”

Theory Map

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  • GENERAL PRINCIPLES:
  • Assumption of limited capacity of mental system
  • Control mechanism required to oversee processes (e.g., encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval, utilization of information)
  • Two-way flow of information required to make sense of the world
  • Humans genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways

Cognitive Perspective: Assessing

Widely Accepted

INFORMATION-PROCESSING

Theory may currently be central part of understanding of development

Widely Questioned or Rejected

INFORMATION-PROCESSING

Theory does not offer complete explanation for behavior or address social context in which development takes place

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Theory Map

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  • Define:
  • ASSIMILATION- process in which people understand an experience in terms of current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
  • ACCOMMODATION- changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events

Cognitive Approach: Assessing

Widely Accepted

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

New frontier in child and adolescent development

Approach offers important clues to appropriate treatments and fuller understanding of a range of developmental phenomena

Widely Questioned or Rejected

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

Approach sometimes provides a better description than explanation of developmental phenomena

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Theory Map

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  • BACKGROUND:
  • Explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory
  • SELF-ACTUALIZATION is a state of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way; a primary goal in life
  • Approach has roots in existentialist thought which claims humans create the meaning in their own lives

Humanistic Perspective: Assessing

Widely Accepted

HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE

Some concepts (e.g., self-actualization) help describe important aspects of human behavior

Humanistic influences seen in wide range of areas from health care to business

Widely Questioned or Rejected

HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE

No clear, major impact on field of lifespan development due to lack of identification of broad developmental change that is the result of increasing age or experience

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Theory Map

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The four systems:

  • MICROSYSTEM: Immediate environments (
    family,
    school,
    peer group,
    neighborhood, and
    childcare environments)
  • MESOSYSTEM: A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school)
  • EXOSYSTEM: External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent’s workplace)
  • MACROSYSTEM: The larger
    cultural context (
    Eastern vs.
    Western culture, national economy, political culture,
    subculture)

Later a fifth system was added:

  • CHRONOSYSTEM: The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the course of life.

Bioecological Approach: Assessing

Widely Accepted

BIOECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

Perspective helped generate much research

Suggestion of mutual accommodation between the developing individual and the environment affects children’s develop is of considerable importance to child development

Widely Questioned or Rejected

BIOECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to biological factors

Difficult to test for “neighborhood” effects

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Theory Map

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  • BACKGROUND:
  • Explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory
  • SELF-ACTUALIZATION is a state of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way; a primary goal in life
  • Approach has roots in existentialist thought which claims humans create the meaning in their own lives

Sociocultural Approach: Assessing

Widely Accepted

SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

One of first developmentalists to recognize importance of culture

Perspective becoming increasingly influential with growing acknowledgement of central importance of cultural factors in development

Widely Questioned or Rejected

SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

Some argue that emphasis on role of culture and social experience presented at expense of focus on effects of biological factors on development

Approach minimizes role individuals play in shaping own environment

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Theory Map

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  • BACKGROUND:
  • Explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory
  • SELF-ACTUALIZATION is a state of self-fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way; a primary goal in life
  • Approach has roots in existentialist thought which claims humans create the meaning in their own lives

Evolutionary Approach: Assessing

Widely Accepted

EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

Evolutionary approach is increasingly visible in field of lifespan development

Widely Questioned or Rejected

EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

Some argue that perspective pays insufficient attention to environmental and social factors involved in producing children’s and adults’ behavior

Experimental testing of theory is difficult

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Major Perspectives on Lifespan Development

Why asking about right may be wrong…

  • Each perspective is based on its own premises and focuses on different aspects of development
  • Same developmental phenomenon can be examined from a number of perspectives simultaneously

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  • Psychodynamic approach emphasizes emotions, motivational conflicts, and unconscious determinants of behavior.
  • Behavioral perspectives emphasize overt behavior, paying far more attention to what people do than to what goes on inside their heads, which is deemed largely irrelevant.
  • Cognitive and humanistic perspectives take quite the opposite tack, looking more at what people think than at what they do.
  • Evolutionary perspective focuses on how inherited biological factors underlie development.

Correlational Studies

Remember: Correlations

  • Do not prove causality
  • Do provide important information

Correlation Coefficient

  • Strength and direction of relationship between two factors represented by mathematical score that ranges from +1.0 to -1.0

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  • Although it is possible that the variables are linked causally, this is not necessarily the case.
  • Important information examples:
  • The closer the genetic link between two people, the more highly associated is their intelligence.
  • The more parents speak to their young children, the more extensive are the children’s vocabularies.
  • The better the nutrition that infants receive, the fewer the cognitive and social problems they experience later.
  • Define:
  • Correlation Coefficient: mathematical score ranging from +1.0 to -1.0 that denote strength and direction of relationship between two factors
  • + correlation = when value of one factor increases it can be predicted that the value of the other will also increase
  • – correlation = when value of one factor decreases it can be predicted that the value of the other will also decrease
  • 0 correlation = two factors are unrelated to one another

Types of Correlational Studies

Naturalistic observation

Ethnography and qualitative research

  • Case studies
  • Diaries
  • Survey research

Psychophysiological methods

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan

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  • Naturalistic observation
  • Observe/study in natural context or habitat
  • Does not allow for control over factors of interest
  • Ethnography
  • Uses to investigate cultural questions
  • Researcher serves as participant observer
  • Does not control for researcher bias; generalizability may be difficult
  • Case studies
  • Used with individual or small group to derive broader principles or tentative conclusions
  • Diaries
  • Survey research
  • Used with group chosen to represent larger population
  • Inferences drawn from responses
  • Psychophysiological methods
  • Focus on relationship between physiological processes and behavior
  • Used in cognitive neuroscience
  • EEG, CAT scan, fMRI

Among the most frequently used psychophysiological measures:

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG records electrical activity within the brain recorded by electrodes placed on the outside of the skull. That brain activity is transformed into a pictorial representation of the brain, permitting the representation of brain wave patterns and diagnosis of disorders such as epilepsy and learning disabilities.
  • Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan. In a CAT scan, a computer constructs an image of the brain by combining thousands of individual x-rays taken at slightly different angles. Although it does not show brain activity, it does illuminate the structure of the brain.
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. An fMRI provides a detailed, three-dimensional computer-generated image of brain activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain. It offers one of the best ways of learning about the operation of the brain, down to the level of individual nerves.

Choosing Research Settings

Field study

  • Capture behavior in real-life settings
  • Participants may behave more naturally
  • May be used in correlational studies and experiments
  • Often difficult to exert control over situation and environment

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  • Define:
  • Field study is a research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting.
  • Laboratory study is a research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant.

From Research to Practice

Using Developmental Research to Improve Public Policy

  • Research findings can provide policymakers a means of determining what questions to ask in the first place.
  • Research findings and the testimony of researchers are often part of the process by which laws are drafted.
  • Policymakers and other professionals use research findings to determine how best to implement programs.
  • Research techniques are used to evaluate the effectiveness of existing programs and policies.

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Consider this…

  • What are some policy issues affecting children and adolescents that are currently being debated nationally?
  • Despite the existence of research data that might inform policy about development, politicians rarely discuss such data in their speeches. Why do you think that is the case?

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Measuring Developmental Change

Longitudinal Studies

  • Measuring individual change

Cross-Sectional Studies

  • Measuring people of different ages at same point in time

Sequential Studies

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  • Define:
  • Longitudinal research, the behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age. Longitudinal research measures change over time; Terman IQ study; require significant investment of time; high attrition; test-wise participants
  • In cross-sectional research, people of different ages are compared at the same point in time. Cross-sectional studies provide information about differences in development between different age groups; cohort effects; selective dropout; unable to inform about changes in individuals or groups.
  • In sequential studies, researchers examine a number of different age groups at several points in time; a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies; permits developmental researchers to tease out the consequences of age change versus age difference.

Ethics and Research

Ethical Guidelines for Researchers (SRCD)

  • Researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm.
  • Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study.
  • The use of deception in research must be justified and cause no harm.
  • Participants’ privacy must be maintained.

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Becoming An Expert about Experts!

  • Consider the source.
  • Evaluate credentials.
  • Understand difference between anecdotal and scientific evidence.
  • Find details of research-based advice.
  • Do not overlook cultural context of information.
  • Recognize that popular consensus does not guarantee scientific validity.

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EPILOGUE

Before proceeding to the next chapter, take a few minutes to reconsider the prologue of this chapter—about Louis Brown, the first child to be born through in vitro fertilization. Based on what you now know about lifespan development, answer the following questions:

  • What are some of the potential benefits, and the costs, of the type of conception-in vitro-fertilization-that was carried out for Louise’s parents?
  • What are some questions that developmentalists who study either physical, cognitive, or personality and social development might ask about the effects on Louise of being conceived via in vitro fertilization?

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EPILOGUE

  • Louise reported feeling lonely and isolated as a child. Why do you think this occurred, and what effects might it have on her as an adult?
  • Louise’s own son was conceived in the traditional manner. How do you think his development will differ from that of his mother, Louise, and why?

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Physical Growth:

The Rapid Advances of Infancy

Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first two years of their lives (see Figure 4-1)

  • 5 months: average birthweight doubles to around 15 pounds
  • 1 year: weight triples to about 22 pounds
  • End of 2nd year: average child weighs around four times as much as he or she did at birth

Physical Growth:

The Rapid Advances of Infancy

Not all parts of an infant’s body grow at the same rate

  • Birth: head accounts for one-quarter of the newborn’s entire body size
  • During 1st and 2nd year: rest of the body begins to catch up

Physical Growth:

The Rapid Advances of Infancy

Can you give an example of each principle?

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  • Define:
  • Cephalocaudal principle states that growth follows a direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body.
  • Proximodistal principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward. See Table 4.1.
  • Principle of hierarchical integration states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently. Later these simple skills are integrated into more complex ones.
  • Principle of the independence of systems, which suggests that different body systems grow at different rates.
  • Birth: around 7 pounds; 20 inches
  • 5 months: doubled birth weight
  • 12 months: tripled birth weight; 30 inches
  • 2nd year: slows; 4x birth weight; 36 inches

Nervous System and Brain:

The Foundations of Development

  • Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system
  • Nervous system comprises the brain and the nerves that extend throughout the body

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How great brains grow!

Birth

  • 100-200 billion neurons
  • Relatively few neurons-neuron connections

During first two years

  • Billions of new connections established and become more complex

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  • Birth: Neurons multiply at an amazing rate prior to birth. At some points in prenatal development, cell division creates some 250,000 additional neurons every minute.
  • By year 2: The intricacy of neural connections continues to increase throughout life. In fact, in adulthood a single neuron is likely to have a minimum of 5,000 connections to other neurons or other body parts.

Use it or lose it!

Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need

  • Although synapses are formed throughout life, based on our changing experiences, the billions of new synapses infants form during the first two years are more numerous than necessary
  • Synaptic pruning
  • Unused neurons are eliminated
  • Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons
  • Development of nervous system proceeds most effectively through loss of cells
  • Myelin

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  • Synaptic pruning: elimination of unused neurons that allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons. Unlike most other aspects of growth, then, the development of the nervous system proceeds most effectively through the loss of cells.
  • Neurons that do not become interconnected with other neurons as the infant’s experience of the world increases become unnecessary.
  • They eventually die out, increasing the efficiency of the nervous system.
  • Myelin: Axons of neurons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that, like the insulation on an electric wire, provides protection and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses.
  • Contributes to increased weight of brain
  • Even though many neurons are lost, the increasing size and complexity of the remaining ones contribute to impressive brain growth.
  • A baby’s brain triples its weight during his or her first 2 years of life, and it reaches more than three-quarters of its adult weight and size by the age of 2.

Form and Function: Brain Growth

  • Neurons reposition themselves with growth, becoming arranged by function
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Subcortical levels

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  • Some move into the cerebral cortex, the upper layer of the brain, while others move to subcortical levels, which are below the cerebral cortex.
  • As time passes, however, the cells in the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning, become more developed and interconnected.
  • The subcortical levels, which regulate such fundamental activities as breathing and heart rate, are the most fully developed at birth.

Don’t shake the baby!

Shaken Baby Syndrome

  • Brain sensitive to form forms of injury
  • Shaking can lead to brain rotation within skull
  • Blood vessels tear  severe medical problems, long-term disabilities, and sometimes death

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What do babies do all day?

Integrating the bodily systems: Life cycles of infancy

  • Rhythms: repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
  • Wake
  • Sleep
  • Eat
  • Eliminate

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  • These most basic activities are controlled by a variety of bodily systems.
  • Although each of these individual behavioral patterns probably is functioning quite effectively, it takes some time and effort for infants to integrate the separate behaviors. In fact, one of the neonate’s major missions is to make its individual behaviors work in harmony, helping it, for example, to sleep through the night.

Rhythms and States

State

  • One of major body rhythms
  • Degree of awareness infant displays to both internal and external stimulation
  • Change in state alters amount of stimulation required to get infant’s attention
  • Electrical brain waves can be measured by electrocephalogram (EEG)

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  • Some of the different states that infants experience produce changes in electrical activity in the brain.
  • These changes are reflected in different patterns of electrical brain waves, which can be measured by a device called an electroencephalogram, or EEG.
  • Starting at three months before birth, these brain wave patterns are relatively irregular.
  • By the time an infant reaches the age of 3 months, a more mature pattern emerges and the brain waves become more regular.

Primary Behavioral States

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Primary Behavioral States

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Sleep: Perchance to Dream

Major state

  • 16-17 hours daily (average); wide variations

Different than adult sleep

  • 2 hour spurts; periods of wakefulness
  • Cyclic pattern
  • By 16 weeks sleep about 6 continuous hours; by 1 year sleep through night
  • (See Table 4-2)

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  • By 1 year need about 15 hours sleep
  • Cyclic pattern: During periods of sleep, infants’ heart rates increase and become irregular, their blood pressure rises, and they begin to breathe more rapidly

A Quick Review of Behavioral States

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REM Sleep

  • Period of active sleep
  • Closed eyes begin to move in a back-and-forth pattern
  • Takes up around one-half of infant sleep
  • May provide means for brain to stimulate itself through autostimulation

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  • Sometimes, although not always, their closed eyes begin to move in a back-and-forth pattern, as if they were viewing an action-packed scene. This period of active sleep is similar, although not identical, to the rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep, that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming.
  • At first, this active, REM-like sleep takes up around one-half of an infant’s sleep, compared with just 20 percent of an adult’s sleep (see Figure 4-6). However, the quantity of active sleep quickly declines, and by the age of 6 months, amounts to just one-third of total sleep time.
  • Some researchers think it provides a means for the brain to stimulate itself—a process called autostimulation.
  • Stimulation of the nervous system would be particularly important in infants, who spend so much time sleeping and relatively little in alert states.

SIDS: The Unanticipated Killer

  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep
  • SIDS strikes about 2,500 infants in the United States each year
  • Although it seems to occur when the normal patterns of breathing during sleep are interrupted, scientists have been unable to discover why that might happen

SIDS

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  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep
  • SIDS strikes about 1 in 1,000 infants in the United States each year.
  • Although it seems to occur when the normal patterns of breathing during sleep are interrupted, scientists have been unable to discover why that might happen.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics now suggests that babies sleep on their backs rather than on their sides or stomachs—called the back-to-sleep guideline. In addition, they suggest that parents consider giving their babies a pacifier during naps and bedtime.

SIDS is found in children of every race and socioeconomic group and in children who have had no apparent health problems

Back-to-sleep is important!

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Motor Development

  • Shape and proportions of newborn babies are simply not conducive to easy mobility
  • Young infants lack the strength to raise large heads
  • Movement is further impeded because limbs are short in relation to the rest of the body
  • Infant bodies are mainly fat, with a limited amount of muscle; the result is a lack strength

Motor Development

BUT

  • At birth newborns have an extensive repertoire of behavioral possibilities brought about by innate reflexes, and their range of motor skills grows rapidly during the first two years of life

Reflexes: Inborn Physical Skills

Reflexes

  • Learned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in presence of certain stimuli

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Some Basic Reflexes in Infants

Some Basic Reflexes in Infants

Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes

Reflexes

  • Genetically determined
  • Universal

Cultural variations in ways displayed

  • Moro reflex

Serves

  • Diagnostic tool
  • Social function
  • Survival function

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  • Moro Reflex: Some differences reflect cultural and ethnic variations.
  • Caucasian infants show a pronounced response to situations that produce the Moro reflex. Not only do they fling out their arms, but they also cry and respond in a generally agitated manner.
  • Navajo babies react to the same situation much more calmly. Their arms do not flail out as much, and they cry only rarely.
  • Diagnostic tools for pediatricians. Because reflexes emerge and disappear on a regular timetable, their absence—or presence—at a given point of infancy can provide a clue that something may be amiss in an infant’s development.

Dynamic Systems

Dynamic systems theory

  • Describes how motor behaviors are assembled
  • Motor skills do not develop in vacuum
  • Each skill advances in context of other motor abilities
  • As motor skills develop, so do non-motoric skills
  • Theory places emphasis on child’s own motivation (a cognitive state) in advancing important aspects of motor development

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  • Motor development in a particular sphere, such as beginning to crawl, is not just dependent on the brain initiating a “crawling program” that permits the muscles to propel the baby forward.
  • Instead, crawling requires the coordination of muscles, perception, cognition, and motivation.
  • Theory emphasizes how children’s exploratory activities, which produce new challenges as they interact with their environment, lead them to advancements in motor skills.

Developmental Norms

Comparing Individual to Group Norms:

  • Represent the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age
  • Permit comparisons between a particular child’s performance on a particular behavior and the average performance of the children in the norm sample
  • Must be interpreted with caution
  • Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS)

*

  • Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS): one of the most widely used techniques to determine infants’ normative standing; measure designed to determine infants’ neurological and behavioral responses to their environment; provides a supplement to the traditional Apgar test.

Developmental Diversity

Cultural Dimensions of Motor Development

  • Using information from your text, answer the following:

Does earlier emergence of a basic motor behavior in a given culture has lasting consequences for specific motor skills and for achievements in other domains?

*

  • Guide students to appropriate section in the text.
  • Divide into small groups. Assign students by Ache, Kipsigis, and Western babies. Ask students to reply to the question based on their specific group.
  • Concluding comment: cultural factors help determine the time at which specific motor skills appear. Activities that are an intrinsic part of a culture are more apt to be purposely taught to infants in that culture, leading to the potential of their earlier emergence.

Nutrition in Infancy

Fueling Motor Development

  • Without proper nutrition, infants cannot reach physical potential and may suffer cognitive and social consequences
  • Infants differ in growth rates, body composition, metabolism, and activity levels

*

  • Rapid physical growth that occurs during infancy is fueled by the nutrients that infants receive. Without proper nutrition, infants cannot reach their physical potential, and they may suffer cognitive and social consequences.

So what is a healthy caloric allotment for infants?

  • About 50 calories per day for each pound of weight
  • Most infants regulate their caloric intake quite effectively on their own
  • If are allowed consume as much they seem to want, and not pressured to eat more, they will be healthy

*

Malnutrition

Malnutrition

  • Condition of having improper amount and balance of nutrients, produces several results, none good
  • More common in children living in many developing countries
  • Slower growth rate
  • Chronically malnourished during infancy = later lower IQ score

*

  • Malnutrition, the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients, produces several results, none good.
  • More common among children living in many developing countries
  • Slower growth rate apparent by the age 6 months
  • By 2 years, height and weight are only 95 percent the height and weight of children in more industrialized countries.
  • Chronically malnourished during infancy later score lower on IQ tests and tend to do less well in school. These effects may linger even after diet has improved substantially.

Undernutrition: Dietary Deficiencies

  • Undernutrition also has long-term costs, including mild to moderate cognitive delays
  • Up to 25% of 1- to 5-year-old US children have diets that fall below minimum caloric intake recommended by nutritional experts

*

When Malnutrition Is Severe

Maramus

  • Malnutrition during first year
  • Infants stop growing.
  • Attributable to severe deficiency in proteins and calories
  • Causes the body to waste away and ultimately results in death

Kwashiorkor

  • Found in older children
  • Child’s stomach, limbs, and face swell
  • Body struggles to make use of few available nutrients

*

  • Malnutrition during the first year can produce marasmus, a disease in which infants stop growing. Marasmus, attributable to a severe deficiency in proteins and calories, causes the body to waste away and ultimately results in death. Older children are susceptible to kwashiorkor, a disease in which a child’s stomach, limbs, and face swell with water.

So What Is the Answer?

Breast milk

  • Offers all nutrients infant needs for first 12 months of life
  • Is more easily digested than alternative
  • Provides some immunity to variety of childhood diseases
  • May enhance cognitive growth
  • Offers significant emotional advances for mother and child
  • Not cure-all for infant nutrition and health

*

Introducing Solid Foods: When and What?

  • Solids can be started at 6 months but are not needed until 9 to 12 months (AAFP)
  • Introduced gradually, one at a time
  • Cerealstrained fruits
  • Time of weaning varies greatly in developed and developing countries

*

The Development of the Senses

If all the lights in this room went out RIGHT NOW, what would your senses tell you (sensation)?

What do you think about being in the dark with your class (perception) or about an instructor who was crazy enough to go to blackout to teach a concept (fill in this part yourself)?

*

Visual Perception: Seeing the World

  • Newborn’s distance vision ranges from 20/200 to 20/600
  • By 6 months, average infant’s vision is already 20/20
  • Other visual abilities grow rapidly
  • Binocular vision
  • Depth perception

*

  • Infant can only see with accuracy visual material up to 20 feet that an adult with normal vision is able to see with similar accuracy from a distance of between 200 and 600 feet.; distance vision is 1/10th to 1/3rd that of average adult’s.

Facing the World

Genetics is not the sole determinant of infant visual preferences

  • A few hours after birth, infants have already learned to prefer their own mother’s face to other faces
  • Similarly, between the ages of six and nine months, infants become more adept at distinguishing
  • between the faces of humans, while they become less able to distinguish faces of members of other species
  • They also distinguish between male and female faces

Auditory Perception: The World of Sound

Infants

  • Hear before birth and have good auditory perception after they are born
  • Are more sensitive to certain frequencies
  • Reach adult accuracy in sound localization by age 1
  • Can discriminate groups of different sounds
  • React to changes in musical key and rhythm
  • Can discriminate many language related sounds
  • Are born with preferences for particular sound combinations which may be shaped by prenatal exposure to mothers’ voices

*

Smell and Taste in a Small World

Smell

  • Well developed at birth
  • Helps in recognition of mother early in life
  • Used to distinguish mother’s scent (only in breast fed babies); cannot distinguish father on basis of odor

Taste

  • Have innate sweet tooth
  • Show facial disgust at bitter taste
  • Develop preferences based on what mother ate during pregnancy

*

Ouch!

Contemporary Views on Infant Pain

  • Today, it is widely acknowledged that infants are born with the capacity to experience pain
  • Developmental progression in reaction to pain
  • Infants born with capacity to experience pain; produces distress
  • Exposure to pain in infancy may lead to permanent rewiring of nervous system resulting in greater sensitivity to pain during adulthood

*

The Power of Touch

  • Touch is one of most highly developed sensory systems in a newborn
  • Even youngest infants respond to gentle touches
  • Several of the basic reflexes present at birth require touch sensitivity to operate

*

  • Several theorists have suggested that one of the ways children gain information about the world is through touching.

Multimodal Perception: Combining Individual Sensory Inputs

New area of study in infant research

  • Some researchers argue that sensations are initially integrated with one another in the infant
  • Others maintain that infant’s sensory systems are initially separate and that brain development leads to increasing integration
  • It does appear that by an early age infants are able to relate what they have learned about an object through one sensory channel to what they have learned about it through another

*

  • Multimodal approach to perception considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated.
  • Infants’ multimodal perception abilities showcase the sophisticated perceptual abilities of infants, which continue to grow throughout the period of infancy. Such perceptual growth is aided by infants’ discovery of affordances , the options that a given situation or stimulus provides.

What are affordances?

Perceptible affordances

  • Exist where information on actions that are afforded are perceptible
  • These are dependent on language, culture, context, and experience and vary for different individuals

*

  • Bring a small collection of found object to lecture. Have student work in groups to brainstorm about the affordances of the objects. Encourage rapid, spontaneous responses.
  • Ask students to equate this experience with that of an infant’s. What is different? What is the same?

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development

  • Exercising Your Infant’s Body and Senses

Attempts to accelerate physical and sensory-perceptual development yield little success

but

infants need sufficient physical and sensory stimulation.

*

How can this be accomplished?

  • Carry a baby in different ways
  • Let infants explore their environment
  • Engage in “rough-and-tumble” play
  • Let babies touch their food and even play with it
  • Provide toys that stimulate the senses, particularly toys that can stimulate more than one sense at a time

*

  • Carry a baby in different positions—in a backpack, in a frontpack, or in a football hold with the infant’s head in the palm of your hand and its feet lying on your arm. This lets the infant view the world from several perspectives.
  • Let infants explore their environment. Don’t contain them too long in a barren environment. Let them crawl or wander around—after first making the environment “childproof” by removing dangerous objects.
  • Engage in “rough-and-tumble” play. Wrestling, dancing, and rolling around on the floor—if not violent—are activities that are fun and that stimulate older infants’ motor and sensory systems.
  • Let babies touch their food and even play with it. Infancy is too early to start teaching table manners.
  • Provide toys that stimulate the senses, particularly toys that can stimulate more than one sense at a time. For example, brightly colored, textured toys with movable parts are enjoyable and help sharpen infants’ senses.

EPILOGUE

Turn back for a moment to the prologue of this chapter, about a baby’s first steps, and answer these questions:

  • Which principles of growth (i.e., cephalocaudal, proximodistal, heirarchical integration, independence of systems) account(s) for the progression of physical activities that precedes Josh’s first steps?
  • What conclusions about Josh’s future physical development can be drawn based on the fact that his first steps occurred approximately two months early?
  • Can conclusions be drawn about his future cognitive development? Why?

*

EPILOGUE

  • In walking at 10 months of age, Josh outpaced his little brother Jon by four months. Does this fact have any implications for the comparative physical or cognitive abilities of the two brothers? Why?
  • Do you think anything changed in the environment between the time Jon and Josh were born that might account for their different “first step” schedules? If you were researching this question, what environmental factors would you look for?

*

EPILOGUE

  • Why were Josh’s parents so pleased and proud about his accomplishment, which is, after all, a routine and universal occurrence? What cultural factors exist in the U.S. culture that make the “first steps” milestones so significant?

*

Sections in Module 5.2

Intellectual and Language Development

Schooling: The Three Rs (and More) of Middle Childhood

Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths

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1

Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

5.7: Identify and summarize the major theoretical approaches to cognitive development in middle childhood.

5.8: Summarize the development of language during middle childhood, and explain the cognitive advantages bilingualism offers.

5.9: Describe the five stages of reading, and compare teaching approaches.

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2

Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

5.10: Summarize the various trends in U.S. education.

5.11: Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

5.12: Summarize the approaches to educating children with intellectual disabilities and children who are intellectually gifted in middle childhood.

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3

Perspectives on Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (1 of 4)

LO 5.7 Identify and summarize the major theoretical approaches to cognitive development in middle childhood.

Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development

The Rise of Concrete Operational Thought

Child enters concrete operational stage in ages 7 to 12

Involves applying logical operations to concrete problems

Children can solve conservation problems

They can take multiple aspects of a situation into account (decentering)

They attain reversibility

They can understand relationship between time and speed

They are tied to concrete, physical reality

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4

Figure 5-4: Conservation Training

Rural Australian Aborigine children trail their urban counterparts in the development of their understanding of conservation; with training, they later catch up. Without training, around half of 14-year-old Aborigines do not have an understanding of conservation. What can be concluded from the fact that training influences the understanding of conservation? SOURCE: Based on Dasen et al., 1979.

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Source: Based on Dasen et al., 1979.

5

Perspectives on Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (2 of 4)

LO 5.7 Identify and summarize the major theoretical approaches to cognitive development in middle childhood.

Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development (cont.)

Piaget in Perspective: Right and Wrong

Piaget was masterful at observation

His theories have had a big impact on education

He is criticized for underestimating children’s abilities

Research suggests he is more right than wrong

There are cultural differences in progressing through Piaget’s stages

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6

Perspectives on Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (3 of 4)

LO 5.7 Identify and summarize the major theoretical approaches to cognitive development in middle childhood.

Information Processing in Middle Childhood

Memory

Short-term memory (working memory)

Memory capacity

Metamemory emerges

Children use control strategies

Improving Memory

Children can be taught control strategies

Keyword strategy is good example

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Memory: Process by which information is recorded, stored, and retrieved

Short-term memory (working memory) improves in middle childhood

Memory capacity may explain why children have trouble solving conservation problems in preschool period

Metamemory emerges—understanding of processes that underlie memory

Children use control strategies to improve cognitive functioning

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Perspectives on Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood (4 of 4)

LO 5.7 Identify and summarize the major theoretical approaches to cognitive development in middle childhood.

Vygotsky’s Approach to Cognitive Development and Classroom Instruction

Classrooms are places where children should have opportunities to try out new activities

Suggest children should focus on activities involving interaction with others

Cooperative learning

Reciprocal teaching

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Language Development: What Words Mean (1 of 3)

LO 5.8 Summarize the development of language during middle childhood, and explain the cognitive advantages bilingualism offers.

Mastering the Mechanics of Language

Vocabulary continues to increase during school years

Mastery of grammar improves

Use of syntax improves

Some phonemes remain troublesome (j, v, th, zh)

Difficulty decoding sentences dependent on intonation

Use of pragmatics improves

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Language Development: What Words Mean (2 of 3)

LO 5.8 Summarize the development of language during middle childhood, and explain the cognitive advantages bilingualism offers.

Metalinguistic Awareness

Increasing understanding of one’s own use of language

Helps children comprehend when information is unclear

How Language Promotes Self-Control

Language helps children control and regulate own behavior

Children use “self-talk” to regulate behavior

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10

Language Development: What Words Mean (3 of 3)

LO 5.8 Summarize the development of language during middle childhood, and explain the cognitive advantages bilingualism offers.

Bilingualism: Speaking in Many Tongues

English second language for nearly 1 in 5 Americans

Educators challenged by children speaking little or no English

One approach: Children initially taught in their native language while learning English

Another approach: Immersion

Advantages of bilingualism

Greater metalinguistic awareness

Cognitive flexibility

Higher self-esteem

May improve IQ scores

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Review: Intellectual and Language Development (1 of 2)

Piaget believed school-age children are in the concrete-operational stage.

Information processing approaches focus on quantitative improvements in memory and sophistication of mental programs.

Vygotsky believed children should have opportunity to experiment and participate actively with peers in their learning.

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Review: Intellectual and Language Development (2 of 2)

As language develops:

Vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics improve

Metalinguistic awareness grows

Language is used as a self-control device

Bilingual students show more metalinguistic awareness, grasp the rules of language more explicitly, and demonstrate greater cognitive sophistication.

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Check Yourself: Intellectual and Language Development

Vygotsky proposed that cognitive advances take place when children are exposed to information within their __________.

A) sphere of logic

B) zone of proximal development

C) region of metamemory

D) domain of control strategies

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Answer: B

14

Reading: Learning to Decipher and Meaning Behind Words (1 of 2)

LO 5.9 Describe the five stages of reading, and compare teaching approaches.

Reading Stages

Reading skill develops over several stages:

Stage 0: Learn letter names and small words

Stage 1: Learn letter names and sounds

Stage 2: Read aloud with fluency

Stage 3: Reading becomes a way to learn

Stage 4: Able to read and process information

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Stage 0, from birth to the start of first grade, where children learn the essential prerequisites for reading, including identification of the letters in the alphabet, writing their names, and reading a few words.

Stage 1, first and second grades, is the first real reading, but it largely involves phonological decoding skill in which children can sound out words by sounding out and blending letters.

Stage 2, typically around second and third grades, is when children learn to read aloud with fluency.

Stage 3 extends from fourth to eighth grades and involves reading becoming a means to an end and an enjoyable way to learn.

Stage 4 is when the child understands reading in terms of reflecting multiple points of view.

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Reading: Learning to Decipher and Meaning Behind Words (2 of 2)

LO 5.9 Describe the five stages of reading, and compare teaching approaches.

How Should We Teach Reading?

Approaches

Code-based: Emphasizes phonics

Whole-language: Children learn as they learn to talk, immersed in literature

Reading produces changes in wiring of the brain

Boosts organization of the visual cortex

Improves processing of spoken language

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16

Educational Trends: Beyond
the Three Rs (1 of 4)

LO 5.10 Summarize the various trends in U.S. education.

Schools in the United States are returning to traditional three R’s (reading, writing, and arithmetic)

Elementary schools are stressing accountability (tests assess student competence)

Demographics are shifting:

Proportion of Hispanics will double in 50 years

Educators increasingly serious about multicultural concerns

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17

Educational Trends: Beyond
the Three Rs (3 of 4)

LO 5.10 Summarize the various trends in U.S. education.

Fostering a Bicultural Identity

Educators recommend children develop a bicultural identity

Maintain original cultural identity while integrating into the dominant culture

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Cultural Dimensions:
Multicultural Education

Culture is a set of behaviors, beliefs, values and expectations shared by a particular society.

Subcultural groups are racial, ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, or gender groups in a culture.

Recent goals are to establish multicultural education to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority while maintaining an identity in their original culture.

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19

Educational Trends: Beyond
the Three Rs (4 of 4)

LO 5.10 Summarize the various trends in U.S. education.

Schooling Around the World and Across Genders: Who Gets Educated?

More than 160 million children do not receive primary education

100 million only receive the level of our elementary school

Close to 1 billion individuals are illiterate

Most of the uneducated are women

Expectations of education are equal across genders in the United States

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20

Review: Schooling: The Three Rs
(and More) of Middle Childhood (1 of 2)

Five stages of reading:

Stage 0: Learn letter names and small words

Stage 1: Learn letter names and sounds

Stage 2: Read aloud with fluency

Stage 3: Reading becomes a way to learn

Stage 4: Able to read and process information

Teaching reading can occur in two ways:

Code-based

Whole language

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21

Review: Schooling: The Three Rs
(and More) of Middle Childhood (2 of 2)

Schools are focusing on fundamentals.

Educators help minority children develop a bicultural identity where their original culture is supported while they are integrating into the dominant culture.

Education is considered a right in the United States and many other countries, but millions of children around the world still don’t get a primary education.

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22

Check Yourself: Schooling: The Three Rs (and More) of Middle Childhood

According to the __________ approach to reading, reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills underlying reading. Examples include phonics and how letters and words are combined to make words.

A) whole-language

B) linguistic

C) code-based

D) dynamic

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Answer: C

23

Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (1 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

Binet’s Test

Three important legacies:

Pragmatic approach to constructing intelligence tests; defined intelligence as that which his test measured

Linked intelligence and school success

Invented the concept of IQ, linking intelligence test score to mental age

Intelligence quotient (IQ)

Mental age

Chronological age

Deviation IQ scores

Two-thirds of all people fall within 15 points of the average

As scores rise and fall beyond this range, the percentage falls significantly

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Intelligence: Capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges

• MENTAL AGE is the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age.

• CHRONOLOGICAL (OR PHYSICAL) AGE is the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test.

Scores today are deviation IQ scores, so that the degree of deviation from the average (100) permits calculation of the proportion of people who have similar scores.

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Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (2 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

Measuring IQ: Present-day Approaches to Intelligence

Intelligence tests

Stanford-Binet (fifth edition; SB5)

Wechsler (fifth edition; WISC-V)

Kaufman (second edition; KABC-II)

Reasonably predict school performance but not later success

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• One of the most widely used tests today is the STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALES, FIFTH EDITION (SB5), a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested.

• The WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN, FIFTH EDITION (WISC-V), is a test for children that provides verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills as well as a total score.

• The KAUFMAN ASSESSMENT BATTERY FOR CHILDREN, SECOND EDITION (KABC-II), tests children’s ability to integrate different kinds of stimuli simultaneously and to use step-by-step thinking

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Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (3 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

What IQ Tests Don’t Tell: Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence

Two kinds of intelligence

Fluid (ability to deal with new problems)

Crystallized (store of information)

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26

Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (4 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

What IQ Tests Don’t Tell: Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence (cont.)

Gardner suggests eight intelligences:

Musical Intelligence

Bodily kinesthetic intelligence

Logical mathematical intelligence

Linguistic intelligence

Spatial intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence

Intrapersonal intelligence

Naturalist intelligence

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27

Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (5 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

What IQ Tests Don’t Tell: Alternative Conceptions of Intelligence (cont.)

Vygotsky suggests that we must measure developing processes as well

Robert Sternberg: Triarchic theory of intelligence

Componential element (how people process and analyze information)

Experiential element (insightful)

Contextual element (practical intelligence)

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• Robert Sternberg developed the TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE, which states that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing: componential, experiential, and contextual.

(1) The componential element reflects how people process and analyze information.

(a) Infer relationships between parts

(b) Solve problems

(c) Evaluate solutions

(d) Score highest on traditional IQ tests

(2) The experiential element is the insightful component:

(a) Compare new information to what is already known

(b) Can combine and relate facts in novel and creative ways

(3) The contextual deals with practical intelligence, the demands of the everyday environment.

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Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (6 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

Group Differences in IQ

Explaining Racial Differences in IQ

Major controversy

If intelligence is determined by heredity and fixed at birth, can’t alter

If intelligence is determined by environment, modifying social conditions a promising strategy to improve intelligence

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29

Intelligence Benchmarks: Differentiating the Intelligent from the Unintelligent (7 of 7)

LO 5.11 Compare and contrast the different methods of assessing intelligence.

The Bell Curve Controversy

In the book The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray argue IQ is primarily inherited

Most developmentalists believe that cultural and social minority groups score lower due to nature of the tests

If economic and social factors are taken into account, mean IQ scores of black and white children are similar

IQ is now seen as both nature and nurture

Best approach is to ensure all children have opportunity to develop their full potential

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Below and Above Intelligence Norms: Intellectual Disabilities and Intellectual Giftedness (1 of 4)

LO 5.12 Summarize the approaches to educating children with intellectual disabilities and children who are intellectually gifted in middle childhood.

Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, enacted in 1975

Assured all children with special need would be placed in the least restrictive environment in the schools

Called mainstreaming (integration of special needs with traditional classrooms)

Success of mainstreaming has led some to propose a full inclusion model

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Below and Above Intelligence Norms: Intellectual Disabilities and Intellectual Giftedness (2 of 4)

LO 5.12 Summarize the approaches to educating children with intellectual disabilities and children who are intellectually gifted in middle childhood.

Below the Norm: Intellectual Disability

1 to 3 percent of school-age children are disabled

Intellectual disability characterized by significant limitations, both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior

This covers many everyday social and practical skills

Familial intellectual disability occurs when there is no apparent cause, but there is a history of disability in the family

Most common causes are fetal alcohol syndrome and Down syndrome

Typically measured by IQ test

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Below and Above Intelligence Norms: Intellectual Disabilities and Intellectual Giftedness (3 of 4)

LO 5.12 Summarize the approaches to educating children with intellectual disabilities and children who are intellectually gifted in middle childhood.

Below the Norm: Intellectual Disability (cont.)

Classifications of intellectual disability

Mild intellectual disability

Moderate intellectual disability

Severe intellectual disability

Profound intellectual disability

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Classifications of intellectual disability

(1) MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY represents 90 percent of the intellectually disabled. IQ ranges from 50 to 70 and with training they can hold jobs and function independently. They will reach a third- to sixth-grade level in schooling.

(2) 5 to 10 percent are classified as having a MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY with an IQ of 35 to 55. They are slow to develop language skills and generally do not progress beyond the second grade. They typically will need supervision.

(3) Those with SEVERE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY have IQs ranging from 20 to 40 and PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY is below 20. Generally, they will never speak, have poor motor control, and need 24-hour care.

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Below and Above Intelligence Norms: Intellectual Disabilities and Intellectual Giftedness (4 of 4)

LO 5.12 Summarize the approaches to educating children with intellectual disabilities and children who are intellectually gifted in middle childhood.

Above the Norm: The Gifted and Talented

3 to 5 percent of school-age children are gifted and talented

Show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic fields

Tend to be outgoing, well adjusted, and popular

Two approaches to educating:

Acceleration (allow movement at own pace)

Enrichment (kept at grade level but given activities to do deeper study)

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Review: Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths (1 of 2)

Measuring intelligence involves testing skills that promote academic success.

Examples of intelligence tests are the WISC-IV and the KABC-II.

Recent theories suggest there may be several distinct intelligences that reflect different ways of processing information.

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Review: Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths (2 of 2)

Children with special needs must be educated in the least restrictive environment.

This has led to mainstreaming.

The needs of the gifted and talented are met through acceleration or enrichment programs.

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Check Yourself: Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths (1 of 2)

According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the three aspects of information processing are __________.

A) contextual, referential, and crystallization

B) developmental, componential, and structural

C) experiential, experimental, and judgmental

D) componential, experiential, and contextual

5-37

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Answer: D

37

Check Yourself: Intelligence: Determining Individual Strengths (2 of 2)

For children whose intelligence falls below the normal range, the recommendation from the Education for All Handicapped Children Act is that they be educated in __________ environment.

A) a separate but equal

B) the most restrictive

C) the least restrictive

D) a needs-oriented

5-38

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Answer: C

38

Applying Lifespan Development

How do fluid and crystallized intelligence interact? Which of the two is likely to be more influenced by genetics and which by environment? Why?

5-39

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Sections in Module 6.2

Cognitive Development

School Performance

6-1

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1

Learning Objectives

6.6: Analyze Piaget’s account of adolescent cognitive development.

6.7: Explain the information processing view of adolescent cognitive development.

6.8: Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

6.9: Explain the nature and consequences of use of media by adolescents.

6-2

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2

Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development: Using Formal Operations (1 of 3)

LO 6.6 Analyze Piaget’s account of adolescent cognitive development.

Using Formal Operations to Solve Problems

Formal operational stage: When people develop the ability to think abstractly

Full capabilities of using principles of logic unfold from ages 12 to 15

Adolescents use propositional thought (using abstract thought in the absence of concrete examples)

25 to 60 percent of college students never developed formal operations

Cultural values also influence achievement of formal operational thought

6-3

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3

Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development: Using Formal Operations (2 of 3)

LO 6.6 Analyze Piaget’s account of adolescent cognitive development.

The Consequences of Adolescents’ Use of Formal Operations

Ability to think abstractly changes behavior

Adolescents become more argumentative

Adolescents become more interesting, but challenging

6-4

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4

Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development: Using Formal Operations (3 of 3)

LO 6.6 Analyze Piaget’s account of adolescent cognitive development.

Evaluating Piaget’s Approach

Research shows individual differences in cognitive abilities is not universal

Cognitive development is continuous, not step-like

Piaget underestimated skills of infants and young children

More sophisticated forms of thinking do not develop until early adulthood (postformal thinking)

6-5

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5

Information-Processing Perspectives:
Gradual Transformations in Abilities (1 of 3)

LO 6.7 Explain the information processing view of adolescent cognitive development.

Information processing approach

Gradual transformation in how information is used changes cognition

Adolescents organize their thinking and develop new strategies

6-6

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Information processing approach: Model that seeks to identify way that individuals take in, use, and store information

6

Information-Processing Perspectives:
Gradual Transformations in Abilities (2 of 3)

LO 6.7 Explain the information processing view of adolescent cognitive development.

Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking

Metacognition: The knowledge of one’s own thinking

Adolescents gain the ability to gauge how long they need to study

They are a better of judge of their own learning

6-7

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7

Information-Processing Perspectives:
Gradual Transformations in Abilities (3 of 3)

LO 6.7 Explain the information processing view of adolescent cognitive development.

Egocentrism in Thinking: Adolescents’ Self-absorption

Adolescents focus on themselves (egocentrism)

They are highly critical of authority figures, avoid criticism themselves, but find fault in others

Adolescent egocentrism leads to two distortions:

Imaginary audience (focus of everyone’s attention)

Personal fables (what happens is unique to them)

6-8

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8

Review: Cognitive Development
(1 of 2)

Adolescence corresponds to Piaget’s formal operations period, in which abstract thinking and experimental approaches to problems are common.

This makes adolescents question authority, and they become argumentative.

According to the information processing approach, cognitive development is gradual as thinking and memory improves.

6-9

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9

Review: Cognitive Development
(2 of 2)

There is growth in metacognition but also egocentrism, which results in their thinking that their behavior is always observed.

They construct personal fables about their uniqueness.

6-10

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10

Check Yourself:
Cognitive Development (1 of 2)

Fifteen-year-old Wyatt is able to solve the physics problem from class in abstract rather than in concrete terms. According to Piaget, Wyatt is now capable of __________.

A) preoperational thought

B) formal operational thought

C) egocentrism

D) sensorimotor thought

6-11

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Answer: B

11

Check Yourself:
Cognitive Development (2 of 2)

__________ is the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition.

A) Metacognition

B) Postformal thinking

C) Egocentrism

D) Sensorimotor thought

6-12

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Answer: A

12

Adolescent School Performance:
A Complex Picture (1 of 5)

LO 6.8 Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

High school students’ grades have risen

But independent measures of achievement have not risen

May be grade inflation

Students in the United States score lower than in most industrialized nations

Less class time, less intensive instruction, more diverse populations

Graduation rates have dropped (only 79 percent graduate)

6-13

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13

Adolescent School Performance:
A Complex Picture (2 of 5)

LO 6.8 Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

Socioeconomic Status and School Performance: Individual Differences in Achievement

Strong relationship between achievement and SES

Poorer children have:

Fewer resources

Lower health

More inadequate schools

Less-involved parents

6-14

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14

Adolescent School Performance:
A Complex Picture (3 of 5)

LO 6.8 Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement

Differences occur, but the reason is unclear

African American and Hispanic families more likely to live in poverty

African American and Hispanic students perform lower than Caucasians do

Asians perform the highest

6-15

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15

Adolescent School Performance:
A Complex Picture (4 of 5)

LO 6.8 Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement (cont.)

When SES is taken into account, achievement differences diminish

Cultural value of school success impacts performance

When consequences for failure are high, performance improves

Attributions for school success impacts performance

6-16

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16

Adolescent School Performance:
A Complex Picture (5 of 5)

LO 6.8 Describe major factors that affect adolescent school performance.

Dropping Out of School

Dropouts earn 42 percent less than graduates

Dropout unemployment rate is 50 percent

Some leave because of pregnancy, problems with English, and economic reasons

Males drop out more than females do

Students from lower-income homes drop out more

Asians drop out least, followed by Caucasians, Hispanics, and African Americans

6-17

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17

Adolescents’ Media Use: Screen Time in the Digital Age (1 of 3)

LO 6.9 Explain the nature and consequences of the use of media by adolescents.

Young people average 6.5 hours a day on media

Around 25 percent of the time, they are using more than one form

May actually be closer to 8.5 hours per day

Some teens send 30,000 texts a month

Texting supplants other forms of interaction

6-18

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18

Adolescents’ Media Use: Screen Time in the Digital Age (2 of 3)

LO 6.9 Explain the nature and consequences of the use of media by adolescents.

Online activities can be mean-spirited

Cyberbullying: Practice of sending victims texts or
e-mails with hurtful comments

Source of cyberbullying can be anonymous, leading to particularly abusive messages

6-19

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19

Adolescents’ Media Use: Screen Time in the Digital Age(3 of 3)

LO 6.9 Explain the nature and consequences of the use of media by adolescents.

Using the Web

Students must learn to search, choose, and integrate information

Downside is the availability of objectionable material

Use of the Web creates a challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity

Poorer adolescents don’t have access, creating digital divide

6-20

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20

Review: School Performance (1 of 2)

Academic performance is linked to SES, race, and ethnicity.

Lower-SES students have fewer supportive resources.

Gender and ethnicity affect dropout rates, which are very high for the United States.

6-21

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21

Review: School Performance (2 of 2)

Adolescents spend a lot of time using media.

Benefits include increased access to information and culture.

Risks include access to inappropriate and harmful content.

Poorer adolescents and minorities have less access to media, creating a “digital divide.”

6-22

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22

Check Yourself:
School Performance (1 of 2)

Because of the unfavorable comparison of U.S. standardized test scores to the scores of other countries, the gradual shift upward of adolescents’ grades in the past decade has been attributed to __________.

A) increased immigration

B) grade inflation

C) achievement deflation

D) decreased motivation

6-23

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Answer: B

23

Check Yourself:
School Performance (2 of 2)

The unequal access that adolescents have to educational computers and technology, depending on their socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity, has been termed __________.

A) the achievement gap

B) cyberbullying

C) the opportunity trap

D) the digital divide

6-24

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Answer: D

24

Applying Lifespan Development

What sorts of external factors (i.e., not attributable to the students) might negatively affect the performance of U.S. student on international achievement tests?

6-25

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Who Am I?

During middle childhood, children begin to view themselves:

  • Less in terms of external physical attributes
  • More in terms of psychological traits

*

Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood

Success in the industry-versus-inferiority stage brings with it feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence

  • Industry = feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence
  • Inferiority = feelings of failure and inadequacy

*

  • Lasting from roughly age 6 to age 12, the industry-versus-inferiority stage is characterized by a focus on efforts to meet the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world.

Erik Erikson’s middle childhood

  • Encompasses the INDUSTRY-VERSUS­INFERIORITY STAGE
  • Period from ages 6 to 12 years of age
  • Characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges related to:
  • Parents
  • Peers
  • School
  • Other complexities of the modern world

*

Understanding One’s Self: A New Response to “Who Am I?”

How do school-agers change?

  • Children realize they are good at some things and not so good at others
  • Self-concept and self-esteem continue to develop
  • Children’s self-concepts become divided into personal and academic spheres

*

Looking Inward: The Development of Self

As children get older, their views of self become more differentiated, comprising several personal and academic spheres.

What cognitive changes make this possible?

(Source: Based on Shavelson, Hubner, & Stanton, 1976.)

*

Social Comparison

Children use social comparison to themselves to abilities, expertise, and opinions of others

Festinger (1959)

  • When objective measures are absent children rely on social reality
  • How others act, think, feel, and view the world
  • Festinger is known for the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance which suggests a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions, and if conflict exists between attitude and behavior, attitude will likely change first.

*

Sometimes…

Children Make Downward Social Comparisons

  • With others who are:
  • Less competent
  • Less successful
  • To raise or protect their self-esteem

*

Self-Esteem: Developing a Positive-or Negative-View of the Self

Develops in important ways during middle childhood

  • Children increasingly compare themselves to others
  • Children are developing their own standards
  • For most children self-esteem improves in middle childhood
  • As children progress into the middle childhood years, however, their self-esteem is higher for some areas and lower in others. For example, a boy’s overall self-esteem may be composed of positive self-esteem in some areas (such as the positive feelings he gets from his artistic ability) and more negative self-esteem in others (such as the unhappiness he feels over his athletic skills).
  • On the other hand, students with high self-esteem travel a more positive path, falling into a cycle of success. Having higher expectations leads to increased effort and lower anxiety, increasing the probability of success. In turn, this helps affirm their higher self-esteem that began the cycle.

*

Change and Stability in Self-Esteem

Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood, but it begins to decline around the age of 12

  • School transition
  • Chronically low self-esteem for some

Breaking the Cycle of Failure

  • Promoting development of self-esteem
  • Using authoritative child-rearing style

Why do you think this style is recommended?

*

  • Authoritative parents are warm and emotionally supportive, while still setting clear limits for their children’s behavior.
  • In contrast, other parenting styles have less positive effects on self-esteem.
  • Parents who are highly punitive and controlling send a message to their children that they are untrustworthy and unable to make good decisions—a message that can undermine children’s sense of adequacy.
  • Highly indulgent parents, who indiscriminately praise and reinforce their children regardless of their actual performance, can create a false sense of self-esteem in their children, which ultimately may be just as damaging to children.

Race and Self-Esteem

Early research found that African Americans had lower self-esteem than whites

  • More recent research shows these early assumptions to be overstated
  • African Americans
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Asian Americans

*

  • Set of pioneering studies a generation ago found that African American children shown black and white dolls preferred the white dolls over the black ones (Clark & Clark, 1947).
  • Picture is more complex regarding relative levels of self-esteem between members of different racial and ethnic groups. For example, although white children initially show higher self-esteem than black children, black children begin to show slightly higher self-esteem than white children around the age of 11. This shift occurs as African-American children become more identified with their racial group, develop more complex views of racial identity, and increasingly view the positive aspects of their group membership.
  • Hispanic children, also show an increase in self-esteem toward the end of middle childhood, although even in adolescence their self-esteem still trails that of whites.
  • In contrast, Asian-American children show the opposite pattern: their self-esteem in elementary school is higher than whites and blacks, but by the end childhood, their self-esteem is lower than that of whites.

Why Does This Occur?

Social Identity Theory

  • Members of a minority group accept negative views held by majority group only if they perceive little realistic possibility of changing power and status differences between groups

*

  • If minority group members feel that prejudice and discrimination can be reduced, and they blame society for the prejudice and not themselves, self-esteem should not differ between majority and minority groups.
  • As group pride and ethnic awareness on the part of minority group members has grown, differences in self-esteem between members of different ethnic groups have narrowed.

Are Children of Immigrant Families Well Adjusted?

  • Tend to have equal or better grades than children with US born parents
  • Often more highly motivated to succeed and place greater value on education than do children in nonimmigrant families
  • Show similar levels of self-esteem to nonimmigrant children
  • Report feeling less popular and less in control of their lives

*

  • More than 13 million children in the U.S. are either foreign born or the children of immigrants—some one-fifth of the total population of children.
  • The story is less clear, however, when immigrant children reach adolescence and adulthood.

Moral Development: Kohlberg

  • Proposes series of fixed stages in development of moral reasoning
  • Uses moral dilemmas to assess moral reasoning
  • Provides good account of moral judgment but not adequate at predicting moral behavior

*

Kohlberg Stages

*

Kohlberg Criticisms

  • Based solely on observations of members of Western cultures
  • Theory initially based largely on data from males

*

  • Cross-cultural research finds that members of more industrialized, technologically advanced cultures move through the stages more rapidly than members of nonindustrialized countries.
  • Nature of morality may differ in diverse cultures.

Carol Gilligan

  • Way boys and girls raised leads to differences in moral reasoning
  • Suggests Kohlberg’s theory inadequate and places girls’ moral reasoning at lower level than boys’

*

  • Boys view morality primarily in terms of justice and fairness.
  • Girls see morality in terms of responsibility and compassion toward individuals and a willingness to sacrifice for relationships.

Gilligan’s Stages of Morality in Girls

*

  • “Orientation toward individual survival” – where females concentrate on what is practical and best for them.
  • “Goodness as self-sacrifice” – where females think they must sacrifice their own wishes to what others want.
  • “Morality of nonviolence” – women come to see hurting anyone as immoral, including themselves.

Friends in Middle Childhood

  • Provide emotional support and help kids to handle stress
  • Teach children how to manage and control their emotions
  • Teach about communication with others
  • Foster intellectual growth
  • Allow children to practice relationship skills

*

Damon’s Stages of Friendship

*

Damon’s Stages of Friendship

*

Damon’s Stages of Friendship

*

Likes me…likes me not!

*

  • Children develop clear ideas about which behaviors they seek in their friends—and which they dislike. As can be seen in Table 10-3, fifth- and sixth-graders most enjoy others who invite them to participate in activities and who are helpful, both physically and psychologically. In contrast, displays of physical or verbal aggression, among other behaviors, are disliked.

King or Queen of the Hill…Status Hierarchies

  • Children’s friendships show clear hierarchies in terms of status
  • Status is the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group

*

High Status Children

  • Form friendships with high status children
  • More likely to form exclusive and desirable cliques
  • Tend to play with a greater number of children
  • Have greater access to resources such as games, toys, books, and information

*

Low Status Children

  • Form friendships with other lower status children
  • Tend to play with a lower number of children than higher status children
  • Are more likely to play with younger or less popular children
  • Tend to follow the lead of higher status children

*

Unpopular Children

Lack of popularity may take two forms

Neglected children

  • Receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interaction

Rejected children

  • Are actively disliked and their peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner

*

Teaching Social Competence

Several programs teach children set of social skills that underlie general social competence

  • Before we review these, take a few minutes to visit with a classmate about what kind of program would best enhance social competence.
  • Report to the class.

*

  • See: Susan H. Spence. (2003) Social Skills Training with Children and Young People: Theory, Evidence and Practice. Child and Adolescent Mental Health: 2, 84–96,
  • Making Friends: Parents Can Teach Children How to Make Friends/Boystown Tip Sheet. Available at: http://www.boystownpediatrics.org/ParentTips/makefriends.asp

Schoolyard-and Cyber-Yard-Bullies

At school

  • 160,000 U.S. schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied
  • Almost 85 percent of girls and 80 percent of boys report experiencing some form of harassment in school at least once
  • Others encounter bullying on the Internet, which may be even more painful because often the bullying is done anonymously or may involve public postings

*

Schoolyard-and Cyber-Yard-Bullies

The bully

  • About 10 to 15 percent of students bully others at one time or another
  • About half of all bullies come from abusive homes
  • Bullies tend to watch more television containing violence, and they misbehave more at home and at school than do
  • nonbullies
  • When their bullying gets them into trouble, they may try to lie their way out of the situation, and they show little remorse for their victimization of others

*

Bully

School-bullied

  • Some 90 percent of middle-school students report being bullied at some point in their time at school, beginning as early as the preschool years
  • Characteristics
  • Loners who are fairly passive
  • Often cry easily
  • Lack the social skills that might otherwise defuse a bullying situation

*

Reducing Bullying

  • One of the most effective ways to reduce the incidence of bullying is through school programs that enlist and involve students
  • For example, schools can train students to intervene when they see an instance of bullying, rather than watching passively
  • Empowering students to stand up for victims has been shown to reduce bullying significantly

Boyfriend, girlfriend…any friend?

  • Avoidance of opposite sex becomes very pronounced during middle childhood
  • Children’s friendships are almost entirely sex-segregated
  • When sexes interact it is called “border work,” is often romantic, and helps emphasize clear boundaries between sexes

*

Cross-Race Friendships: Integration In and Out of the Classroom

  • Closest friendships largely with others of same race
  • Decline with age in number and depth of friendships outside own racial group

*

  • By the time they are 11 or 12, it appears that African American children become particularly aware of and sensitive to the prejudice and discrimination directed toward members of their race.

At that point, they are more like to make distinctions between members of ingroups (groups to which people feel they belong) and members of outgroups.

A good deal of research supports the notion that contact between majority and minority group members can reduce prejudice and discrimination (Kerner & Aboud, 1998; Hewstone, 2003).

Reducing Prejudice through

Contact Between Groups

Contact

  • Must occur in equal status settings
  • Enhanced through cooperative activities that are important to children
  • Must promote equality and disconfirm negative stereotypes

*

Middle Childhood in the 21st Century

In addition to other changes, children experience:

  • Increasing independence
  • Co-regulation with parents
  • Sibling relationships and rivalry

*

  • Start with: In addition to: increase in the number of parents who both work outside of the home, a soaring divorce rate, and a rise in single-parent families…
  • Middle childhood, then, is a period of coregulation in which children and parents jointly control behavior.
  • Siblings also have an important influence on children during middle childhood, for good and for bad. Although brothers and sisters can provide support, companionship, and a sense of security, they can also be a source of strife.

Siblings

Siblings

  • Sibling relationships are likely to endure across lifespan
  • Early relationships between siblings shape how children relate to others and choices made in later life

*

  • Children who negotiate well with their siblings in early childhood enjoy better relations with their teachers and classmates in middle childhood.
  • Destructive conflict solving between siblings is associated with continued aggressiveness in boys.
  • Older children also can function as role models for their younger sibling, but not always in a positive way.

What about children who have no siblings?

  • Only children are as well-adjusted as children with brothers and sisters
  • In some ways, only children are better-adjusted, often having higher self-esteem and stronger motivation to achieve

*

When Both Parents Work Outside the Home: How Do Children Fare?

In most cases, children fare quite well

  • When parents
  • Are loving
  • Are sensitive to their children’s needs
  • Provide appropriate substitute care
  • Good adjustment of children relates to psychological adjustment of parents, especially mothers

*

  • In general, women who are satisfied with their lives tend to be more nurturing with their children.
  • When work provides a high level of satisfaction, then, mothers who work outside of the home may be more psychologically supportive of their children.
  • Children with mothers and fathers who work full-time spend essentially the same amount of time with family, in class, with friends, and alone as children in families where one parent stays at home.

Good or bad?

Self-care children

  • Youngsters who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their parents return from work
  • Consequences of being a latchkey child are not all harmful
  • Some children report being lonely
  • Some children develop a sense of independence and competence
  • Some research shows latchkey children have higher self-esteem because they are helping family

*

The Consequences of Divorce

  • Only half of children in the U.S. will pass through childhood living with both parents each of whom has been married only once
  • School-age children tend to blame themselves for the breakup

*

  • By the age of 10, children feel pressure to choose sides, taking the position of either the mother or the father. Because of this, they experience some degree of divided loyalty.

For many children, there are minimal long-term consequences.

After the Break…

Both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustments for 6 months to 2 years

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Phobias

*

Rediscovering the Status Quo

  • After 18 months to 2 years, most children return to their predivorce psychological adjustment
  • Twice as many children of divorced parents require psychological counseling as do children from intact families
  • For some children, living in a home with unhappy marriage and which is high in conflict has stronger negative consequences than divorce

*

  • How children react to divorce depends on several factors. One is the economic standing of the family the child is living with. In many cases, divorce brings a decline in both parents’ standards of living. When this occurs, children may be thrown into poverty.

Single Parents

Almost one-quarter of all children under 18 in the U.S. live with only one parent

Numbers are higher for minority children

  • 60% of African-American children live in single parent homes
  • 35% of Hispanic children live in single parent homes

*

Multigenerational Families

  • Opportunity for rich experiences and conflicts
  • Greater among African Americans than among Caucasians
  • In some families, cultural norms tend to be highly supportive of grandparents taking an active role

*

Yours, mine…ours

  • Blended families include remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them
  • Experts predict that by 2000, over 50 percent of children born in the last decade will be stepchildren
  • Living in blended family involves role ambiguity, in which roles and expectations are unclear

*

Not all the news is bad!!

  • School-age children often adjust relatively smoothly to a blended family
  • Financial status of family improves
  • More people to share household chore
  • More social interaction and attention
  • But…not all children adjust well, especially if the new relationship is threatening

*

Race and Family Life

What do you know about…?

  • African-American families
  • Hispanic families
  • Asian-American families

*

  • African American
  • Frequently willing to offer welcome and support to extended family members in their homes.
  • Relatively high proportion of families headed by older adults, such as grandparents, and some studies find that children in grandmother-headed households are particularly well adjusted.
  • Hispanic families
  • Children are taught to value their ties to their families, and they come to see themselves as a central part of an extended family.
  • Ultimately, their sense of who they are becomes tied to the family. Hispanic families also tend to be relatively larger, with an average size of 3.71.
  • Asian American families
  • Although relatively little research has been conducted on Asian-American families, emerging findings suggest that fathers are more apt to be powerful figures, maintaining discipline.
  • In keeping with the more collectivist orientation of Asian cultures, children tend to believe that family needs have a higher priority than personal needs, and males, in particular, are expected to care for their parents throughout their lifetimes.

African-American families

  • Particularly strong sense of family
  • Often offer welcome and support to extended family members

Hispanic families

  • Stress importance of family life, community, and religious organizations
  • Tend to be relatively large

Asian-American families

  • Fathers are more apt to be powerful figures, maintaining discipline
  • Children tend to believe family needs have a higher priority than personal needs

Poverty and Family Life

Poor families

  • Fewer basic everyday resources
  • More disruptions in children’s lives
  • Higher likelihood of stress

*

  • The stress of difficult family environments, along with other stress in the lives of poor children—such as living in unsafe neighborhoods with high rates of violence and attending inferior schools—ultimately takes its toll.
  • Economically disadvantaged children are at risk for poorer academic performance, higher rates of aggression, and conduct problems. In addition, declines in economic well-being have been linked to mental health problems.

Group Homes…

  • Term “orphanage” replaced by group home or residential treatment center
  • Group homes used for youngsters whose parents are no longer able to care for

    them adequately

*

Anybody home?

  • The number of children in group care has growth over 50 percent
  • About three-quarters of children in group homes are victims of abuse and neglect
  • Most will eventually return home, however, one-fourth will be in group care throughout childhood

*

Good or Bad?

  • Experts disagree on advantages and disadvantages of group care
  • Some see them as solution to unwed mothers who become dependent on welfare
  • Many who work in these homes say they cannot provide adequate love and support as family could
  • Group homes cost ten times as much as foster care or welfare

*

Closing the Digital Divide: Some Unintended Consequences

Digital divide

  • Distinction between technological haves and have nots
  • Unintended consequences
  • Non-educational use of computers
  • Much media use unmonitored by parents
  • Media use drops dramatically with parental monitoring

School Daze

  • During school year, more of day is spent in a classroom than anywhere else
  • Schools have large influence on children’s lives

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How do children explain academic success and failure?

Attributions

  • Children attempt to explain their behavior in one of three ways
  • Whether the cause is internal (dispositional) or external (situational)
  • Whether the cause is stable or unstable
  • Whether the cause is controllable or uncontrollable

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  • Attribution theory: theory of motivation based on people’s ATTRIBUTIONS, their understanding of the reasons behind their behavior.

Attributional Confounds

Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status have strong influences on attributions of success and failure

  • African-American children are less likely to attribute success to internal causes, feeling that prejudice and discrimination are to blame
  • Women tend to attribute failure to low ability and success to luck
  • In Asian countries, academic success is perceived as being caused by hard work

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Developmental Diversity: Explaining Asian Academic Success

  • US attribute school performance to stable, internal causes
  • Japan, China, and other East Asian countries see temporary, situational factors as cause of their performance

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  • Asian view, which stems in part from ancient Confucian writings, tends to accentuate the necessity of hard work and perseverance.
  • Asian students tend to assume that academic success results from hard work, they may put greater effort into their schoolwork than American students, who believe that their inherent ability determines their performance.
  • These arguments suggest that the attributional style of students and teachers in the United States might well be maladaptive.
  • They also argue that the attributional styles taught to children by their parents may have a significant effect on their future success.

EPILOGUE

Return to the prologue—about Matt Donner’s social struggles—and answer the following questions:

  • Why do you think Matt seems to blame himself for being the victim of bullies?
  • What might be the motivation for other kids to bully Matt? How might it make them feel about themselves?
  • If a school guidance counselor wanted to help Matt adjust to his new school and make friends, what advice could she give him?

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EPILOGUE

  • Why might Matt’s parents be so in the dark about what was going on with their son at his new school? Why do you think Matt wanted to keep it that way?

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