How does climate change impact water security?

My assignment just I want you to reply for two students each student just one comment at least 50-100 word. You can see the fail I attached. You can add one reference for each students.

First student :

– How does climate change impact water security?

Water security is expected to be increasingly scarce in the soon future which climate change is partly a reason for that. Warming temperature affects water security by increasing evaporation rates that are higher than the proportion of rain and snow. However, increasing evaporation rates reduce water supplies. Water shortages are a real problem which several areas around the world face. However, in these sectors the amount of available water is limited and the demand continues to increase as the population grows. In addition, these areas suffer from a decrease of the rain and increase in the severity and length of droughts for several years. Indeed, the impact of climate changes are not specified; they would be widespread to involve several aspects of the natural system including; accelerated glacier melt, altered precipitation, runoff, and groundwater recharge patterns, to extreme droughts and floods, water quality changes and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers.

– How does climate change impact food security?

Climate changes are expected to increase the passive effect of food security in coming years. Increasing the high temperature which leads to heat stress for plants causing more sterility and less of productivity. Warming temperatures boost evaporation from plants and soils, increasing water demands. Climate changes pose a real danger for agriculture, staple crops and farmers. Moreover, growing seasons for plants change from season to season in several regions. Rainfall becomes unpredictable and unreliable whether in its timing or its volume which impact both crop quality and quantity. Also, climate change may increase the prices of the principal crops in some regions due to the minimizing of production. Climate changes can affect food security leading to decrease in dietary diversity, care practices and health

Second student:

What is your understanding of the concept of climate change and the urban heat island effect?

Climate change refers to an alteration in the statistical distribution of global weather patterns. These changes have the potential to extend over a long duration of time (Flato et al., 2013). Scientists are of the view that these changes may be felt for up to millions of years. There are a number of factors that lead to climate change. They include volcanic eruptions, biotic processes, variations in the amount of solar radiation the earth is exposed to, and plate tectonics. Recently, scientists have also identified human activities as a major cause of climate change. The main effects of climate change are the emergence of extreme weather conditions and global warming.

The urban heat island effect (UHI) is a concept that seeks to attribute higher temperatures in metropolitan areas and cities compared to the rural areas that surround them as a result of human activities. The differences in temperatures between rural and urban areas are higher during the night compared to during the day especially when the winds being experienced are weak (Vardoulakis, Karamanis, Fotiadi, & Mihalakakou, 2013). Scientists have also discovered that UHI is more noticeable the winter and summer seasons. The modification of land surface by humans is the primary cause of this phenomenon. The secondary cause is waste heat generated by human activities.

 How does climate change impact water security?

Climate change impacts on water security. One of the reasons behind this is that global warming, one of the effects of climate change results in the melting of polar ice into the sea. This results in the loss of fresh water into the oceans. Global warming also results to an increase in the atmosphere’s water holding capacity (Schewe et al., 2014). When the air cools, heavy rainfall is experienced within a short time. Although rainfall replenishes the earth’s supply of clean water, most of it ends up draining in to the ocean. The melting of glaciers also increases water supply in lakes and rivers in the short and middle term. However, it tends to reduce the supply of surface water on earth in the long-term.

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