complete the answers. Be sure to answer all the questions as fully as you can.
Gender Inclusive Peacebuilding & DDR
1. Read the prompt below.
2. Consider provisions for your peace process (see guidelines below; feel free to consult/debatewith other students)
.3. Write up your ideas and conclusions, taking care to answer each question below.
The country of Zoloa has experienced civil conflict between a Marxist insurgent group, theMINA, and the government for the past40 years. MINA members are drawn disproportionatelyfrom impoverished rural communities, the landless peasantry, and minority ethnic groups,though all ethnic groups in the country are represented in MINA and the group has even attracteda small number of fighters from other countries. The group began in response to governmentpolicies that shifted resources away from agriculture and rural communities and toward thedevelopment of the country’s industrial manufacturing sector. Most members joined theinsurgency between the ages of 15 and 23, and the vast majority have had only limited formaleducation and have little work experience outside the insurgency. Members of the insurgencyserve in many different roles: fighters, medics (most lack formal training and all are unlicensed),trainers (both in ideology and in fighting technic or other specialized skills),recruiters/propagandists, cooks, spies, etc. Approximately 40 percent of the group’s fighters arewomen, and women participate in the group in all roles, including as commanders, but none ofthe6 members of the group’s central governance committee (top level leadership) are women.Romantic relationships between the fighters are not uncommon, however if fighters becomepregnant they must choose between leaving the group permanently, leaving theirbaby withanother family, or abortion. Abortion is illegal in Zoloa and is opposed by influential religiousleaders in the country, but is provided by the MINA’s medics to its fighters.Women who havehad abortions are may be punished under the law and face severe social stigmatization in Zoloa.MINA’s use of abortion increases mistrust of the group among the general public and results infurther ostracization of former female rebels, who many assume to have had abortions,abandoned their children, and/orengaged in extramarital sexual intercourse.In the course of the conflict’s 30 year history, there have been many civilian casualties and manyfamilies throughout the country have been touched by violence, perpetrated either by the rebelsor the state. Furthermore, while the group has support in rural areas, particularly in the south, themajority of Zoloa’s population (75% of the population now live in urban areas) blame the MINAfor the violence as well as its effects on the country’s economy.The violence is widely believedto have depressed tourism levels and income and has interrupted both agriculture and miningoperations in the country.Additionally, the Church(70% of the country identify as adherents ofthe Church)rejects MINA’s Marxist ideologyas well as its use of female fighters and itsabortion practices and blames the group for the violence. In a population of 49 million, theMINA currently has about 7,000 armed fighters and at least as many far more members whoserve in a support capacity and active civilian supporters.While MINA’s numbers havedecreased by about half from their peak in the early 1990s, the group retains the ability tocontinue the conflict and create ongoing costs for the government if it does not receive some
- concessions. Additionally, in carrying out military counter insurgency operations, the government risks inadvertently killing civilians and increasing domestic and international sympathy for MINA. MINA’s calls for expanded rights for the rural poor, minorities, women,and LGBT people have already attracted some sympathy internationally, though this has beenlimited by the group’s role in terror attacks that have killed civilians.The MINA’s representatives have agreed to a ceasefire and to negotiations with the governmenttoward a permanent resolution of the conflict, however the terms of such an agreement have notyet been fully negotiated. The MINA has publicly claimed that its priorities include thefollowing: amnesty (and the ability to run for office) for crimescommitted by members duringthe conflict; land reform in Zoloa to allow the landless poor to own their own farms; greaterinvestment in health care and education, especially in rural areas; a living wage; and combattingcorruption. Additionally, some segments of the MINA have called for new legislation to protectthe rights of both women and thecountry’sLGBT population(homosexuality is currentlycriminalized in Zoloa).While some segments of the government and its supporters have voiced support for LGBTandwomen’s rights, they also charge the group with forcing members to have abortionsand withrecruiting children as young as 14. In general, the government delegation prefers to avoid majorpolicy changes as much as possible, to hold MINA leaders accountable for crimes committedduring the conflict, and to limit MINA representation in the government.You are charged with considering an inclusive and stabilizing peace process and DDR*agreement for this conflict. You are not expected to produce a draft peace agreement or acomplete process, however you should consider and debate proposals to address issues including(but not limited to) the following that might arise during the peace process and DDR. We areintentionally keeping these vague to encourage you to think creatively.
- 1. How do you address the needs of men women and children affected by the violence?* are the needs of government women different from those of the women of MINA?What about for men?
- 2. Who are the veto players in society and how can you satisfy them* what types of provisions should you expect particular actors to demand or to reject.Where/how can you find room for compromise?
- 3. Balancing reparations and the desire to see justice done for the victims with demands foramnesty from the group
- 4. How do you produce a stable peace that addresses the underlying causes of the conflict?
- 5. How will MINA members be reintegrated into communities that might include people victimized by those fighters
- 6. What types of reintegration assistance will MINA members receive? How will it be delivered? How will determinations of eligibility be made?
- *DDR: Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration–these are programs designed toincentivize individual rebels to lay down their arms and reintegrate into civilian life. See thereadings for examples. Provisions most famously include stipends and jobtraining. The idea
- behind these programs is that even is rebel leaders agree to disband, individual rebels maysimply form or join other insurgencies if they perceive that doing so is the only way they can getby or that there is no place for them in society. These programs can be politically unpopular forthe obvious reason that they appear to be rewarding rebels for engaging in violence. This is notthe goal–instead the goal is to give rebels a stake in peace or to make peace seem at least asbeneficialto the individual rebel as continued violence. See the readings for examples of someproblems with DDR programs as well