i am currently doing my masters thesis but it’s a bit had for me to do the analysis.
I have submitted 2 times and received a fail grade each time. The third option for submission is coming up and if I don’t pass again I won’t get my degree. I’ve spent so much to let this be the end.
I need someone experienced to help me with this. I have already put together the materials for analysis and the result is done. I just need to show the data when talking about the analysis I did and presenting it well. please help me
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of results
In this chapter the results of the content analysis are being presented and reviewed. First the results are reported and then analyzed according to the responsibilities under the Carroll Pyramid in order to answer the research questions. The study will also focus on what these results mean for the study and the CSR communication processed in the Nigerian oil and gas industry.
4.1 Presentation of Results
4.1.1 Results from Chevron
As stated earlier in the study, Chevron Nigeria is one of Nigeria’s largest oil and gas companies, who has been doing business in the country for more than 50 years. Chevron Nigeria has been embroiled in disputes involving environmental degradation, violations of human rights, and community development, just like other multinational oil firms doing business in Nigeria. The business has come under fire for its involvement in oil spills and gas flare-ups, which have seriously damaged the environment and local livelihoods. Chevron Nigeria has also come under fire for how it manages community development initiatives and for what people believe to be a lack of accountability and transparency.
While the company has been embroiled in disputes involving environmental degradation, violations of human rights, and community development, just like other multinational oil firms doing business in Nigeria, the company has invested in various investments in the nation’s social and economic development programs.
While analyzing the content from their website as well as 5 newspaper articles regarding their CSR activities in the country between 2021 and 2022 the study found that the organization has made sizable contributions to the members of their local community by outsourcing some of their contracts to the local business owners. The organization also developed Vocational Training Programmes and Operational Training Programme in order to help boost the standard of living for their host communities. Other CSR initiatives implemented by the organization include; the creation and funding of the Lekki conservation center, organizing oil spill clean ups in their western area of operations, Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, philanthropic activities such as donations to clinics and laboratories to fight against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as giving scholarships to gifted students within their host communities and the country at large. The organization also encourages community engagement by the creation and implementation of the Global Memorandum of Understanding which allows the members of the community to take the driver’s seat in its own development and ensures significant empowerment and capacity building opportunities.
Fig 4.1 Carroll Pyramid for Chevron
With the use of the Carroll pyramid, the study was able to categorize the CSR practices of Chevron into four (legal, philanthropic, economic and ethical (environmental) responsibilities). Using the Carroll pyramid for the analysis allows the study to establish a framework or infrastructure that aids in defining in some depth and framing or describing the nature of organizations’ responsibilities to the society of which it is a member. In the diagram above, it is viewable to see which aspect of the Carroll pyramid the organization gives the most significance.
Most of the communication materials analyzed show that the most attention is paid towards communicating their philanthropic activities with 2 newspaper articles and website content. These activities range from fighting HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, to providing scholarships as well as donating laboratories to hospitals. We also see that they paid the least attention to communicating their legal responsibility as the only information that could be found on their creation of the GMoUs was on the company website within 2021 and 2022. It is important to note that just because they have communicated their philanthropic responsibilities more frequently does not necessarily mean that they have neglected their other responsibilities.
The organization also ensured to inform their stakeholders of their activities in being environmental sustainability conscious with 2 newspaper articles within 2021 and 2022 on their focus into developing and delivering affordable and reliable energy as well as their oil spill clean up efforts in their host communities. By partnering and outsourcing work to local business owners as well as developing vocational programmes they are able to achieve their economic responsibility.
In the analysis, this study found that the organization pays the most attention to the stakeholders within their host communities in the creation and communication of their CSR activities. Six out of nine CSR activities which were communicated between 2021 and 2022 focus on their host communities in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta state, their Agbami partners as well as their Itsekiri host communities.
The study found that the communication platform with the most information on the CSR activities of the organization is the company website. This is because all aspects of the responsibilities identified by the Carroll Pyramid are visible on that platform while other communication platforms communicate only 1 or 2 responsibilities.
4.1.2 Results from Shell
Shell Nigeria has been embroiled in a variety of disputes over the years, most notably those involving the Niger Delta’s environmental damage and violations of human rights. Local communities and international groups have criticized the firm for its role in oil spills and gas flaring, which have seriously harmed the environment and local livelihoods. In an effort to correct and change the perspective of their stakeholders, the organization has engaged in various economic and social endeavors aimed to enhance the prosperity of Niger Delta communities and its environs.
During the analysis of their CSR activities and reportage from their website, 2 CSR reports, 7 newspaper and 2 television broadcast reports between the years 2021 and 2022, the study found that the organization made substantial investments in education programmes as well the DART programme. They also contributed to the economic growth of the Nigerian economy by awarding over $800 million to Nigerian-registered companies, of which 92% was to companies where the Nigerian ownership was at least 51%. Other CSR initiatives implemented by the organization include; the cradle-to-career scholarship which benefited over 200 people within the 2 years, oil spill clean up in Ogoniland, reduction of gas flares by 90%, supporting 17 healthcare centers in the Niger Delta Region, the Health-in-Motion mobile community health outreach programme, donations to support the Federal Government of Nigeria’s efforts to provide relief to people impacted by the flood disaster in 2022, the Community Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the Oloibiri Health Programme (OHP), scholarship programmes for students across all levels of education. Furthermore, through the creation and implementation of the Global Memorandum of Understanding, Shell Nigeria enables local residents to take the lead in their own development and offers significant opportunities for empowerment and capacity building, fostering community participation.
Fig 4.2 Carroll Pyramid for Shell Plc
Contrary to the results obtained from the analysis into the Chevron organization, Shell shows that it places a lot of emphasis on communicating their CSR activities. They have CSR reports for each year chosen for this study. They have also published 7 articles in newspapers and two television broadcasts. The Carroll pyramid served as a basis for the analysis conducted into the communication of the CSR activities of the organization. The figure above shows the percentage of reportage of each aspect of the CSR activities of Shell according to the Carroll pyramid.
A lot of emphasis is placed on reporting their economic responsibilities than they do their environmental, philanthropic or even their legal activities. The study concludes that this may be the case since these regions are frequently viewed as making beneficial contributions to society and may enhance the company’s brand and public perception.
With 5 newspaper articles and 2 CSR reports, the communication of the economic responsibilities within their CSR precedent seem to take precedence. These activities range from investing in education programmes and scholarships, outsourcing projects and contracts to Nigerian business owners worth $800 million. Increasing the investment portfolio for the DART programme to $25 million, buying Daystar Power for $97 million to aid foray into renewable energy. The least attention is paid to communicating their efforts to engage in the legal aspect of the CSR pyramid with only one media report (television broadcast). The study deduces that this could be due to legal constraints on what they can say publicly about their legal responsibilities, as disclosing certain information may harm ongoing legal proceedings or expose the company to further liability.
They make better efforts to communicate their efforts in the environmental aspect of the pyramid with 1 broadcast report, 1 newspaper report and 2 CSR reports. These activities range from moving into the renewable energy sector which reduced the gas flares by 90% as well as organizing oil spill clean ups in Ogoniland. Although they seem to have engaged in various philanthropic activities, there are only 2 reports on it which can be found in the 2021 and 2022 CSR reports for the organization. These activities include such; donating $1 million to support the Federal Government of Nigeria’s efforts to provide relief to people impacted by the flood disaster, scholarship programmes, supporting 17 healthcare centers in the Niger Delta region, the health-in-Motion mobile community health outreach programme, the Community Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the Oloibiri Health Programme (OHP).
The study also found that the organization ensures that they engage in CSR activities that would benefit most of their stakeholders. Engaging in profitable investments for shareholders, helping to improve the Nigerian economy not just by outsourcing projects but also by employing mostly Nigerians, creating healthcare initiatives and insurance schemes to make healthcare affordable, they also help nurture talents through the cradle-to-career scholarship and the LIVEWIRE scholarship programmes. While the CSR reports is the media platform with the most information about the CSR activities of Shell Plc, they organization does not shy away from reporting their activities with 7 newspaper reports and 2 television broadcast centered around their CSR initiatives
4.1.3 Results from TotalEnergies
While conducting the analysis into the CSR activities of TotalEnergies and the communication of those activities, the study found that the organization has invested in and implemented a considerable amount of efforts into their CSR activities. This could be due to the organization’s goal of reducing their environmental impact as well as developing various developmental initiatives to aid the community in which they are based.
12 newspaper articles, 1 annual report as well as information from the company’s website was used in data analysis. The study found that the organization places a lot of emphasis into lessening its environmental impact and advancing renewable energy in the nation. The organization seems to be devoted towards sustainable development, environmental conservation and philanthropic endeavors. Some of these CSR activities include; The L.E.A.D program, the Total Health Trust providing for children with special needs, Catch Dem Young (CDY) initiative to support gifted indigent students chosen from Egi land communities of Rivers State, the mentor a child program, the book club program, as well as a campaign against HIV/AIDS, creation and funding maternal healthcare centers as well as an agri-business empowerment program for women, the green stations initiative, the Koko program, startupper challenge of the year and the building of solar-powered science laboratory and ICT centers in 4 states.
Fig 4.3 Carroll Pyramid for TotalEnergies
Based on the amount of communication materials on the CSR activities of TotalEnergies, it can be concluded that the organization places a lot of emphasis on communicating to their stakeholders about their CSR activities. They have published an annual report for 2021, 12 newspaper articles, as well as publishing information on their website.
The results of this study indicates that TotalEnergies Plc has engaged in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities as well as communicated these activities to their stakeholders between 2021 and 2022. The analysis was based on the Carroll Pyramid, which categorizes CSR activities into four areas: economic, philanthropic, ethical (environmental), and legal responsibilities.
The findings show that the largest proportion of TotalEnergies CSR activities was focused on philanthropic responsibility. Activities that fulfill this responsibility include; the creation and funding of maternal healthcare centers, the Total Health Trust providing for children with special needs, the book club program, the commissioning of a secondary school project in Benue state, a campaign against HIV/AIDS, the Catch Dem Young (CDY) initiative to support gifted indigent students chosen from Egi land communities of Rivers State, the mentor a child program as well as a hygiene and sanitation project in their host communities. This was followed closely by ethical responsibility, with an emphasis on environmental sustainability. The Green stations initiative and the building of solar-powered science laboratories and ICT centers in 4 states are examples of such activities. Alongside the same vein, the organization also put efforts into communicating their economic responsibility, which involves generating profits, providing jobs, and contributing to economic growth. Some of these activities include; the L.E.A.D career program, the agri-business empowerment program for women, the startupper of the year challenge and the Koko youth program.
There is, however, no evidence that the company has taken part in any CSR initiatives that address their legal obligations. Given that CSR is sometimes considered as a way for businesses to go above and beyond legal requirements and demonstrate their commitment to ethical behavior, this is a striking discrepancy.
Overall, the results suggest that while the organization has made significant efforts towards philanthropic and environmental responsibility, there is room for improvement in addressing their legal obligations as part of their CSR activities. These findings may have implications for companies looking to enhance their CSR efforts and communicate their commitments to stakeholders.
4.2 Summary of Findings
The data analysis shows that Chevron Nigeria, Shell Nigeria, and TotalEnergy Nigeria have all been embroiled in disputes involving environmental damage, human rights abuses, and community development. To change this attitude, the three corporations have launched a number of CSR programs in Nigeria.
Chevron Nigeria has made investments in a number of social and economic development initiatives, including the creation of the Lekki conservation center and the outsourcing of contracts to small-business owners in the region. Through the formulation and implementation of the Global Memorandum of Understanding, the corporation also promotes community involvement. Shell Nigeria, on the other side, has helped the Nigerian economy thrive by awarding over $800 million to businesses with Nigerian registrations and lowering gas flaring by 90%. The corporation has also established a number of CSR programs, including the Health-in-Motion mobile community health outreach program, the Cradle-to-Career Scholarship, and the cleanup of the Ogoniland oil spill.
During the analysis of TotalEnergies’ CSR activities, the study found that the largest proportion of TotalEnergies CSR activities was focused on philanthropic responsibility such as the creation and funding of maternal healthcare centers, the Total Health Trust providing for children with special needs, and the book club program. The organization has also implemented ethical and economic activities such as the green stations initiatives and the agri-business empowerment program for women.
In terms of the Carroll pyramid, the companies have focused majorly on three aspects of four responsibilities: philanthropic, economic and ethical (environmental) responsibilities. Chevron Nigeria pays more attention to their philanthropic responsibilities as they implemented and communicated about six activities based on said responsibility between 2021 and 2022. For Shell Nigeria, they focus more on communicating their ethical responsibilities perhaps due mostly to the criticisms they have faced about their disregard for the environment. They have also contributed to the economic growth of the country and have also shared with their stakeholders how they do so. While TotalEnergies has focused majorly on their philanthropic responsibility by implementing initiatives to help improve the quality of lives of the less privileged.
TotalEnergies Nigeria has implemented several CSR activities (14) within the period used as a case for this study; they ensured that they consistently communicated on these activities. They have the most newspaper publications among the three companies. This can be inferred to mean that they have the best relationship with their stakeholders due to their communication style of consistency. Shell Nigeria, is more thorough in that it has a comprehensive CSR report for each year of the case period as well as having 2 television broadcasts compared to the zero by the other companies. Chevron has the least communication activities (5 newspaper articles, information on their website, 0 broadcast publications). The company’s communication regarding its CSR activities seems to be less frequent compared to its peers, as only a few reports and articles were found during the analysis.
4.3 Answering the research questions
At the core of this study is the question:
How are the organizations within the Nigerian oil and gas industry communicating to their stakeholders on their efforts on corporate sustainability and responsibility according to the Carroll Pyramid? The answer to this is the organizations use newspaper articles in their communication endeavors. The newspaper publications with the most articles centered around the topic are; The Sun, Independent Newspaper, National Tribune and the Guardian. Other newspaper publications used are; Vanguard Newspaper, New Telegraph, Daily post, and This Day Newspaper among others. Other communications platforms included the use of company websites, Annual and CSR reports as well as television broadcast by Shell Nigeria.
Other research questions include;
R.Q 1: It is evident from the data and research presented on Chevron, Shell, and TotalEnergies that communication is essential to these businesses’ performance in the energy industry. These organizations need to employ excellent communication strategies if they are to attract investors, win business, and maintain stakeholder trust. To accomplish these goals, Chevron, Shell, and TotalEnergies have all adopted a variety of communication tactics, such as issuing annual reports and CSR reports.
On the other side, inefficient communication methods can result in mistakes, missed opportunities, and reputational harm, all of which can have a detrimental influence on financial success. Examples of this include Chevron and Shell’s legal issues in Nigeria, which were partially brought on by a lack of connection with the local population.
These organizations must also comply with reporting, safety, and environmental protection rules and regulations. To ensure that crucial information is correctly communicated, good communication is essential. Legal ramifications and regulatory scrutiny may follow noncompliance with these regulations, which may have a negative impact on the business’s efficacy and efficiency. To ensure adherence to these rules, all three businesses have established communication initiatives, such as publishing annual and sustainability reports.
Companies in the oil and gas industry have an ethical obligation to build stakeholder trust and prevent negative publicity by employing open, honest, and accurate communication methods. Chevron, Shell, and TotalEnergies have all worked to boost their reputations by emphasizing how committed they are to environmental responsibility and sustainability.
Finally, these organizations can enhance their reputations generally and be more effective in achieving their goals by developing goodwill and positive relationships with stakeholders through communication tactics that showcase the company’s charity initiatives. For instance, Shell has made investments in community development initiatives in Nigeria, which have enhanced its standing and connections with the region.
R.Q 2: Based on the data provided, it seems that the priority of responsibilities within the Carroll Pyramid for the oil and gas industry in Nigeria varies among companies, with each placing a different level of importance on different categories. Chevron Nigeria appears to regard philanthropic obligation as the most significant responsibility, followed by ethical (environmental) responsibility, according to the Carroll Pyramid. Legal Responsibility has the lowest percentage while Economic Responsibility is rated third.
Shell Nigeria, on the other hand, places economic responsibility as the most crucial responsibility, followed by ethical (environmental) responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and legal responsibility. Philanthropic responsibility ranks first among TotalEnergies’ priorities in Nigeria, followed by economic responsibility and ethical (environmental) responsibility. According to the analysis they have no legal culpability.
R.Q 3: According to the justifications offered in the preceding chapter, organizations in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry largely employ CSR activities. Depending on their particular company aims and stakeholder requirements, the organizations give different facets of CSR, such as economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, and philanthropic duty, a higher priority. These CSR strategies seek to promote business performance, adhere to legal requirements, cultivate stakeholder trust, and forge enduring bonds with regional communities.
Examination Feedback on Amarachukwu Chimuanya’s Master’s Thesis: An analysis of
the CSR Communication practices of the Nigerian Oil and Gas industry using the Carroll
Examiner: Cansu Elmadagli, PhD
As it stands, the thesis does not fulfil the grading criteria to achieve a passing grade. The
areas that need improvement or are entirely missing from the thesis are highlighted below.
The criteria for a minimum of passing grade, the following should be fulfilled to achieve an
• Provides an introduction that gives an insight to the problem area.
• Contains an aim and answerable research questions, and a review of mostly relevant literature,
with weak attempts to position the own study against previous research. Attempts to place the
own study within a relevant research field.
• Acceptable use of theory throughout the thesis. Concepts are presented but the relation between
them is not always clear.
• Acceptable presentation of relevant methods, a presentation of how the methods are used in the
study, and a superficial reflection of research quality in relation to the own thesis, and/or on
ethical considerations. There is a presentation of the empirical data as well as of the data
collection and sampling.
• Acceptable presentation of the study’s results, which shows that an analysis of the empirical
data has been conducted. Analytical points made are mostly backed by empirical data.
• Conclusions are provided, but the conclusions section provides a weak attempt to place the own
thesis’s results in a broader scientific conversation with theory and previous research. The
discussion mainly centers on the own case.
• Correct citation of all sources within a required format.
• Acquired knowledge: Limited but sufficient knowledge of subject area. Sufficient
understanding of the research process for the current level. Evidence of knowledge about how
to apply theory in research. Evidence of knowledge about how to use methods in research and
how to evaluate research quality. Evidence of critical appreciation of sources used. Attempts to
apply critical thinking, with mainly successful results.
The thesis is given F based on the grading criteria as stated in the Study Guide:
• Major improvements are needed to fulfil the requirements that apply for the grade E.
• Acquired knowledge: Insufficient evidence of knowledge about how to do research at the
current level. Insufficient evidence of knowledge of how to apply critical thinking in the
The student was advised to revise their thesis based on the examination feedback they received
back in June 2023. However, the student did not adequately apply the revision feedback and
thus is given a grade of F for the second time. Revisions needed for a passing grade cannot be
realistically achieved before the final submission deadline on 1st of September 2023 since major
revisions are needed. Additionally, only a limited amount of feedback can be given to the
student as the thesis does not have the adequate components of an analytical chapter that can
be properly assessed. However, the student should apply the written feedback provided by the
examiner to achieve a passing grade when re-submitting in October 2023 or at a later date.
The minimum number of revisions expected for this are briefly outlined below:
• Missing citations need to be included and if inconsistent, need to be corrected.
• Each section should be properly introduced so that the reader is being guided.
• In the methodology chapter, the sample size, mode of data collection and the time-
scope for data collection need to be properly justified and elaborated on.
• The analysis chapter needs to be re-written in a way that is properly and overtly
connected to the empirical data.
• The analysis chapter needs to be re-written in a way that shows independent,
analytical, and critical research skills.
• The conclusion chapter needs to be re-written in alignment with the revised analysis.