Hltwhs002 follow safe work practices for direct client care

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 Hi,

I have attached the workbook need to complete and also attached the helpbook.

Need to answer all questions in a same book.

No word limit. All answers should be detailed.

HLTWHS002

Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Learner Workbook


Table of Contents


Table of Contents





1



Instructions to students:





3




Assessment instructions






3




Assessment Task






3




Assessment requirements






3




Competency outcome






4




Assessment appeals process






5




Special needs






5




Additional evidence






5




Confidentiality






5




Academic misconduct






5



Activities





9



Activity 1A





9



Activity 1B





0



Activity 1C





0



Activity 1D





0



Activity 1E





1



Activity 2A





2



Activity 2B





3



Activity 2C





4



Activity 1A to 2C checklist – for assessor





5



Activity 3A





6



Activity 3B





7



Activity 3C





8



Activity 3D





9



Activity 4A





10



Activity 4B





11



Activity 4C





12



Activity 3A to 4C checklist – for assessor





13



Activity 5A





14



Activity 5B





15



Activity 5C





16



Activity 5A to 5C checklist – for assessor





17



Knowledge Activity (Q & A)





18



Knowledge Activity – for assessor





19



Supplementary Oral Questions (optional) – for assessor





20




Instructions to students:









Assessment instructions


Overview

The purpose of this learner workbook, assessment workbook, simulation diary or logbook is to provide a guide of instruction and information in relation to the relevant assessment tasks. As a learner, you will be provided with information relating to your assessment, including how they are to be completed and submitted. Therefore, it is important that you fully understand the assessment instructions given by your trainer to avoid issues such as academic misconduct, submitting past the due date and providing incomplete assessments, which you will be required to resubmit. If you fail to understand or need more clarification on the assessments, you are required to contact your trainer/assessor for further information.



Assessment Task

The aim of assessments is to test your knowledge, skills and understanding in relation to the topics being taught within a given course. This will be done by using an assessment criterion which shows what you need to do to achieve the appropriate level of competency. For the purpose of completing a written assessment, you are required to:

· Complete each question, including any sub-questions;

· Provide in-depth research on the topic, using appropriate primary and secondary sources;

· Respond using a clear structure (e.g. Introduction, points of argument or fact, conclusion), including references to the sources used.

All assessments required to be completed are compulsory as it is a required condition of your enrolment.




Assessment requirements

The assessments within this document can be completed through several approaches such as:

· Observation of real, indisputable actions as they occur;

· Written or oral task such as reports, role play, work samples etc;

· Portfolios;

· Questions, or third-party evidence, in which the relevant document (observation document is to be completed by the agreed third party.

All documents relating the third-party observation is to be provided to your trainer/assessor as this will be used in determining your level of competency. Third-party evidence can be obtained from supervisors (e.g., from the workplace), or clients/customers.

Please be informed that all assessments are to be typed up. Any handwritten assessments will not be permitted unless approved by the trainer/assessor. You must also comply with assessment policy and procedures at

https://aibtglobal.edu.au/support/student-forms/policies/
.


Simulation diary (if required):
You will do the simulation tasks as a part of your course in the designated simulated environment.

During the simulation session, the student is required to meet the following requirements:

· Follow the dress standards -enclosed shoes, appropriate clothing (no shorts or skirts)

· Be aware of relevant procedures in case of accident, emergencies, evacuation

· Follow the start and finish times, breaks, work routines, etc.

· Follow the policies on personal phone calls and personal emails.

· The attendance for simulation sessions will be monitored as per ‘AIBTGlobal’s Monitoring Student Attendance and Academic Progression policy and procedure.’

· Students should follow the standards of behaviour and comply with ‘AIBTGlobal’s Student Conduct Rules’.

· Students should come prepared for the planned activities for simulation.



Observation/demonstration/simulation (if required):

You may be required to perform tasks/works/assessments through observations, simulation, or demonstrations. Your trainer/assessor will provide you with a list of demonstrations, logbooks, simulation diary or any other related documents for tasks/works/assessments. The observation, simulation or demonstration can occur in the workplace, or the training environment such as workshop, or simulation labs. During observation, demonstration or simulation, you will be provided with necessary information (e.g., timeframe) and equipment and/or materials to complete the task. You are required to perform the work, task or assessment in accordance with the required instructions.





Competency outcome

Upon completing the following assessments, your trainer will either mark the assessment indicating S for satisfactory or NS for not satisfactory (requires more training). If you, as a learner/trainee, receive satisfactory marks for all assessments within this module, you will be graded a “C” for ‘Competent’. In vice versa, “NYC” for ‘Not yet Competent’, in which your trainer will provide adequate feedback and give you a chance to resubmit. If your second submission of assessments is still NS, you may be required to (i) resubmit assessments on the third attempt or (ii) redo the course unit again, which requires re-enrolment. Please be aware that the third attempt of resubmission or re-enrolment to the course can result in additional costs/fees.



Assessment appeals process


As a learner, you have a right to appeal a decision or outcome of an assessment if you feel like it was made unfairly. However, this complaint must first be resolved with the trainer/assessor before lodging an appeal. If you are still dissatisfied with the outcome, then a written application of the appeal can be made to the course coordinator, outlining the grounds for the appeal in accordance with the complaints and appeals policy and procedures at

https://aibtglobal.edu.au/support/student-forms/policies/
.




Special needs

Learning adjustments can be made for any candidate who has special needs (e.g., a student with a disability). However, the trainer/assessor must be well informed about this so they can immediately implement the necessary adjustments and have it ready before commencement.



Additional evidence

If at any event during or after the assessment process, the trainer/assessor requests you to provide additional information or an alternative submission to establish your level of competency, then you are required to do so. However, you must do so in a way that avoids any issues of privacy or confidentiality.



Confidentiality




All information provided to us regarding your job, workplace and employer will be kept confidential in accordance with the relevant law. However, it is your responsibility to check that all information provided to us does not involve details unrelated or not agreed upon for disclosure. For example, information about your employer, colleagues and other related third parties who might be involved. Although we may require information about these other parties, it is your responsibility to check that valid consent has been given from these individuals before providing us with the requested information. This process of obtaining information from the relevant parties must also be done in accordance with the relevant law.

Recognised prior learning

Any candidate may apply for credit transfer which they wish to count towards their course credit following the application and assessment process of the credit transfer policy and procedure.



Academic misconduct

Academic Misconduct includes plagiarism, cheating and/or collusion, or any act or omission by a student which attempts to circumvent or defeat the integrity of the College’s assessment process. Without limiting the scope of the definition of academic misconduct, examples of plagiarism, cheating and collusion are provided below:






Plagiarism
is defined as taking someone else’s work or ideas and submitting it as their own. This may include acts such as, but not limited to:

· Copying the direct words of a sentence or paragraph presented in a source, without referencing it or giving it proper acknowledgement. This also extends to any structure used in completing the assignment; and

· Submitting the same assignment as another learner who either is currently or has previously completed it and presenting it as their own work.


Cheating
occurs when you behave dishonestly in an attempt to obtain an unfair advantage in any form of assessment. Examples of cheating include:

· Failing to adhere to examination conditions, for example, speaking or communicating with other candidates in an examination, bringing unauthorised material into the examination room, reading or attempting to read other students’ answers, leaving the examination or test answer papers exposed to another student’s view;

· Impersonating another student or arranging for someone to impersonate a student in any assessment task;

· Purchasing assessment items from a contract cheating or ghost-writing service and presenting them as the student’s own work;

· Allowing others to complete any assessment task and/or submit an assessment task which is not the student’s own work;

· Fraudulent representation of any required documentation, for example, prior qualifications, or medical certificates.





Collusion
is defined where a learner collaborates with another learner currently enrolled or graduated to produce an assessment which is submitted as their own. This may involve two or more learners working together to produce the content of an assessment before submission.


Plagiarism, cheating and/or collusion is a behaviour that is strictly prohibited, therefore, prior to completing your assessment it is advised that you refer to our Academic Misconduct policy and procedure at

https://aibtglobal.edu.au/support/student-forms/policies/
to ensure relevant compliance. If you are found committing any of these acts, you will be investigated in which the appropriate disciplinary action will be taken. As a result, it is important that you raise any questions regarding plagiarism, cheating and collusion with your trainer before submitting the final assessment.


Student Details

Student ID: _____________________________________________________________

Name: _____________________________________________________________

Phone: _____________________________________________________________

Email: _____________________________________________________________

Declaration

I declare that

· The content in this document is my own work, based on my own study and research and no part of it has been copied from any other source, except where acknowledgement/reference has been made.

· The content in this document is my own work and no part of the work has been copied from any other student who is currently studying or was graduated from the college.

· I have read and understood all instructions and requirements for the work, task, or assessment that is assessed by my trainers and/or assessors. The understanding includes the submission date and time.

· I will keep a copy of my submitted work (e.g., logbook, or assessment).

I have read and understood the assessment policy and procedures, and academic misconduct policy and procedures:

· I will perform my work to the best of my ability.

· I will not commit academic misconduct stated in academic misconduct policy and procedures. Academic misconduct behaviour may result in ‘not competent’ result of the unit of competency.

· I understand if I receive not satisfactory for my work/assessment/task, it will result in not competent result for the unit of competency. This can result in work/assessment/task resubmission and re-enrolment of the unit of competency which can incur additional costs/fees to me.

· I understand that any assessment/task/work deemed unsatisfactory will require me to undergo reassessment which may be different to the one originally submitted.

· I give permission for my assessment/task/work to be reproduced, communicated, compared, and archived for the purposes of detecting academic misconduct and to fulfil any related College’s policy and procedures

· I am aware that if I disagree with the assessment/task/work result, I have the right to appeal the result. I will follow the complaints and appeals policy and procedures at

https://aibtglobal.edu.au/support/student-forms/policies/
.

· I take full responsibility for the correct submission of this assessment/task/work in the required place/channel with the correct cover sheet.

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________________

Date: _____________________________________________________________

ONLY If assessment/task/work is required to be completed as part of a group or in pairs, details of the learners involved should be provided below:


If you are NOT instructed to complete the assessment, work, or task in a group or in pairs, you or any other student will NOT fill or sign this section below and MUST NOT work in a group or in pairs. Failure to comply will result in not satisfactory result of required work, assessment, or task.

The content of this work/task/assessment is completed by the students named below. All students acknowledge that the assessment, work, or task must be completed by everyone’s equal contribution and in accordance with the requirements. All students declare that no part of this assessment, task, or work is taken from or completed by any other student. If the assessment, work, or task cites or paraphrases information from other sources, reference and acknowledgement of those sources must be provided.

Student 1:

Student ID: ____________________________________________________________

Student Name: ____________________________________________________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________________

Student 2:

Student ID: ____________________________________________________________

Student Name: ____________________________________________________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________________

Student 3:

Student ID: ____________________________________________________________

Student Name: ____________________________________________________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________________

Student 4:

Student ID: ____________________________________________________________

Student Name: ____________________________________________________________

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________________



Activities








Activity 1A

Estimated Time

15 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to follow workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices.

Activity

Identify three separate procedures that must be followed for the health and safety of your employees.

HLTWHS002 Learner Workbook V2.0 Page 1 of 1

HLTWHS002 Learner Workbook V2.0 Page 0 of 65




Activity 1B

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to designated persons, and record them according to workplace procedures.

Activity

Identify a hazard from each of the following categories and explain what you would do in each instance:

·
Environmental

·
Client-based

·
Staff-based

·
People based




Activity 1C

Estimated Time

30 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify any client-related risk factors or behaviours of concern, report them to designated persons, and record them according to workplace procedures.

Activity

What would you do if:

·
You noticed a puddle of water in the kitchen

·
You noticed a flap of carpet loose in the building

·
You slipped on the floor in the hallway

Give the best answer you can. If organisational policy stipulates action, include this.




Activity 1D

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk.

Activity

What policies and procedures does your organisation impose or recommend in the following situations:

·
Working in a new environment?

·
A staff member doesn’t turn up for work?

·
A client becomes violent?




Activity 1E

Estimated Time

25 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify and report incidents and injuries to designated persons according to workplace procedures.

Activity

1.
Identify an emergency situation that could occur at work:

· Gas leak

· Building collapse

· Flood

· Bomb alert

· Other.

2.
And outline the roles, expectations and limitations of various roles:

·
What they need to do:

·
What they could do, if possible:

·
What they should not do:




Activity 2A

Estimated Time

45 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to follow manual handling procedures and work instructions for minimising manual handling risk.

Activity

Role playing activity

Choose a manual handling activity that is carried out in your workplace.

Demonstrate how to do it, following established manual handling procedures and work instructions for minimising risk.

Next, demonstrate how it could be done with no regard for safety and explain each risk associated with this method. Note: do not actually do the task in this way, but indicate and use gestures to show how it would be done hypothetically to explain your answer.




Activity 2B

Estimated Time

30 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace procedures.

Activity

Role playing activity

Choose from one of the following categories:

·
Moving people

·
Carrying manageable items

·
Moving heavy or bulky items

·
Postural movements.

Describe an action or task to be carried out that belongs in your category.

Next, individually demonstrate how you would handle it correctly, explaining any specific points, such as ‘keep your back straight,’ or a particular grip, etc.




Activity 2C

Estimated Time

30 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to apply control measures for minimising manual handling risk.

Activity

Locate a risk assessment form from:

·
Workplace

·
Government website

·
Other suitable website or source

And identify an activity to plot on the risk assessment form.

What conclusion do you come to?


Activity 1A to 2C checklist – for assessor

This should be used by the trainer/assessor to document the learner’s skills, knowledge and performance as relevant to the unit activity. Indicate in the table below if the learner is deemed satisfactory (S) or not satisfactory (NS) for the activity or if reassessment is required.

Learner’s name

Assessor’s name

Unit of Competence

(Code and Title)

HLTWHS002- Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Date(s) of assessment

Has the activity been answered and performed fully, as required to assess the competency of the learner?

Yes No

(Please circle)

Has sufficient evidence and information been provided by the learner for the activity?

Yes No

(Please circle)

The learner’s performance was:

Not yet satisfactory

Satisfactory

If not yet satisfactory, date for reassessment:

Feedback to learner:

Learner’s signature

Assessor’s signature




Activity 3A

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to follow standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the spread of infection.

Activity

List the benefits associated with:

·
Washing hands

·
Safe disposal of sharps

·
Surface cleaning

·
Management of bodily fluid spills

·
Personal Protective Equipment

And how they contribute to the prevention of infection.




Activity 3B

Estimated Time

25 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to recognise situations when additional infection control procedures are required.

Activity

Identify a situation in which you would be required to apply additional infection control procedures.

·
Why is it needed?

·
What would you do?




Activity 3C

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to apply additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent transmission of infection.

Activity

How can you ensure that additional precautions are applied when required?

Give an example of this.




Activity 3D

Estimated Time

45 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify risks of infection and report them according to workplace procedures.

Activity

Case study

1.
Every time Tom cooks he seems to become ill with a stomach upset. Why could this be? How can he avoid getting ill when he cooks?

2.
Sophie seems to catch every sniffle and sneeze that is going in the building. Why could this be? How can she avoid catching everything?

3.
Andrew has caught head lice three times this year so far and is sure he is getting them from work, as each time he has caught them he has been doing overtime at another residential home. How could this be? What can he do to tackle this issue?




Activity 4A

Estimated Time

30 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational procedures.

Activity

1.
Give an example of how you can adhere to your requirements at work, in terms of your WHS responsibilities.

For each of the following, give an example of how you could meet these requirements:

·
Work safely

·
Wear PPE where required

·
Follow safety procedures and requirements

·
Not destroy or compromise equipment and resources provided to them

·
Not interfere with safety equipment

·
Not act in a way that compromises the safety of yourself, colleagues, clients and the public

·
Report WHS issues / hazards, etc.

2.
Identify three task or role-specific issues or concerns you could encounter and note who you would consult for help and why.




Activity 4B

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative activities.

Activity

What types of inspection are carried out in your workplace? How are you expected to follow up on areas of concern?




Activity 4C

Estimated Time

30 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace policies and procedures in own work area.

Activity

This activity is about providing feedback to supervisors about hazards.

What would you do if:

·
You noticed that a hoist was broken?

·
You noticed that water in the front porch was leaking into the hallway?

·
You saw someone lifting something incorrectly?

·
You identified that a resident had the flu?

·
You thought a colleague might be intoxicated?

·
You noticed that a door was hanging off its hinges?

Who would you contact? And how?


Activity 3A to 4C checklist – for assessor

This should be used by the trainer/assessor to document the learner’s skills, knowledge and performance as relevant to the unit activity. Indicate in the table below if the learner is deemed satisfactory (S) or not satisfactory (NS) for the activity or if reassessment is required.

Learner’s name

Assessor’s name

Unit of Competence

(Code and Title)

HLTWHS002- Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Date(s) of assessment

Has the activity been answered and performed fully, as required to assess the competency of the learner?

Yes No

(Please circle)

Has sufficient evidence and information been provided by the learner for the activity?

Yes No

(Please circle)

The learner’s performance was:

Not yet satisfactory

Satisfactory

If not yet satisfactory, date for reassessment:

Feedback to learner:

Learner’s signature

Assessor’s signature





Activity 5A

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to workplace systems, equipment and processes in own work role.

Activity

Identify any equipment that poses a risk in your workplace. What safety measures and precautions are in place to limit the risks associated with this equipment?




Activity 5B

Estimated Time

15 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated persons according to workplace procedures.

Activity

Identify eight symptoms of stress and fatigue.




Activity 5C

Estimated Time

20 Minutes

Objective

To provide you with an opportunity to participate in workplace debriefing to address individual needs.

Activity 5C

Identify the primary purposes of workplace debriefing sessions.


Activity 5A to 5C checklist – for assessor

This should be used by the trainer/assessor to document the learner’s skills, knowledge and performance as relevant to the unit activity. Indicate in the table below if the learner is deemed satisfactory (S) or not satisfactory (NS) for the activity or if reassessment is required.

Learner’s name

Assessor’s name

Unit of Competence

(Code and Title)

HLTWHS002- Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Date(s) of assessment

Has the activity been answered and performed fully, as required to assess the competency of the learner?

Yes No

(Please circle)

Has sufficient evidence and information been provided by the learner for the activity?

Yes No

(Please circle)

The learner’s performance was:

Not yet satisfactory

Satisfactory

If not yet satisfactory, date for reassessment:

Feedback to learner:

Learner’s signature

Assessor’s signature


Knowledge Activity (Q & A)

Answer each question in as much detail as possible, considering your organisational requirements for each one.

1. Which workplace procedures, code(s) of practice and/or industry standards are implemented in your workplace in order to comply with state/territory WHS legislation? You may refer to your workplace policy and procedure and/or WHS manual (or equivalent document) to answer this question. Present your answer as a written summary of 300-400 words

2. List at least THREE primary safety symbols you will come across. What do these mean?

3.
Identify a potential hazard from each of the following categories that may occur within your workplace:

·
Biological hazards

·
Chemical hazards

·
Electrical hazards.

What strategies could you take to minimise these risks?

4. What should be your safety considerations when working in a home-based environment?

5. What is your organisation’s procedure in the case of an emergency? Write a summary of this procedure in your own words.


Knowledge Activity – for assessor

This should be used by the trainer/assessor to document the learner’s skills, knowledge and performance as relevant to the unit activity. Indicate in the table below if the learner is deemed satisfactory (S) or not satisfactory (NS) for the activity or if reassessment is required.

Learner’s name

Assessor’s name

Unit of Competence

(Code and Title)

HLTWHS002- Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Date(s) of assessment

Has the activity been answered and performed fully, as required to assess the competency of the learner?

Yes No

(Please circle)

Has sufficient evidence and information been provided by the learner for the activity?

Yes No

(Please circle)

The learner’s performance was:

Not yet satisfactory

Satisfactory

If not yet satisfactory, date for reassessment:

Feedback to learner:

Learner’s signature

Assessor’s signature



Supplementary Oral Questions (optional) – for assessor

The below table is for you to document any supplementary verbal questions you have asked the learner to determine their competency. For example, if you are unsure of their answer to a question in the Learner Workbook, you may choose to ask them a supplementary question to clarify their understanding of the relevant criteria.

Learner’s name

Assessor’s name

Unit of Competence

(Code and Title)

Date of assessment

Question:

Learner answer:

Assessor judgement:

Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Question:

Learner answer:

Assessor judgement:

Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Question:

Learner answer:

Assessor judgement:

Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Question:

Learner answer:

Assessor judgement:

Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Question:

Learner answer:

Assessor judgement:

Satisfactory

Not Satisfactory

Feedback for the learner

I have read, understood, and am satisfied with the feedback provided by the assessor.

Learner’s name

Learner’s signature

Assessor’s name

Assessor’s signature

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HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 0 of 85

HLTWHS002

Follow safe work practices
for direct client care

Learner Guide

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 1 of 85

Table of Contents

Unit of Competency ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Application …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Foundation Skills …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Assessment Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

1. Follow safe work practices for direct client care ………………………………………………………………. 9

1.1 – Follow workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices ………………………………………. 10

Health and safety procedures ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Legal responsibilities ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Work health and safety (WHS)…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Infection control………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Activity 1A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

1.2 – Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to designated persons, and

record them according to workplace procedures ……………………………………………………………………… 14

Identifying hazards and risks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Reporting hazards ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

Activity 1B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

1.3 – Identify any client-related risk factors or behaviours of concern, report them to designated

persons, and record them according to workplace procedures …………………………………………………… 19

Minimising and avoiding risk ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Reporting issues ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Activity 1C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0

1.4 – Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk …………………………………………………. 1

Health and safety policies …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

The risk assessment …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

New and unstable environments …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Risk control methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Activity 1D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.5 – Identify and report incidents and injuries to designated persons according to workplace

procedures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Dealing with incidents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Activity 1E…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 0

2. Follow safe work practices for manual handling ………………………………………………………………….. 1

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 2 of 85

2.1 – Follow manual handling procedures and work instructions for minimising manual handling risk 2

Manual handling procedures ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Activity 2A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

2.2 – Identify manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace procedures ……………………. 5

Manual handling …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

Preventing injury and using assistive aids……………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Reporting manual handling hazards ………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Activity 2B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

2.3 – Apply control measures for minimising manual handling risk ……………………………………………… 10

Assessing risk ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Risk assessment tools ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Control measures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Activity 2C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

3. Follow safe work practices for infection control ………………………………………………………………… 14

3.1 – Follow standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the spread of infection … 15

Activity 3A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0

3.2 – Recognise situations when additional infection control procedures are required …………………… 1

3.3 – Apply additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent

transmission of infection …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

Additional precautions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

Activity 3B and 3C ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

3.4 – Identify risks of infection and report them according to workplace procedures ……………………… 4

Types of infection ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

Infection methods ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

Other sources of infection ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Activity 3D ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

4. Contribute to safe work practices in the workplace ……………………………………………………………… 8

4.1 – Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational procedures ……………….. 9

Rights and responsibilities for WHS ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

Discuss issues and problems ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Activity 4A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

4.2 – Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative activities …………………. 12

Workplace inspections ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Consultative activities ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 3 of 85

Activity 4B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0

4.3 – Contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace policies and procedures

in own work area ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

Participative arrangements …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

Inform supervisors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

Taking action to control risks ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Activity 4C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

5. Reflect on own safe work practices …………………………………………………………………………………… 5

5.1 – Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to workplace systems,

equipment and processes in own work role ……………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Monitoring and evaluating health and safety ………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Safety audits ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Using equipment safely………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Ensuring the safety of work processes …………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Activity 5A ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

5.2 – Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated persons according to

workplace procedures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Negative impacts in the workplace ………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Reporting procedures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Organisational responsibilities …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Activity 5B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

5.3 – Participate in workplace debriefing to address individual needs …………………………………………. 14

Debriefing in response to workplace incidents ……………………………………………………………………… 14

Other forms of debriefing …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15

Activity 5C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0

Summative Assessments …………………………………………………………………. Error! Bookmark not defined.

References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

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Unit of Competency

Application

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required for a worker to participate in safe work practices
to ensure their own health and safety, and that of others in work environments that involve caring
directly for clients. It has a focus on maintaining safety of the worker, the people being supported and
other community members.

This unit applies to all workers who require knowledge of workplace health and safety (WHS) to carry
out their own work, in both centre-based and home-based service provision.

The skills in this unit must be applied in accordance with Commonwealth and State/Territory legislation,
Australian/New Zealand standards and industry codes of practice.

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Performance Criteria

Element
Elements describe the
essential outcomes.

Performance Criteria
Performance criteria describe the performance needed to
demonstrate achievement of the element.

1. Follow safe work
practices for direct
client care

1.1 Follow workplace policies and procedures for safe work
practices

1.2 Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace,
report them to designated persons, and record them
according to workplace procedures

1.3 Identify any client-related risk factors or behaviours of
concern, report them to designated persons, and record
them according to workplace procedures

1.4 Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk
1.5 Identify and report incidents and injuries to designated

persons according to workplace procedures

2. Follow safe work
practices for manual
handling

2.1 Follow manual handling procedures and work instructions
for minimising manual handling risk

2.2 Identify manual handling hazards and report in line with
workplace procedures

2.3 Apply control measures for minimising manual handling risk

3. Follow safe work
practices for infection
control

3.1 Follow standard precautions as part of own work routine to
prevent the spread of infection

3.2 Recognise situations when additional infection control
procedures are required

3.3 Apply additional precautions when standard precautions
alone may not be sufficient to prevent transmission of
infection

3.4 Identify risks of infection and report them according to
workplace procedures

4. Contribute to safe

work practices in the
workplace

4.1 Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to
organisational procedures

4.2 Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and
consultative activities

4.3 Contribute to the development and implementation of safe
workplace policies and procedures in own work area

5. Reflect on own safe

work practices
5.1 Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in

regards to workplace systems, equipment and processes in
own work role

5.2 Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to
designated persons according to workplace procedures

5.3 Participate in workplace debriefing to address individual
needs

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Foundation Skills

The Foundation Skills describe those required skills (language, literacy, numeracy and employment skills)
that are essential to performance.

Reading

➢ In order to accurately read and interpret workplace safety policies and procedures including

safety, signs, dangerous goods classifications and safety instructions.

The remaining foundation skills essential to performance are explicit in the performance criteria of this
unit.

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Assessment Requirements

Performance Evidence

The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and
performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role.

There must be demonstrated evidence that the candidate has completed the following tasks at least
once in line with state/territory WHS regulations, relevant codes of practice and workplace procedures:

➢ Contributed to a workplace WHS meeting or inspection
➢ Conducted a workplace risk assessment and recorded the results
➢ Consistently applied workplace safety procedures in the day-to-day work activities required by the

job role, including:
o infection control
o hazardous manual tasks
o use of personal protective equipment
o reporting incidents

➢ Followed workplace procedures for at least one simulated emergency situation.

Knowledge Evidence

The candidate must demonstrate knowledge of:

➢ State/territory legislation and how it impacts on workplace regulations, codes of practice and

industry standards, including:
o state/territory WHS authorities
o rights and responsibilities of employers and workers, including duty of care
o hazardous manual tasks
o infection control

➢ Safety symbols and their meanings, including signs for:
o poisons
o emergency equipment
o personal protective equipment (PPE)
o specific hazards such as sharps, radiation

➢ Hazard identification, including:
o definition of a hazard
o common workplace hazards relevant to the industry setting including hazardous manual tasks,

infection control risks and personal safety risks
o workplace procedures for hazard identification
o strategies minimising risk

➢ Safety considerations when working in a home-based environment, including:
o rights and responsibilities of workers and clients
o basic home fire safety including high-risk groups, behaviour that contributes to fire injury and

fatalities, and smoke alarm placement, installation and maintenance.
o risks to personal safety
o common sources of infection and means to minimise transfer of infectious diseases
o fundamentals of the muscoskeletal system and practices to minimise injury to self and clients

➢ Workplace emergency procedures
➢ Workplace policies and procedures for WHS.

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Assessment Conditions

Skills must be demonstrated:

➢ In the workplace

OR

➢ In an environment that provides realistic in-depth industry validated scenarios and simulations
to assess candidates’ skills and knowledge.

In addition, assessment must ensure use of:

➢ Current workplace policies and procedures for WHS
➢ PPE relevant to the workplace and job role of the worker.

Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015/AQTF
mandatory competency requirements for assessors.

Links

Companion volumes from the CS&HISC website – http://www.cshisc.com.au

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 9 of 85

1. Follow safe work practices for direct client care

1.1. Follow workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices

1.2. Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to designated persons,

and record them according to workplace procedures

1.3. Identify any client-related risk factors or behaviours of concern, report them to designated

persons, and record them according to workplace procedures

1.4. Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk

1.5. Identify and report incidents and injuries to designated persons according to workplace

procedures

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1.1 – Follow workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Show an active awareness of organisational policies and procedures such as health and

safety standards as well as specific responsibilities of staff members

➢ Work within the guidelines of the WHS and be able to point out when WHS legislation

is not being followed

➢ Follow procedures which promote infection control, such as washing hands, using PPE

when appropriate and disposing of materials in the correct manner.

It is quite likely that your organisation will have developed numerous policies and procedures for the

purpose of ensuring safety. The policies may pertain to the entire organisation or to the work carried

out within specific departments. They should highlight the primary objectives and legal responsibilities

of your organisation. There should be clarification regarding the work of specific employees and the

standards that should be maintained.

Your organisational policies should clarify:

➢ Objectives for the achievement of health and safety standards

➢ Details of the steps that should be taken to meet health and safety aims

➢ Schedules for the completion of health and safety objectives

➢ Details of how the policies should be reviewed

➢ The specific responsibilities of managers and other staff members

Health and safety procedures

The health and safety procedures will take the form of a sequence of steps that should be taken to meet

health and safety objectives. They should be written in a clear and logical manner, for the

understanding of all employees.

You may have organisational procedures for:

➢ Dealing with aggressive and potentially dangerous behaviour

➢ Organising evacuations

➢ Inspecting and monitoring the workplace

➢ Training and reviewing the knowledge of employees

It should be emphasised that all employees have some responsibility for ensuring health and safety in

the work place. The types of responsibilities are likely to vary in accordance with the work carried out by

your organisation. It may be necessary to follow procedures and policies on how to deal with

intoxicated customers, store hazardous chemicals, or use industrial equipment.

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Legal responsibilities

Your health and safety policies and procedures should be written in accordance with legislation

pertaining to your line of work and Australian territory. Thorough research should be undertaken, to

ensure that you are fully aware of the relevant laws and practices. You must comply with the work

health and safety acts of Australia. The aim of your policies and procedures should be to eliminate or

minimise the potential impact of hazards in the work place. Safe work practices may include the

substitution of chemicals with less harmful alternatives and the isolation of areas where employees are

at considerable risk. Employees are expected to report dangerous working practices within 24 hours of

identification.

Work health and safety (WHS)

Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) legislation replaced Occupational Health and Safety (OHS)

legislation in 2011.

WHS legislation stipulates that employers must provide their staff with:

➢ Safe premises

➢ Safe machinery and materials

➢ Safe systems of work

➢ Information, instruction, training and

supervision

➢ A suitable working environment and

facilities.

www.business.gov.au

Employees are also obliged to ensure that they work safely and do not endanger the safety of their

colleagues, clients and others.

How WHS affects your work in health will vary according to your job role and your industry. In order to

work safely and legally in your role you should have been trained to do so by your organisation, as this is

a legal requirement.

Where you identify possible or actual WHS breaches in your planned responses, they will need to be

reviewed and amended to be compliant immediately before they are used again.

Infection control

When you have identified infection risks, you must respond to them according to infection control

policies that are based and State legislation, National Standards and local regulations. The idea of this is

that it provides a safe environment for staff, clients and any visitors.

You should read the following Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in

Healthcare at www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/cd33

This details a lot of policies and procedures that are in place in healthcare settings.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 12 of 85

Think about how you can eliminate hazards, where reasonable – this could involve changing certain

work methods. For example, if people are frequently handling sharps, how can you reduce their risk of

injury and how would you deal with incidents if they did occur? The obvious answer is to incorporate

the use or Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) when handling sharps and to have sterilisation kits for

wounds available and readily accessible near any areas where sharps are handled. Following any sharps

disposal protocols will reduce the risks to the bare minimum also.

If there is a risk of infection from a particular virus, consider the immunisation of all staff that will be

exposed to it – you have to consider the cost of this versus the cost of losing these people to infection.

This is the same model of thinking when health policies involve immunising certain demographics that

are at high risk from viruses like flu.

Take time to read through your organisation’s policies and procedures in relation to immunisation and

infection control. These will provide guidance as to how activities should be carried out and ensure

maximum safety for all those involves.

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Activity 1A

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1.2 – Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to
designated persons, and record them according to workplace procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Carry out inspections in order to identify signs of danger

➢ Work within the constraints of company policies and procedures when reporting

incidents and potential hazards.

Identifying hazards and risks

Health and safety hazards may be apparent in numerous areas of the work environment. There will be

different levels of risk associated with each of these hazards. Workers will face a danger of slipping over

and injuring themselves if damp areas aren’t clearly signposted. Infection may occur as a consequence

of failing to store harmful chemicals in the appropriate manner. It is essential to identify such hazards

and take preventative steps for the safety of the workforce.

You are advised to carry out regular inspections and identify signs of danger. You should consider what

would happen if employees were exposed to specific hazards in the workplace. Information regarding

risks may be found in the manufacturer’s instructions specific to certain chemicals and machinery. You

are also encouraged to review the accident records and find out what types of hazards have already

been encountered in your working environment. Some hazards and long-term risks may not be

immediately obvious. However, research can be undertaken and employees asked for details of any

concerns.

You may arrange the following consultations:

➢ Tool box talks

➢ Production meetings

➢ Team meetings

➢ Regular informal discussions

The results may be outlined on a table, as follows:

Date of
review

Type of
hazard

Location of
hazard

Risk
associated
with hazard

Action to
be taken

Date for follow
up inspection

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Sources of personal risk include:

➢ Alcohol and/or drug use

➢ Behaviours of concern

➢ Personal risks may arise from clients, clients’ families, the public, or animals

➢ There are risks associated with access to work (car parking would be an example),

access to private homes, and the performance of work

➢ Incident reports may be used to identify situations with a higher risk of threat and

client related. They may include information regarding care plans and case

management meetings

➢ Working new, isolated, and / or potentially unstable environments.

Furthermore, workplace hazards that may be present in care homes, private homes and other
locations may include:

➢ Biological hazards, including body fluids,

contaminated food, soiled clothing and linen,

clinical waste, syringes, and other ‘sharps’

➢ Chemicals, such as toxic or hazardous

substances, gases and liquids under pressure,

and certain cleaning chemicals

➢ Electrical hazards related to use of equipment

and faulty wiring

➢ Equipment including suitability for purpose

and fitness for use

➢ Personal threat, such as through behaviours

of concern of clients and / or visitors

➢ Work organisation issues such as shift work

or irregular hours / on call

➢ Work-related environment, such as underfoot, lighting, space, noise, air quality,

furniture / fittings, and car parking

➢ Work-related stress

➢ There are many ways an issue or threat can arise. You are advised to prepare for the

widest range of hazards and risks. You should understand how they happen and the

best means of response

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The above examples can be categorised into different types of risk:

➢ Environmental: these are caused by threats in the physical environment, such as trip

hazards, fire hazards, contamination and other accidents. Potential hazards should be

identified and minimised whenever possible. You should remove trip hazards and deal

with fire hazards. Procedures will be established for dealing with contamination risks

and biological hazards.

➢ Client-based: this can range from clients becoming violent, or threats which may be

made by someone in your care. There may be an infection risk, or injury sustained

while moving/helping a client. Your organisation should prepare you by providing

training on the correct movement of weights and avoidance of infection.

➢ Staff-based: this can range from other staff being violent, unfit for work, or negligent.

Staff should be monitored and trained in preparation for such events. There should be

established procedures for dealing with staff-related problems.

➢ People-based: this involves other people and can range from clients’ families to the

general public. This can cause numerous risks, from infection, to a person’s dog being

out of control. You should remain vigilant and ready to react to anything that may

happen. Procedures will be put in place for dealing with certain events.

Your workplace should provide a certain level of training regarding hazard identification and procedures

to follow. Not everything will be covered, of course, as hazards can emerge from anywhere at any time;

in these instances, all you can do is make the best decision possible, based on your training for dealing

with other, perhaps similar incidents.

Reporting hazards

This unit has focussed on identifying hazards. However, the

next step is to report such issues to relevant staff members.

You may contact an:

➢ Elected Health and Safety

Representative/employee representative

➢ Employer

➢ Health and Safety committee

➢ Other personnel with WHS responsibilities

➢ Supervisor.

The individual(s) responsible for managing WHS should be clearly identified within your workplace.

There should be a designated process for you to follow when reporting such issues.

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Communication methods can vary and can be:

➢ Written:

o notes

o memos

o emails

o report forms

➢ Verbal:

o face-to-face

o phone call

o voicemail.

Your organisation should highlight the preferred methods of communication. If this isn’t the case then

specification should be made. You should approach the relevant personnel and ask for details of how to

file the report. It may be necessary to inform them upon first contact.

You should always report relevant issues and concerns. If you are unable to follow the usual method

then you should consider alternative means of communication. You could leave a note on their desk for

later reference.

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Activity 1B

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1.3 – Identify any client-related risk factors or behaviours of concern, report
them to designated persons, and record them according to workplace
procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Demonstrate the ability to identify different types of client-related risks and show

competency in reacting to and minimising these risks

➢ Work responsibly and efficiently when faced with risks which are subject to mandatory

notification, acting within the guidelines of company policy and procedures, as well as

wider legislation.

The likelihood of encountering client-related risk factors and behaviours of concern will vary, depending

on the nature of your working environment. Those of you working in the healthcare, social services,

banking and retail sectors will be at a relatively high risk of encountering aggressive and unpredictable

customers. You may also have to account for considerable risks when working with heavy industrial

machinery. Your customers may become angry for a variety of reasons and vent their frustrations in

different ways. The most common types of abusive behaviour include verbal insults, physical

demonstrations of anger, and actual bodily harm. Managers and human resources personnel have a

responsibility for assessing the risk of challenging behaviour and developing appropriate risk

minimisation strategies.

These factors should be taken into consideration:

➢ The times at which there is a significant risk of challenging behaviour

➢ The environments in which employees and customers are at the greatest risk

➢ The arrangement and allocation of resources to help employees deal with aggressive

behaviour

➢ Opportunities for training staff in the different ways of minimising risk and overcoming

challenging behaviour

Your employees should have the skills and knowledge required to identify various types of risks and

defuse serious situations in the workplace.

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They should know how to:

➢ Identify signs of behavioural change and

aggression

➢ Monitor and deal with various challenging

scenarios in the workplace

➢ Negotiate and establish reasonable limits in

response to concerning behaviours

➢ Decide which actions to take as a consequence of

challenging behaviour.

You can deal with distressed and angry customers in the following ways:

➢ Apologise

➢ Sympathise

➢ Accept responsibility

➢ Identify means of assistance

Minimising and avoiding risk

Minimising and avoiding risk requires the attention and vigilance of everyone involved. Many accidents

and incidents occur as a result of inattention, laziness, or ignorance. Steps may be taken for complete

avoidance and necessary response by the organisation.

Minimisation or avoidance procedures and techniques may be specified by the organisation.

Alternatively they may be employed by suitably knowledgeable individuals.

Organisational procedures may apply to workplace issues, such as:

➢ The door to room 4A swings shut very fast, so be careful not to get hit by it

➢ The stairs to the first floor are very steep, so use the elevator to transport items

➢ You must wear shoes in the hallway, as the tiles can be slippery if you’re only wearing
socks.

General WHS guidance can also be applied:

➢ If you find a leak then cordon the area off and arrange for
repairs

➢ Sharps and syringes must only be handled by qualified staff.
They must not be deposited in a sharps box

➢ Do not exceed the maximum occupancy of the elevator.

Such precautions should occur naturally to your staff members. They shouldn’t

need to be told specifically how to act.

Organisational procedures for managing risks include:

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 21 of 85

➢ Client assessment documents and care plans

➢ Communication, consultation, and issue resolution procedures

➢ Hazard management documents (including policies and procedures on specific hazards)

➢ Hazard and incident reporting (including follow up to sharps incidents) and
investigation. Workplace inspections, maintenance etc.

➢ Hazard management policies and procedures (these may be integrated with quality,
care, or separated as WHS policies and procedures)

➢ Human resources management procedures, such as harassment and grievance
procedures. Induction programs, team meetings, management of performance levels,
alcohol and drug policies

➢ Job procedures and work instructions; including medications policy and procedures

➢ Other related procedures; including waste management and security

➢ Post incident/injury management; such as first aid, critical incident debriefing,
compensation, and return to work

➢ Strategies for reducing the amount of manual handling required and manual handling
risk

➢ Supporting people with behaviours of concern.

If everyone kept a look out for:

➢ Loose carpets

➢ Wet floors

➢ Faulty equipment.

And if everyone took relevant action, such as:

➢ Cordoning off the area

➢ Fixing something

➢ Arranging repairs or replacements

➢ Warning and informing other staff and service users.

Then many accidents and incidents would be avoided completely.

If one employee chooses to ignore a loose carpet in the hallway then the next colleague could trip and

fall. This could result in injury, especially if the incident happens close to a door frame or stairway.

Failure to implement organisational procedures may result in disciplinary action. You also have an

ethical responsibility to recognise and respond to problems. Accidents and injuries may result in cost for

organisations. They may need to pay staff compensation, insurance and reimbursements for forced time

away from work. It is in the organisation’s best interests to implement and monitor the applicable

procedures.

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Reporting issues

You have a responsibility to report concerning behaviour to a relevant superior. Some actions or

suspicions are subject to mandatory notification; which means that they must be reported to

designated authorities.

This generally applies to incidents or suspicions regarding:

➢ Abuse:

o assault

o negligence

o neglect

➢ Staff that are unfit for work:

o through drink

o through drugs

o through tiredness

o through lack of training

➢ Sexual misconduct:

o inappropriate relationships with clients

o sexual misconduct with clients

➢ Missing residents.

We may consider the example of physical or sexual assault. Such events must be reported to the most

senior supervisor, then the police, and social services. This includes suspicions and signs of assault. You

should never wait to witness an actual attack before reporting to relevant personnel.

You will need to inform the senior supervisor on duty upon discovering that residents are missing. It will

be necessary to make follow up contact with the police and social services within 24 hours.

Staff members who are unfit for work may pose a risk to themselves, their colleagues, and service users.

There will be a significant risk of legal breaches if such employees are intoxicated, or attempting to carry

out tasks which they are not qualified, trained, or authorised to do.

Events requiring mandatory notification should be reported to all care providers. Ignorance is not an

excuse. Failure to report an issue is punishable by law and can have consequences for both yourself and

the organisation. Care providers should feel ethically obliged to report issues; even if they are only

suspicions.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 23 of 85

There are many other issues and causes for concern that do not require mandatory notification.

However, you should still report these instances to managers or supervisors for follow up action, where

required.

You can report workplace hazards:

➢ Verbally:

o face to face

o telephone call

➢ Written:

o memo

o notes

o report forms.

The organisation may have procedures in place for reporting concerns. You should follow such

procedures, if possible and practical. You may not be able to follow organisation procedure if there is an

emergency, for example. In these instances, you should follow any guidelines established by the

organisation. There may be stipulations regarding the staff members who can contact the police.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 0 of 85

Activity 1C

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1.4 – Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Be following health and safety policies according to company procedure, and show

competency in contributing to company policies where applicable

➢ Carry out a thorough risk assessment within a workplace environment to identify

potential dangers

o assess the impact of potential risks

o prioritise the risks which pose the greatest danger

➢ Show an active awareness of risk control methods, making well-informed decisions

within the health and safety guidelines of the company.

Health and safety policies

Health and safety policies may be created specific to your entire organisation and the work carried out

within separate departments. You should include details of how to manage the different working

environments for optimum safety. There should also be details of the responsibilities designated to

different members of the workforce. The arrangements section should highlight the activities and

functions that must be carried out for the wellbeing of all employees.

Employees with knowledge of various health and safety issues should contribute to the policies. If the

entire organisation is involved then there will be a shared commitment to the minimisation of risk.

Health and safety policies should apply to various types of work and be written in accordance with the

WHS Act. Methods should be established for the identification and removal of hazards in the workplace.

It is also important to produce response documentation, highlighting details of incident investigation,

notification and ways of dealing with emergencies.

The risk assessment

A thorough risk assessment should be carried out for the identification of potential dangers in the

workplace. You are encouraged to monitor working practices and interview employees about areas of

concern. It will be important to assess the relative impact of potential risks and prioritise those that

pose the greatest danger.

You may record the findings on a table similar to the following:

Hazard
categories

Potential impact on
employees

Steps that are
already being taken

Further
preventative action

Date of
assessment

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 2 of 85

You may identify the following means of minimising risk:

➢ Ensuring that employees/customers aren’t exposed to hazards

➢ Developing low risk work practices

➢ Providing protective equipment

➢ Integrating care and treatment facilities within the workplace

➢ Discussing risks with employees.

New and unstable environments

Working in unfamiliar or unstable environments will present further challenges to working safely. In a
familiar environment you will be more aware of your surroundings and able to move around with
greater ease and confidence. You will also be more aware of potential issues and problems.

You will have to acquaint yourself with a new or unfamiliar environment and adapt your spatial

awareness accordingly.

Organisational policies can help with this, as it may:

➢ Specify layout:

o space between furniture

o landings clear

o storage

➢ Give you the chance to acclimatise yourself to the new environment

➢ Let you start in the new environment during a quiet shift

➢ Allow or require you to move things, such as stored items and consumables for your

convenience.

Organisational policies should be designed with the wellbeing of the staff and clients in mind. The aim

will be to ensure that staff can do their best in situations. You should always aim to follow

organisational policy, as far as you can. It will provide you with

guidance and protection if things go wrong.

Risk control methods

Risk control methods will vary from organisation to

organisation. They are designed to provide staff with a

framework to follow, when dealing with WHS issues and

concerns.

Here is an example framework of risk control and outline of

respective actions:

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Hierarchy of risk control:

➢ Level One controls:

o eliminate hazards

➢ Level Two controls:

o substitute the hazard with something safer

o isolate the hazard from people

o use engineering controls

➢ Level Three controls:

o use administrative controls

o use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

This links to explanations of formal and informal risk assessment. It details how to make decisions for

action, based upon the answers to questions or observations made about hazards and situations.

The framework, procedure, or guidance is taught to staff, so that they can make independent decisions

on appropriate actions. Staff should be able to identify problems, assess risks, and follow suitable

procedure without having to consult a manager or other relevant member of staff.

You are advised to follow procedures and guidelines, when possible. However, if you are genuinely

confused or uncertain then you should ask for assistance. Failure to follow designated procedures can

result in poor decisions. There may be negative effects, for yourself, and others.

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Activity 1D

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1.5 – Identify and report incidents and injuries to designated persons according
to workplace procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Show the ability to evaluate the workplace for various signs of risk

➢ Be acting within the guidelines of company policy and wider legislation when reporting

incidents

➢ Show an awareness of basic fire safety.

The causes of incidents and injuries fall into three categories. Immediate causes are usually quite

obvious and may include contact with sharps and harmful substances. Underlying causes may include

irresponsible behaviour and unsafe working conditions. There may also be root causes which lead to

potentially serious scenarios. Such causes should be identified at the earliest opportunity so that

negative events have the least possible impact on your organisation. You should carry out thorough

research and evaluate different areas of the workplace for signs of risk.

You should be aware of the following causes:

➢ Fatigue

➢ Stress

➢ Slips

➢ Trips

➢ Unsecured objects

➢ Lifting

➢ Aggressive behaviour

➢ Unexpected collisions

Dealing with incidents

Different staff are qualified and authorised to deal with specific incidents in the workplace. You should

never attempt to deal with a serious issue, unless you’ve been provided the necessary authorisation, or

training. You should complete the tasks that you are trained for, in accordance with your moral and

legal responsibilities.

An example of a multi-level issue would be a fire in the building:

➢ General staff may be required to sound the alarm and evacuate clients

➢ A manager, or designated fire marshal, would be responsible for ensuring that

everyone is out of the building. It may be necessary to call out names on a register, or

do a sweep of the building

➢ Anyone may be required / permitted to call the fire service.

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It is quite likely that nobody will be allowed to return to the building until a fire officer has granted

approval.

All staff may be required to be aware of basic fire safety, such as:

➢ Behaviour that may contribute to fire injury and/or fatality

➢ High fire risk groups

➢ Identifying fire risks

➢ Optimum placement of smoke alarms

➢ Referring client for smoke alarm installation and maintenance

➢ Role of a working smoke alarm

➢ Smoke alarm testing and cleaning

➢ Types of smoke alarms

➢ What to do in the event of a fire

➢ Fire escape procedure

➢ Where the fire alarms are

➢ How to evacuate others

➢ What your responsibilities are.

It is essential to act within the limitations of your role, no matter whether you are responding to fires,

floods, or bomb alerts. You will be expected to meet the organisational responsibilities and

expectations.

Reporting incidents and injuries

You should ensure that there is minimal disruption to the scene of any incident or injury. The cause of

such events may be immediately obvious. However, some clues may only be discovered upon later

inspection. It is important to take details of the incident date, time, and location. You should also record

the names of witnesses who may be able to provide helpful information.

Incidents and injuries should be reported to a member of the organisation who has responsibility for

overseeing health and safety. It is also important to comply with legislation regarding the report of

serious incidents and injuries.

The Occupational Safety and Health Regulation of 1996 states:

“If, at a workplace, an employee incurs an injury, or is affected by a disease, that results in the death of

the employee; or is of a kind prescribed in the regulations for the purpose of this subsection, the

employer of that employee shall forthwith notify the Commissioner in the prescribed form giving such

particulars as may be prescribed.”

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There will be different levels of investigation based upon the likelihood of recurrence and the potential

impact of similar events in the future. Appropriate strategies should be developed to minimise risk and

ensure that the organisation is properly prepared.

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Activity 1E

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2. Follow safe work practices for manual handling

2.1. Follow manual handling procedures and work instructions for minimising manual handling risk

2.2. Identify manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace procedures

2.3. Apply control measures for minimising manual handling risk

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2.1 – Follow manual handling procedures and work instructions for minimising
manual handling risk

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Follow company instructions in order to correctly adhere to manual handling

procedures

➢ Understand the importance of following company procedure regarding manual

handling so as to comply with wider regulations.

Manual handling procedures

Anyone engaged in any sort of manual handling activity should follow procedures, to ensure that they

remain safe at all times. These procedures may be established in the form of work instructions, or

manual handling procedures.

Work instructions may be:

➢ In a community language

➢ In English

➢ Provided visually e.g. video, WHS signs, symbols, and other pictorial presentations

➢ Verbal

➢ Including care plans associated with risk management (with particular regard to manual

handling risks and behaviours of concern)

➢ Written.

These instructions usually contain the organisational specifications regarding manual handling safety.

Such specifications are made to ensure that staff meet specific requirements in the workplace.

Part of a manual handling procedure may be the completion of a risk assessment.

It might not be necessary to fill out a risk assessment form prior to lifting the goods. However, you
will probably ask several questions, including:

➢ Is this too big?

➢ Is this too heavy?

➢ Can I do this by myself?

➢ Is there anyone else who can help me?

➢ Can I do this without twisting?

➢ Can I do this without bending?

➢ Can I use some equipment to help?

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Your answers to these questions will determine whether you tackle the task and how you perform the

necessary actions.

Procedures can be applied to different types of manual handling; for example:

Lifting a heavy object:
➢ Plan the lift: clear the area and decide how you are going to grasp and support the

object.

➢ Hold the item close to you: holding the item close to your body prevents your back

being pulled forwards with the weight.

➢ Stand properly: you need to stand in a stable position, which can mean keeping your

back straight, feet apart and knees slightly bent.

➢ Hold / support the weight properly: get a good grip and make sure it’s comfortable to

hold and move with.

➢ Don’t bend your back: keeping your back as straight as possible will prevent any slips

or sprains, etc.

➢ Don’t twist: twisting can hurt your muscles and tendons.

These general principles can be applied to any kind of heavy lifting; whether you are moving furniture,

transporting boxes, or assisting clients.

It has become increasingly common for Australian organisations to adopt a ‘no manual-handling policy’

and insist that their staff use hoists and other pieces of equipment. The use of such equipment will also

be subject to safe handling procedures, as in the following example, provided by WorkSafe Victoria.

This example explains how to transfer a client from chair to chair, using a slide board, and a chair that

has removable arms to facilitate movement.

The guide explains how you should:

➢ Place the two chairs next to each other

➢ Remove or lower the chair arms that are in the way

➢ Place the slide board under the client and across to the second

chair

➢ Help the client to grab the remaining arm of the second chair, if possible, in order to

help themselves to move

➢ If the person is able, have them slide themselves across to the new chair

➢ If they are not able to do this themselves, then you should gently and smoothly transfer

them across the slide board

➢ After you have done this the slide board can be removed and the lowered or removed

chair arm put back into position.

(Example taken from WorkSafe Victoria).

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Activity 2A

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2.2 – Identify manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace
procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Show an active awareness of the different risks concerned with different manual

handling procedures

➢ Demonstrate the ability to correctly and appropriately use the correct manual handling

equipment

➢ Be working within company policy to report manual handling incidents or hazards.

Manual handling

Manual handling may be an unavoidable part of your job. You will be expected to account for heavy

lifting risks and hazards. It is essential to provide appropriate training for lifting and carrying items in the

workplace. Workers must take responsibility for following instructions and guidance, for the purpose of

avoiding injuries and accidents.

There are several reasons why manual handling may be required.

Examples can be as follows:

➢ Carrying trays and other items, such as:

o folders

o books

o food

➢ Lifting tasks, such as:

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o moving a person in bed

o assisting to stand

o transfer to chair or wheelchair

o lifting objects

➢ Pushing and pulling tasks, such as:

o pushing trolleys

o wheelchairs

o shower chairs

o dressing clients

➢ Reaching and postural tasks, such as:

o feeding a person

o showering

o dressing clients

➢ Restraining tasks:

o violent clients

o clients who are falling

o clients who are being moved from one place to another.

These examples include different types of manual handling; which can be categorised as:

➢ Moving people

➢ Carrying manageable items

➢ Moving heavy or bulky items

➢ Postural movements.

Each of these can cause different types of injury and pose specific hazards to

staff and clients.

➢ Moving people: this can involve heavy lifting and postural

considerations, on behalf of the staff member. If the client is

unsupported or slips then they may injure themselves. The

care worker will also be at risk. Moving people requires

specific training, covering aspects such as how to lift, lower,

and support. Such tasks should be carried out in a way that is

comfortable and safe for the client and staff member

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➢ Carrying manageable items: this refers to items that are small enough to be carried by

one person; even though they may be heavy. Heavier items can include boxes, files,

and books. Lighter items can include trays of food, clipboards, and laundry. Appropriate

care should be taken when carrying heavier items. You should consider your postural

position means of holding the item. Larger items may obscure your vision and prevent

you seeing your feet. This can result in a trip hazard. You should be careful and act

sensibly when carrying out such tasks. Be prepared to use a trolley, where practical

➢ Moving heavy or bulky items: this can apply to the pushing and pulling of trolleys,

wheelchairs, furniture, and other items. You should consider the effects on your back.

It may seem easier to put your back into a movement involving the movement of a

wheelchair. However, there will be a risk of damage. You might end up with slipped

disks, muscle damage and spinal strain, if the appropriate safety measures aren’t taken.

You should also object to the lifting or movement of items that are too big or heavy for

you. There shouldn’t be any compromise over your own health and wellbeing. You

should seek assistance in these instances

➢ Postural movements: this refers to the position of your back, spine and neck when

manual handling. Bending, stretching, and twisting movements can cause serious injury

to your spine, neck, and muscles. Such injuries may be caused by unnatural movement

or undue strain placed on one area of your body, such as the lower back. The correct

procedure for these tasks can protect you from hurting yourself.

Preventing injury and using assistive aids

You should be aware that there are many dangers associated with manual handling. There are also a

wide variety of injuries and accidents that occur as a result of poor handling techniques. However, there

is a good selection of equipment available for workers are required to lift and move heavy goods.

The purpose of this equipment is to provide workers with better techniques and options for the

minimisation of bodily strain.

Suitable equipment in the care industry can include:

➢ Client hoists

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➢ Slide sheets

➢ Standing lifters

➢ Riser / recliner beds

➢ Bath hoists

➢ Slings

➢ Transfer boards

➢ Turntables

➢ Wheelchairs

➢ Lifting cushions

➢ Other manual handling assistive devices.

You are advised to use any equipment available. This is a far better option than relying on your own

strength. Many organisations and establishments ban their staff from attempting to lift other people

and objects manually. They insist upon the use of assistive equipment. If you ignore such instructions

and warnings then insurance claims may be rejected. You may have to pay significant amounts for

hospital care and treatment.

You should be aware that there are risks associated with the use of some lifting aids. You might injure

yourself if such aids are used incorrectly. If you don’t follow the guidelines and act in accordance with

training then you may be subject to disciplinary action.

Reporting manual handling hazards

Employees who identify manual handling hazards are expected to report immediately to their

supervisors and health and safety representatives. The information may be provided during workplace

discussions. Alternatively there’s the option of filling out hazard reporting forms and raising concerns

during meetings.

Your reports should include details such as:

➢ The type and locations of hazards

➢ Staff members who are at direct risk

➢ The means of resolution that have been agreed and acted upon.

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Activity 2B

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2.3 – Apply control measures for minimising manual handling risk

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Work within the confines of the Manual Handling Code of Practice, in accordance with

wider legislation

➢ Apply relevant control measures for the minimisation of risks and hazards concerned

with manual handling.

Assessing risk

The Manual Handling Code of Practice contains tools that you can use to assess the risks associated with

specific activities.

The risk factor of manual handling activities can be influenced by:

➢ Duration and frequency of the task

➢ Environmental conditions, such as:

o underfoot conditions

o lighting

o heat

➢ Forces exerted

➢ In people-handling the risk is also affected by the:

o ability of the client to support / control part / whole

of the body

o predictability in movement and behaviours

o pain levels

o ability to follow instructions

o any equipment attached to the client, such as

catheters, and IVs

o client clothing

➢ Movement undertaken

➢ Postures adopted.

The Manual Handling Code of Practice is specific to different States and Territories. You should always

be aware of the details related to your geographical location.

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Risk assessment information and codes of practice can be found on the following websites:

➢ SafeWork Australia:

http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/Documents/97/Na

tionalCodeOfPractice_ManualHandling_NOHSC2005-1990_ArchivePDF.pdf

➢ Victoria:

http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/9426/COP25_manualha

ndling.pdf

➢ New South Wales:

http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/health-and-safety/safety-topics-a-z/manual-

handling

➢ South Australia:

http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/show_page.jsp?id=113695#.Vf_ept9VhBc

➢ Queensland:

https://www.worksafe.qld.gov.au/

➢ Western Australia:

http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/PDF/Codes_of_Practice/Code_manual_ha

ndling.pdf

➢ Tasmania:

http://www.worksafe.tas.gov.au/__data/assets/word_doc/0007/194569/hazardous_m

anual_tasks_code.doc

This information was correct at the time of writing in September 2015.

Risk assessment tools

Risk assessment tools are usually:

➢ Charts

➢ Checklists

➢ Scales of danger

➢ Questionnaires

➢ And similar

These tools can be used to pose predetermined questions regarding the danger of the activity. Specific

forms can be universal, or apply to particular types of task.

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These forms are available from government websites and/or from your organisation. The relevant

workplace forms will provide more specific and relevant details of activities.

Rating scales give the task a value that determines the level of risk or danger to staff. You should know

what level of danger to expect and attempt to reduce the associated risks, where possible.

Control measures

Control measures should apply for the minimisation of dangers and risks associated with manual

handling.

These control measures may entail:

➢ Changes to the load, or client

➢ Changes to work organisation, or practices

➢ Changes to workplace layout

➢ Minimising amount of handling

➢ Provision of equipment

➢ Task-specific training.

These measures should be implemented for improved workplace safety. Being able to control the

variables of a situation can allow you to create a more desirable and suitable environment for carrying

out the task required.

The amount of manual handling work can be reduced significantly through the use of equipment and

assistive devices. A lifting cushion or hoist may be used for the purpose of avoiding injuries which

otherwise be sustained when lifting a fallen client from the floor.

You should aim to avoid manual handling in a practical manner. The less lifting and moving you do, the

less likely you are to sustain an injury.

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Activity 2C

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3. Follow safe work practices for infection control

3.1. Follow standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the spread of infection

3.2. Recognise situations when additional infection control procedures are required

3.3. Apply additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent

transmission of infection

3.4. Identify risks of infection and report them according to workplace procedures

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3.1 – Follow standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the
spread of infection

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Take standard precautions so as to prevent the spread of infection, such as personal

hygiene practices and surface cleaning

➢ Recognise the benefits of incorporating standard precautions into their daily routine

for themselves and everyone around them.

It is generally assumed that different members of the workforce have the potential to infect one

another. The types of infection vary from common colds to seriously debilitating diseases. It is also

worth remembering that all infections have an incubation period, when the physical symptoms will not

manifest. All workers must be aware of the risks and take necessary precautions to prevent infection.

Basic responsibilities include the need to wash your hands, maintain clean working environments and

take applicable first aid training. The Occupational health and safety act of 2004 specifies that all

employees must ensure workplace safety and organise appropriate means of infection control.

Standard precautions can include:

➢ Appropriate reprocessing and storage of reusable instruments

➢ Aseptic technique

➢ Personal hygiene practices, especially washing and drying hands, such as before and

after client contact

➢ Safe disposal of sharps and other clinical waste

➢ Safe handling of sharps

➢ Surface cleaning and management of blood and body fluid spills

➢ Techniques to limit contamination

➢ Use of Personal Protective Equipment.

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Care home staff will enjoy the following benefits if preventative measures are taken:

➢ Staff don’t get ill:

o staff don’t take time off, which means good

staffing levels can be maintained and

schedules adhered to

o staff don’t spread sickness to each other and

the clients.

➢ Clients don’t get ill:

o clients don’t require additional care

o clients don’t spread sickness amongst

themselves

o clients don’t infect staff.

Incorporating these actions into your daily routine and recognising the benefits can make a big

difference to the sickness levels of everyone in the building.

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Activity 3A

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3.2 – Recognise situations when additional infection control procedures are
required

3.3 – Apply additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be
sufficient to prevent transmission of infection

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Apply relevant control measures to a situation in which additional control is required

➢ Work in a vigilant manner practicing common sense and a general understanding in

order to identify the need for additional control

➢ Demonstrate the ability to identify a situation in which additional infection precaution

measures are required and apply them accordingly

➢ Understand that standard procedures do not guarantee safety and initiate further

steps when required.

Additional precautions

You may periodically be required to take additional precautions for the prevention of infection in the

workplace.

Additional precautions may include:

➢ Additional use of Personal Protective Equipment

➢ Dedicated equipment for each client, or as appropriate to work function

➢ Special ventilation requirements.

Standard procedures are not guarantees of safety. They are merely measures which may be taken to

help prevent the spread of infection. Further measures will be required in some instance.

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You should take further steps to control infection if there is an increased risk or threat. You have a duty

of care and an ethical obligation to yourself, clients, and other colleagues. You have responsibility for

identifying the need for specific measures and ensuring their implementation whenever required.

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Activity 3B and 3C

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3.4 – Identify risks of infection and report them according to workplace
procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Demonstrate an active awareness of the various infection methods and be able to

apply the appropriate action

➢ Take steps to minimise the spread of infection, such as vaccination.

Types of infection

You may be exposed to the following types of infection when working with vulnerable and unwell
clients:

➢ Bacteria / germs:

o Staphylococcus Aureus; a type of skin infection

o Streptococcal bacteria; which causes upper respiratory infections. Also known as

‘strep throat’

o conjunctivitis

o stomach upsets

➢ Viruses:

o flu

o colds

o cold sores

o AIDS

➢ Skin rashes:

o scabies

o shingles

o dermatitis

➢ Contagious diseases:

o Hepatitis A

o measles

o meningitis

➢ Lice/parasites:

o head lice

o crabs

o ringworm

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➢ Food poisoning:

o E. Coli

o Salmonella

o Campylobacter.

There are many other infections you can catch through human-to-human contact. However, identifying

standards and typical transmission techniques/preventative measures may be used for avoidance.

Infection methods

Infections typically happen in one of several ways, such as:

➢ Airborne

➢ Through skin contact

➢ Through shared surfaces

➢ Through bodily fluids:

o mucus

o pus

o stool

o blood

➢ Through wounds.

By establishing good practice, such as:

➢ Sterilising surfaces and equipment

➢ Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), such as gloves

➢ Covering your mouth when sneezing or coughing

➢ Separating contagious people

➢ Being aware of those who are sick

➢ Washing hands.

You can avoid catching many infections and preventing their spread.

Many healthcare professionals are vaccinated against additional diseases, which may be encountered in

the workplace.

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Other sources of infection

Infection may result from contact with the following sources:

➢ Food poisoning:

o undercooked food

o spoilt food

o poor hygiene

➢ Animals:

o Cat Scratch Disease

o Lyme Disease

o Toxoplasmosis

o Rabies

➢ Family members / friends / associates:

o any type of infectious disease

o parasites

➢ Poor housing:

o chest infections from damp buildings

o fungal infections

➢ Poor sanitation:

o diarrhoea

o stomach upsets.

You can catch viruses, illnesses, and many other types of infection encountered during day-to-day life.

These conditions can easily spread to other colleagues and clients. You need to take excellent care of

yourself in order to prevent infection. You should always bear in mind the effects your illness can have.

Negative impacts include the infection of others, cause of job losses, and related expenses.

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Activity 3D

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4. Contribute to safe work practices in the workplace

4.1. Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational procedures

4.2. Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative activities

4.3. Contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace policies and procedures

in own work area

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4.1 – Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational
procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Follow institutional guidelines to ensure a safe and efficient workplace

➢ Demonstrate an awareness of the correct procedures regarding discussing workplace

issues within the WHS guidelines.

Rights and responsibilities for WHS

Employers and employees are subject to rights and responsibilities in the workplace. This is to ensure

the safety of all people affected and to establish mutually beneficial working arrangements. If

employers provide a safe and supportive environment then employees can work in greater comfort.

Levels of efficiency will increase and there won’t be as many instances of workplace injuries/illnesses.

The employer will benefit, as people will spend less time away from work. There will less disruption to

schedules and fewer compensation claims.

Employers must:

➢ Provide a safe workplace

➢ Provide safe equipment

➢ Provide:

o training

o information

o supervision

➢ Provide adequate and suitable facilities, where required

➢ Check and maintain WHS systems and procedures

➢ Provide PPE, where required.

Employees must:

➢ Work safely

➢ Wear PPE, where required

➢ Follow safety procedures and requirements

➢ Not destroy or compromise equipment and resources

➢ Not interfere with safety equipment

➢ Not act in a way that compromises their own safety, or that of colleagues, clients, and

the public

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➢ Report any WHS

o issues

o hazards

o injuries

o accidents

o near misses

o concerns.

You should be provided with information on the rights and responsibilities of employees and employers.

There should be clarification on what is expected of you. You should also be aware of your rights and

safeguards in the workplace. This arrangement is based on lawful requirements, ethical obligations, and

mutual respect. The specified measures are designed to benefit both parties.

Discuss issues and problems

Workplace issues and concerns can be discussed with
several different people, including:

➢ Colleagues

➢ Supervisors

➢ Managers / team leaders.

You may contact these people for assistance when

attempting to resolve problems. They are likely to

understand the specifics of workplace issues. Those staff

members who are familiar with your work and area should be

able to understand your concerns and provide relevant

advice.

Legislative requirements relating to WHS consultation and participation will include:

➢ National Work Health and Safety Model

➢ Current relevant State / territory WHS legislation

➢ Relevant state / territory Manual Handling Code of Conduct.

These will vary in different areas of Australia. You should always check the specifics.

The National Work Health and Safety Model is designed to provide a basis for more uniform and

harmonised WHS laws, for use across Australia. It needs to be passed by the Parliament in each

jurisdiction.

Current state / territory WHS legislation specifies the laws and legal requirements for that particular

state.

The Manual Handling Code of Conduct is designed to offer guidance and protection for all workers

engaged in heavy or awkward lifting.

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Activity 4A

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4.2 – Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative
activities

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Participate in and contribute to a safety meeting

o provide feedback on incidents and injuries which have been resolved

o contribute to discussions to increase the chance of identifying various workplace

safety issues

➢ Carry out a workplace inspection, showing an awareness of unsafe working conditions

and unsafe professional acts

➢ Demonstrate an active awareness of consultative activities and whom to contact if they

are concerned about any workplace issues.

It is important to hold safety meetings on a regular basis and ensure the involvement of employees

particular to the separate areas of your organisation. If there is general involvement then there will be

an excellent chance of identifying various workplace safety issues. The discussions may focus on the

safety of specific working activities, supervision of staff members and organisation of training.

Information regarding particularly effective safety measures may be shared among representatives

from different departments. It may also be necessary to provide feedback on the resolution of incidents

and injuries in the workplace.

Employees may participate in the following:

➢ Informal chats in the workplace

➢ Discussions during tours of the

workplace

➢ Conversations about health and safety

issues during general meetings

➢ Toolbox talks

➢ Focus groups.

It is important to highlight the responsibilities and safety duties which employees are expected to

perform. Details of departmental safety plans, emergency action plans and fire prevention plans should

be addressed. Employees should have the required skills and knowledge for emergency situations. It is

also important to discuss the risks associated with specific processes in the working environment. You

may consider security provisions, the appropriate use of equipment and relevant news regarding the

risks specific to your industry.

Workplace inspections

Routine inspections should be carried out for the identification of hazards and associated risks in the

workplace. It is also important to assess the work of employees and ensure that they are fulfilling their

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 13 of 85

duties. The inspections should be carried out by employees with considerable knowledge of health and

safety issues relevant to the areas that they are assessing. Workers may be asked to give feedback and

demonstrate working practices in accordance with established standards.

These inspections may be carried out:

➢ Safety tours – Involving general evaluation of the workplace

➢ Safety sampling – Conducting sampling of potentially dangerous areas and practices

➢ Safety surveys – Asking employees for perspectives on health and safety

➢ Incident inspections – Assessing the workplace after a serious injury/illness or near

miss caused by lack of care and concern for health and safety.

You should look out for the following issues:

➢ Unsafe working conditions – potential exposure to chemicals and other elements of the

environment which pose significant risk

➢ Unsafe professional acts – failure to wear appropriate PPE, not working with the

necessary level of caution etc.

Follow up

There should be an opportunity to discuss the findings of workplace inspections. The inspectors may

agree to go away and draw up plans for follow up action. You may lack the time or resources to

implement all of the suggested improvements. However, you should keep a record of the findings and

produce reports for circulation among the workforce. You should analyse the measures that have been

taken subsequent to the issue of previous inspection reports. Some minor risks may have become more

significant. There may be a need to create additional health and safety plans.

Consultative activities

Representatives from different areas of your organisation should be involved in consultations regarding

health and safety. Employees should also know who to consult if they are worried about the potentially

negative impacts of workplace activities. It will be necessary to discuss essential WHS issues, concerns

about particular practices, and relevant legislation. Employees should be encouraged to make

suggestions and appropriate follow up action should be taken. Consultations may take the form of

informal discussions or organised meetings. You should also ensure the appropriate distribution of

documentation specific to health and safety issues.

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Consultations may include:

➢ Health and safety representatives – Designating personnel with responsibility for

consulting on the behalf of employees. They may highlight areas of concern, training

requirements and demanded improvements

➢ Health and safety committees – Employees and managers who come together for the

analysis and improvement of WHS measures. Workers may enlist the support of union

representatives for these consultations.

You may use these forms of communication:

➢ Intranet bulletins

➢ Email

➢ Team briefings

➢ Regular newsletters

➢ Video-conferencing

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 0 of 85

Activity 4B

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4.3 – Contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace
policies and procedures in own work area

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Demonstrate the ability to effectively contribute to workplace procedures in

accordance with their role and organisation policies

➢ Follow and support company policies regarding participatory procedures such as

training staff and infection control.

Participative arrangements

Participative arrangements can be:

➢ Documented issue resolution processes

➢ Easy access to relevant written workplace information

➢ Formal and informal WHS meetings

➢ Health and safety committees

➢ Meetings called by Health and Safety Representatives

➢ Other committees, such as consultative planning, and purchasing

➢ Other means and processes for raising requests and concerns as well as contributing

suggestions and reports to management

➢ Regular information sessions (using clear and understandable language) on existing or

new WHS issues

➢ Team meeting and case management meetings.

Several participative arrangements may be implemented at your workplace. The specific arrangements

will be dependent on your role, level of interest and department. You may, or may not, be required to

participate in them. Your organisation should specify their expectations of you. They should provide

details of how many meetings you should attend. The organisation may provide clarification on the

means of contributing to the development of health and safety procedures. Contribution is normally

encouraged. The generation of ideas and opinions results in more options and leads to follow. However,

some businesses may choose to include only the relevant WHS staff and managers in their processes.

Contribution in each instance may refer to:

➢ Attendance at meetings

➢ Behaviour that contributes to a safe working environment which includes following

WHS procedures

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 2 of 85

➢ Identifying and reporting risks and hazards

➢ Input to care plans

➢ Listening to the ideas and opinions of others

in the team

➢ Recommendations on changes to work

processes, equipment or practices

➢ Sharing opinions, views, knowledge and skills

➢ Using equipment according to guidelines and operating manuals.

Contribution will differ and vary from arrangement to arrangement.

Whatever your organisation chooses to do, you should always meet expectations. If you are interested

and enthusiastic about WHS then you should voluntarily attend meetings and workshops. You should

provide input specific to workplace issues.

Inform supervisors

It is important that you inform your supervisors of hazards, incidents, and concerns in the workplace.

Your organisation may use these prompts for information:

➢ Moral and ethical obligation

➢ Legal obligation

➢ Mandatory notification

➢ Organisation policy

➢ Consideration

➢ Request.

You should always inform the correct person, or people, no matter

the reason for your report. You should provide feedback in a suitable

manner, in accordance with the requirements.

Taking action to control risks

Your organisation may have the following systems and procedures in place for controlling and
preventing risks:

➢ Training staff

➢ Having a report / feedback system

➢ Following the law

➢ Manual Handling Code of Practice

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 3 of 85

➢ Providing lifting equipment

➢ Providing PPE

➢ Taking steps to prevent infection

➢ Abiding by the law

➢ Meeting restrictions and legislations

➢ Working compliantly

➢ Many more.

You need to follow and support the procedures outlined by your organisation. You should provide

relevant assistance for colleagues and do your best to contribute to the maintenance and

implementation of different procedures.

You are also encouraged to engage in the creation of participative arrangements utilised by your

workplace.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 4 of 85

Activity 4C

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5. Reflect on own safe work practices

5.1. Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to workplace systems,

equipment and processes in own work role

5.2. Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated persons according to

workplace procedures

5.3. Participate in workplace debriefing to address individual needs

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 6 of 85

5.1 – Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to
workplace systems, equipment and processes in own work role

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Consistently monitor and review the health and safety policies of your organisation,

considering any changes to health and safety standards within your organisation and

wider legislation

➢ Show an active awareness of the process of a safety audit

➢ Correctly and safely use equipment.

It will be necessary to continually update your health and safety policies and procedures in accordance

with the development of your business. You should carry out regular inspections and ensure that

employees are accounting for health and safety during everyday work practices. Equipment should be

properly maintained and stored safely. It would be advisable to encourage employee feedback and

respond to any concerns. You are also encouraged to consider a variety of ‘what if’ scenarios and

develop plans and procedures accordingly. A process of continuous improvement should be established

for the benefit of your organisation.

Employees should be given appropriate training and provided with clear information regarding the

communication of risk factors in the workplace. Managers are encouraged to set a positive example and

continually reinforce the importance of maintaining health and safety standards. There should be a

shared commitment to maintain safe work practices, systems, and processes throughout the

organisation.

Monitoring and evaluating health and safety

It is important to establish means of monitoring health and safety and reviewing the effectiveness of

measures over time. You should consider the changing health and safety standards of your organisation

in relation to the objectives that have been established in your policies. Questions should be asked if

you are not making the expected level of progress. There should be numerous categories related to

health and safety within your organisation.

You should create checklists specific to:

➢ The use of personal protective equipment

➢ The safety of different types of machinery

➢ The storage of chemicals and other hazardous business

items

➢ Levels of cleanliness and tidiness in the working

environment

➢ The accumulation and removal of waste

➢ The safety of procedures carried out in the workplace

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 7 of 85

Safety audits

It may be deemed necessary to carry out a safety audit to ensure that your organisation is meeting the

required standards. This may be carried out by a group of suitably knowledgeable staff members or an

external agency. It will involve an analysis of your health and safety policies, work practices, and

applicable legislation. A report will be compiled detailing any areas of non-compliance and the

recommended steps for improved health and safety. You may carry out fresh safety audits every few

months in order to identify progress and necessary steps for improvement. However, it will be

necessary to continually monitor and make changes as soon as risks are identified. Employees should be

trained and given responsibility for implementing safety measures.

Using equipment safely

You are advised to monitor and evaluate the risks associated with the use of equipment in the

workplace. It will be necessary to identify the ways in which equipment is used during organisational

inspections and safety audits. You are also encouraged to carry out regular tests and replace any

equipment that poses a significant risk.

Equipment assessments should be based on:

➢ Manufacturer’s instructions

➢ Environmental impacts (accounting for the effects of temperature, corrosion and

weathering)

➢ The extent to which employees rely on equipment

➢ Understanding and skill shown when using the equipment

➢ The potential impact of breakdown and equipment malfunctions

It might not be possible to completely eliminate the risk associated with the use of some equipment.

However, you can take additional precautions for the safety of your workforce.

Measures include:

➢ Installing temporary guarding

➢ Ensuring safe access

➢ Providing suitable protective clothing

and accessories

➢ Using equipment under supervision

➢ Arranging comprehensive training

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 8 of 85

Ensuring the safety of work processes

Employees should be consulted for their perspectives on health and safety issues. Different members of

the workforce should also be aware of their responsibilities for maintaining health and safety. Such

details may be included in contracts and organisational policies. Your organisation should keep a record

of any injuries or near misses that occur as a result of dangerous activity. It will be necessary to identify

the need for improvement and carry out essential corrective action.

You should provide guidelines for the completion of high risk processes in the workplace. Employees

should be aware of the hazards and steps necessary for the assurance of safety. These instructions

should be updated in accordance with the update and introduction of new work practices. You may

include details of appropriate PPE, essential process steps, and risk control methods. Employees should

be consulted regarding the relevance and understanding of process instructions.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 9 of 85

Activity 5A

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 10 of 85

5.2 – Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated
persons according to workplace procedures

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Self-monitor own levels of stress and fatigue to prevent a negative impact in the

workplace

➢ Take the appropriate procedure when recording incidents according to institutional

policies.

It is fairly common for workplace demands and expectations to result in stress and fatigue. Employees

may suffer to different extents and the symptoms may not be immediately obvious. Those individuals

who have negative emotional responses to routine work tasks are likely to feel some level of stress.

However, stress can also be caused by personal circumstances outside the workplace. Prolonged stress

can lead to fatigue as workers struggle to sleep. The fatigue may manifest in numerous ways including

lack of concentration, enthusiasm, and enjoyment.

The causes of stress and fatigue include:

➢ Workers placing themselves under undue amounts of pressure to meet high standards

➢ The breakdown of relationships inside and outside the workplace

➢ The exertion of considerable physical effort over sustained periods of time

➢ The level of mental effort required to complete work tasks.

➢ Environmental factors, including the level of lighting and restricted spaces for work

Employees may experience these symptoms of stress and fatigue:

➢ Increased blood pressure

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 11 of 85

➢ Chest pains

➢ Palpitations

➢ Stomach aches

➢ Headaches

➢ Sleep problems

➢ Fatigue

➢ Unusual behaviour

➢ Lack of concentration

➢ Depression

➢ Anxiety

➢ Irritability

➢ Lack of confidence

Negative impacts in the workplace

It is an unfortunate truth that stress and fatigue can have

overwhelmingly negative impacts in the workplace. Employees

who feel great pressure on a regular basis are unlikely to be as

productive as their colleagues. Stress and fatigue may also

result in failure to turn up for work, diminished standards,

increased risks of injuries and illnesses, and poor morale. The

sense of negativity may well have an impact on other

members of the workforce. Stressed employees are likely to

feel guilty and place increasing amounts of pressure on

themselves. There may be a vicious cycle of stress and fatigue.

Reporting procedures

It is important for employees to be able to report instance of stress and fatigue at the earliest

opportunity. If such problems are rapidly identified then there will be a good chance of developing

effective solutions. However, it can be very difficult to break an ingrained pattern of stress and fatigue.

Organisations are encouraged to highlight the means of communicating such issues. There shouldn’t be

any considerable fear regarding the consequences of reporting stress and fatigue. Employees should be

treated fairly, with the appropriate level of respect and dignity. It is also important to maintain strict

policies of confidentiality when dealing with such issues. Workers may even be given the option of

reporting via health and safety representatives and unions.

Organisational responsibilities

Some employees may be reluctant to provide details of stress and fatigue due to concerns about job

security and follow up action. However, employers should make it clear that such personal

characteristics may have significant impacts in the workplace. Appropriate means of support should be

established, so that employees are able to overcome problems and continue performing their duties.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 12 of 85

The employer must consider whether the stressed or fatigued worker is in a fit mental and physical

state. It may be necessary to arrange a break from the workplace, so that the employee is free to

resolve the issues and then return when they are happier and more relaxed. Workplace assessments

may account for the number of hours worked, sleep patterns, events in the employee’s personal life,

and the level of mental and physical demand.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 13 of 85

Activity 5B

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 14 of 85

5.3 – Participate in workplace debriefing to address individual needs

By the end of this chapter the learner should:

➢ Demonstrate an awareness of company policy regarding debriefing in the event of

workplace incidents which may have a negative impact on staff.

Debriefing in response to workplace incidents

The risk of workplace incidents varies, depending on the nature of

the organisations and the level of care taken by employees. They

may involve serious injuries and illnesses. Such events are bound

to have a considerable impact on employees. However, it is

essential to establish procedure for following up on such

incidents. Meetings and necessary support should be arranged for

the benefit of the workforce.

These measures may be agreed:

➢ Allowing time away from the workplace for recovery

➢ Counselling within and outside the workplace

➢ Thorough assessment of the working environment, to avoid any recurrences

The debriefing should involve an assessment of actions that have been taken subsequent to negative

incidents. Any employees who have been directly affected should be involved in the discussions and

given the opportunity to provide feedback on the effectiveness of agreed measures.

Your organisation may adopt these strategies:

➢ Draw upon employee experiences to create a detailed account of events

➢ Address any questions and concerns

➢ Encourage open discussions about the incidents

➢ Identify immediate requirements

➢ Provide information on the different means of support

➢ Organise further meetings for the purpose of assessing and evaluating responses.

Structure of incident debriefing

There should be general agreement regarding attendance at workplace debriefings. Such sessions may

begin with details of the agreed measures implemented subsequent to a negative event. Employees

should be encouraged to air their views, without fear of recrimination. The details of health and safety

plans should be analysed. It will also be important to consider the results of follow up action in light of

agreed recovery objectives. Such issues should be addressed in a concise and understandable manner

for all employees.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 15 of 85

Other forms of debriefing

Debriefing sessions aren’t always organised in response to workplace incidents. Businesses also have

the option of organising regular debriefings for the purpose of assessing the risk and progression of

projects. The workers should be invited to talk about any near misses or areas of concern that have

been identified while carrying out routine duties. It is also important to recognise the important

contributions that employees have made to health and safety. Employees may be praised and rewarded

for setting positive examples in the workplace. This will be an excellent way of establishing a positive

health and safety culture within your organisation.

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 0 of 85

Activity 5C

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 1 of 85

References

These suggested references are for further reading and do not necessarily represent the contents of

this unit.

Workplace safety policy statement:

https://nonprofitrisk.org/tools/workplace-safety/nonprofit/c1/policy.htm

Work health and safety procedures:

http://www.comcare.gov.au/preventing/governance/procedures

Getting started with workplace health and safety:

https://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/21822/GS_Policies.pdf

What is the difference between a ‘hazard’ and a risk:

https://worksmart.org.uk/health-advice/health-and-safety/hazards-and-risks/what-difference-

between-hazard-and-risk

What are hazards and risks?

https://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/safety-and-prevention/health-and-safety-topics/controlling-ohs-

hazards-and-risks/about-hazards-and-risks/what-are-hazards-and-risks

Identify the hazards:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/identify-the-hazards.htm

Identifying hazards and controlling risks:

http://www.worksafe.vic.gov.au/safety-and-prevention/health-and-safety-topics/managers-and-

supervisors/identifying-hazards-and-controlling-risks

How to identify hazards in your workplace:

file:///C:/Users/Stuart%20New/Downloads/Identifying_hazards.pdf

Dealing with difficult customer behaviour:

http://www.davcorp.com.au/wpdata/files/43.pdf

How to handle 8 challenging service scenarios:

http://www.helpscout.net/blog/customer-service-scenarios/

Dealing with customers: management and staff behaviour:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/violence/toolkit/customers.htm

Workplace health and safety:

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 2 of 85

http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/Legislation-and-policy/Workplace-Health-and-Safety

Managing risks in the workplace:

http://www.comcare.gov.au/preventing/managing_risks_in_the_workplace

Controlling the risks:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/toolbox/managing/managingtherisks.htm

Investigating accidents and incidents:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/hsg245.pdf

Top 10 causes of workplace injuries:

http://smallbusiness.chron.com/top-10-causes-workplace-injuries-11298.html

Recording and reporting accidents, ill health and near misses:

http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/Legislation-and-policy/Workplace-Health-and-

Safety/recording-reporting-accidents

Notification and investigation procedures:

http://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/incidents-injuries-emergency/notification

Getting to grips with manual handling:

http://www.healthandsafetyworksni.gov.uk/getting_2_grips-3.pdf

Workplace safety – infection control:

http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Workplace_safety_-

_infection_control

Good hygiene practices – reducing the spread of infections and viruses:

http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/good_hygiene.html

What your H & S committee will do:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/involvement/whatwillhsdo.htm

Workplace inspections:

http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/Legislation-and-policy/Workplace-Health-and-

Safety/workplaceinspections

HLTWHS002 Learner Guide V2.0 Page 3 of 85

All references accessed on and correct as of 25/09/2015, unless other otherwise stated.

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