GED 120 Introduction to Humanities




Adventures in the Human Spirit

Fifth Edition, 2007

ISBN: 0-13-224459-4

Philip E. Bishop

Pearson/Prentice Hall

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, CA 92701 Phone: 714-547-9625 Fax: 714-547-5777


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

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Message From the President


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Welcome to California Coast University. I hope you will find this course interesting and useful throughout your career. This course was designed to meet the unique needs of students like you who are both highly motivated and capable of completing a degree program through distance learning. Our faculty and administration have been involved in distance learning for almost forty years and understand the characteristics common to successful students in this unique educational environment. This course was prepared by CCU faculty members who are not only outstanding educators, but who have real world experience as well. They have prepared these guidelines to help you successfully complete your educational goals and to get the most from your distance learning experience.

Again, we hope that you will find this course both helpful and motivating. We send our best wishes as you work toward the completion of your degree.


Thomas M. Neal President

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotation in review. Copyright © 2009 by California Coast University First Printing 2002



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Course Number GED 120

Course Title Introduction to Humanities

Catalog Description This course explores the conduct of human life with emphasis on understanding the esthetic sense, an important element in the art of being human. The course focuses on key events, styles, movements and figures of Western art, philosophy and religion which are all essential to exploring the esthetic human experience. Students will learn to think critically about how the past themes, movements and creative genius have impacted, and still influence, the modern world which we live in today.

Units of Credit 3 Units of Credit

Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

• Identify major themes, systems, and movements in the history of philosophy, art, and humanity.

• Understand how these themes—”spirits”—developed, lead to one another, and work together today.

• Integrate and think critically about these systems, and your relationship to them and the world.

Learning Resources Textbook: Adventures in the Human Spirit Fifth Edition, 2007 Philip E. Bishop Pearson / Prentice Hall

ISBN: 0-13-224456-4

All course examinations are based on the contents of the textbook required for this course. To successfully complete the examinations, you will need the textbook. You may rent the textbook from our Rental Library or you may purchase the textbook from other sources.

The Study Guide

The Study Guide was designed to help you further understand the material in the textbook and master the course content. Each Study Guide chapter corresponds to a chapter in the textbook.

Additional Readings and Online Resources To help you to further understand this subject material, additional readings and online resources related to this course are listed in this Syllabus.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

The Library Information and Resources Network, Inc. (LIRN) The Library Information and Resources Network (LIRN) is an online library resource that provides access to multiple research databases.

CCU doctoral candidates who enrolled in their program after February 1, 2010 receive complimentary access to LIRN.

If you are a current student enrolled in another CCU program and wish to request access to LIRN, you may do so for a one-time fee of $25. Please contact the CCU Library to fill out a Request for Online Library Resources form and submit it, with payment, to the University. You will be emailed a confidential identification number to use for the remainder of your studies at CCU.

Supplementary Materials

Unit Examination Answer Sheets* Final Examination Scheduling Form

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students will not receive unit exam answer sheets. Unit Examinations for these programs require written responses.

Your Course Grade

Your grades on course examinations are determined by the percentage of correct answers. The University uses the following grading system:

A = 90% – 100% correct B = 80% – 89% correct C = 70% – 79% correct D = 60% – 69% correct F = 59% and below correct

Your grade in this course will be based on the number of points you earn. Grades are based on the percentage of points you earned out of a total of 500 points:

Four Unit Examinations

100 points each 400 points total 80% of your grade

Final Examination

100 points 100 points total 20% of your grade

Mastering the Course Content

In order to successfully complete this course, we recommend that you do the following before beginning:



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

• Be sure that you have the correct edition of the course textbook. Check the ISBN number of your textbook with the ISBN number listed on the cover page of this Study Guide.

• Review the Table of Contents at the end of this Syllabus. You will only be responsible for the chapters in the textbook that are listed in the Table of Contents.

Each Study Guide contains several components selected and developed by the faculty to help you master the content of the course. Each chapter in the Study Guide corresponds to a chapter in the textbook. Study Guides vary depending on the course, but most will include:

Learning Objectives Overviews Self Tests Summaries Key Terms Critical Analysis Questions (Master and Doctoral students only)

The most efficient way to complete this course is to read the materials in both the Study Guide and textbook in the sequence in which it appears, generally from beginning to end.

Read the Overviews and Summaries

Before reading a chapter of your textbook, review the corresponding Learning Objectives, Overview, Key Terms and Summary sections in the Study Guide. These were prepared to give you an overview of the content to be learned.

Review the Self Test

After you have reviewed the Study Guide summaries, look at the items on the Self Test. As you identify your areas of relative strength and weakness, you will become more aware of the material you will need to learn in greater depth.

Review the Critical Analysis (Master and Doctoral students only) The Critical Analysis questions are designed to help you gain a deeper understanding and appreciation for the course subject matter. This section will encourage you to give additional thought to the topics discussed in the chapter by presenting vignettes or cases with real world relevance.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Read and Review the Chapter

Once you have the scope and organization of the chapter in mind, turn to the corresponding chapter in the text and read the material carefully. Keep the Learning Objectives, Self Test and/or Critical Analysis questions in mind as you read.

Highlight important concepts and information in your Study Guide and write notes in the Study Guide margins as you read. These notes will help you study for the Unit and Final Examinations.

Check Your Mastery of Each Chapter

When you feel that you have mastered the concepts presented in the chapter, complete the Study Guide Self Test and/or Critical Analysis questions without referring to the textbook or your notes. Correct your Self Test and review each Critical Analysis response using the Answer Key and Solutions Guide provided in the Study Guide. Your results will help you identify any areas you need to review.

Unit Examinations

Each course contains four Unit Examinations and a Final Examination. Unit Examinations usually consist of 25 objective (multiple choice or true/false) test questions as well as comprehensive writing assignments selected to reflect the Learning Objectives identified in each chapter. For Master of Education and Doctor of Education students, Unit Examinations consist of Written Assignments only. Unit Examinations may be found approximately every four to six chapters throughout your Study Guide. Unit Examinations are open-book, do not require a proctor, and are not timed. This will allow you to proceed at your own pace.

It is recommended that you check your answers against the material in your textbook for accuracy.

Written Assignments

Each Unit Examination includes a written component. This assignment may be in the form of written questions or case study problems. The written assignment affords the student an opportunity to demonstrate a level of subject mastery beyond the objective Unit Examinations, which reflects his/her ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and apply his/her knowledge. The written assignment materials are found immediately following each Unit Examination.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Written Assignment Requirements

• Always include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• All responses must be typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size for ease of reading and grading.

• All online responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document file only.

Written assignments are judged on the quality of the response in regard to the question. Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

• Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages.

• Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages.

• Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.


All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Plagiarism consists of taking and using the ideas, writings or inventions of another, without giving credit to that person and presenting it as one’s own. This is an offense that the University takes very seriously. An example of a correctly prepared written response may be found by visiting the Coast Connection student portal.

Citation Styles

The majority of your response should be your own original writing based on what you have learned from the textbook. However, if you choose to use outside material to answer a written assignment question, be sure to provide a reference (or citation) for the material. The following points are designed to help you understand how to provide proper references for your work:



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

• References are listed in two places.

• The first reference is briefly listed within your answer. This includes identifying information that directs the reader to your List of References at the end of your Written Assignment.

• The second reference is at the end of your work in the List of References section.

• All references cited should provide enough identifying information so that the reader can access the original material.

For more detailed information on the proper use of citations, please refer to the Student Handbook.

Submitting Your Unit Examinations by Mail

Send your completed Unit Examination along with any written assignments to the following mailing address:

California Coast University Testing Department 925 N. Spurgeon Street Santa Ana, CA 92701

Submitting Your Unit Examinations via the Internet

Students may access the online testing features via the Coast Connection student portal. Multiple choice Unit Examinations may be completed and submitted online. After logging in to your online account at, select the Testing link, then select Complete Unit Exam. It is recommended that you complete the Unit Examinations on the hard copy answer sheet first, then transfer the answers to the online answer sheet.

The written assignments for each Unit Examination may be submitted online as well. After accessing the student portal, choose the Writing Assignment link and then select Writing Assignment Submission. If you will be submitting multiple Word documents, please upload and submit them one at a time.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Repeating Examinations

After a Unit Examination grade has been posted, students have the option of repeating the exam to improve their grade*. Each Unit Examination may only be repeated once.

Students may retake one Unit Examination per course, free of charge. The cost for each additional, repeated exam will be $90. Payment must be paid in full to the Accounting Department prior to repeating exams.

Requests to retake a Unit Examination will only be honored if the Final Exam has NOT been sent.

*Master of Education and Doctor of Education students are not eligible to retake Unit Exams. If you would like to improve your grade, you may pay the current cost of tuition to retake the course.

Final Examination

Scheduling a Final Examination

Final Examination requests can be submitted via U.S. mail, online through the Coast Connection student portal or by calling the Testing Department at (714) 547-9625.

A Final Exam Scheduling Form is located on the last page of this Study Guide. Please fill out all required fields and mail it to the University.

If you would like to put in a Final Exam request online, log in to your student account at and choose the Testing link, then select Final Exam Scheduling.

Final Exams will only be sent if you have completed all four Unit Examinations and submitted all four Writing Assignments.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Submitting Your Final Examination

Final Examinations can be submitted by mail, fax or online through the student portal.

After you have completed your exam, you or your proctor can fax it to the Grading Department at (714) 547-1451 or mail it to the University. When faxing exams, please do not resize your fax.

For online submissions, once you have logged into the student portal, click on the Testing tab and then choose either Proctored Final or Non Proctored Final. If your Final Exam was sent to your proctor, then he or she will have to enter a password that was issued to them on the Proctor Instruction Sheet for the course.

Online Final Exam submissions must be completed in one session; you can not save answers and go back to your exam later. We recommend that you complete your Final Exam on paper first, then transfer the answers to your online answer sheet.


The University requires that all Final Examinations except Associate and Bachelors level elective courses be completed under the supervision of a Proctor. At the time you enrolled into your program, you were given the total number of proctored Final Examinations required for your degree program.

The purpose of the proctored Final Examination is to verify that you are, in fact, the person who is enrolled in the course of study. It is also to verify that you are completing the Final Examination without the aid of any outside assistance. During the proctored Final Examination, you may use your textbook and any notes you have taken during the completion of your Unit Examinations. Your designated Proctor will verify your identity and that you have completed the Final Examination without any outside assistance. A Proctor can be anyone EXCEPT an immediate family member, someone who resides with you or a current/former CCU student.

Receiving Your Examination Grades

After your examinations are scored, a grade report will be mailed to you or you may arrange to have your grade e-mailed to you. You may also check your grades on the Coast Connection student portal. Grades are normally posted and available for review within 5 business days.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

Most students receive their grades by regular mail within two weeks after the University receives their examinations.

If you do not receive a grade report within two weeks, please contact the Testing Department and a duplicate grade report will be sent to you.

Students from foreign countries: Allow 4–6 weeks to receive your grade report by mail.

Your Overall Grade Point Average

In addition to receiving a passing grade for each course, all students must maintain a required Overall Grade Point Average in order to graduate. Undergraduate students need an Overall Grade Point Average of 2.0 (C) on a 4.0 scale. Graduate and Doctoral students need an Overall Grade Point Average of 3.0 (B) on a 4.0 scale.

A = 4 grade points B = 3 grade points C = 2 grade points D = 1 grade point F = 0 grade points

Students who do not meet the overall G.P.A. requirement by the end of their program must pay the current cost of tuition to repeat courses until they improve their overall G.P.A.

Overall course grades of “F” will be displayed on your Degree Plan and count as 0 units completed. You must pay to retake these courses.

Doctor of Education students must repeat any courses in which the overall course grade is a “D” or “F”.

Be sure to keep a copy of all work you submit to the University.



GED120 Introduction to Humanities

If you have any questions about how to proceed through the course or regarding any California Coast University policies and procedures, the easiest way to get help is to e-mail or phone the University.

University office hours are Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Pacific Standard Time.

California Coast University

925 N. Spurgeon Street, Santa Ana, California 92701 Phone: (714) 547-9625 • Fax: (714) 547-5777 Test Answer Sheet Fax Line: (714) 547-1451


Don’t forget: You are not alone! We are here to help you achieve your dream!





GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Learning Objectives

The learning objectives for this course are listed below:

1 1. Characterize the modes of artistic expression and philosophical reflection. 2. Explain pictorial arts, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, theater, opera, and the literary arts. 3. Explain how personal response to art is shaped by the work itself and by personal experience. 2 1. Characterize the likely purpose or function of stone-age art. 2. Identify similar religious themes and artistic features in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. 3. Explain the religious function of Egyptian art. 4. Identify the religious and philosophical achievements of early Asian civilizations. 5. Contrast the character and achievements of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations. 3 1. Describe early Greek civilization and its most celebrated artistic achievements. 2. Briefly tell the story of Athens’ Golden Age. 3. Analyze the Parthenon as a symbol of the civic pride and humanist self-confidence of Athens during the classical period. 4. Describe Greek sculpture of the classical and Hellenistic periods. 5. Describe the most important types of Greek theater. 6. Summarize the aim of philosophy, as understood by Greek philos- ophers from the materialists to Aristotle. 7. Explain the Greeks’ beliefs about music and its relation to human character. 8. Compare Hellenistic civilization with the classical Greek civiliza- tion that preceded it. 4 1. Trace Rome’s historical development from early republic to imperi- al power. 2. Analyze the political message in examples of Roman imperial art. 3. Explain the Romans’ important innovations in large-scale public architecture. 4. Analyze what the art of painting and sculpture reveals about the lives of ordinary Romans. 5. Characterize the ancient Romans’ tastes in popular entertainment. 6. Identify the achievements of Roman lyric, satire, and epic poetry that most influenced later authors. 7. Compare Roman epicureanism and stoicism in the rules they pre- scribe for living a good life. 5 1. Summarize the essential religious ideas of the Jewish people and their sacred scripture, the Hebrew Bible. 2. Identify the essential teachings of the Hebrew Bible. 3. Explain the appeal of Christian teachings and practices in the late Roman world. 4. Explain Augustine’s views on human nature and human history.



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

5. Summarize the artistic differences between the churches of Latin Christianity and the Byzantine world. 6. Identify the religious and social reasons for early Christians’ hostility to the arts. 7. Identify the beliefs of Islam that supported the faith’s militant expan- sion. 6 1. Explain the interest of Charlemagne in books, churches, and the arts. 2. Characterize the achievements of feudal culture in medieval Europe. 3. Describe a typical day of a medieval monk. 4. Explain how the Romanesque style served the different needs of German emperors, powerful abbots, and Christian pilgrims. 5. Show how the invention of musical notation altered the way that music was taught and sung. 6. Analyze the role of Abelard in altering the conventions of medieval theology. 7 1. Describe the primary factors in the cultural awakening of the late Middle Ages. 2. Explain how, to a medieval Christian, the beauty of a Gothic-style church symbolized God’s presence in the world. 3. Identify the most important changes in Gothic sacred music and theater. 4. Describe the social atmosphere and course of study at a typical medieval university. 5. Give examples of the rules of courtly love professed in medieval courts. 6. Compare the use of pilgrimage as a metaphor in the major works of Dante and Chaucer. 7. Identify the figures who anticipated the Renaissance in Italy. 8 1. Describe the conditions in Italian cities that nurtured the creative spirit of the Renaissance. 2. Describe the technical innovations in the arts and music that helped define the Florentine Renaissance style. 3. Identify the themes and techniques of Michelangelo’s early sculp- tures. 4. Summarize the rules of government prescribed in Machiavelli’s The Prince. 5. Compare the heroic style of the Renaissance in Rome with the early Renaissance style in Florence. 6. Show how Michelangelo’s artistic works balance the pagan classi- cal tradition with Christian values. 9 1. Identify the political and economic causes of the Northern Renaissance. 2. Summarize the beliefs which led Protestantism to separate from the Roman Catholic faith.



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

3. Compare the Renaissance painters of northern Europe, in style and subject, with the masters of the Italian Renaissance. 4. List the major points of agreement and disagreement between Erasmus and the Reformation. 5. Describe the social and religious circumstances in England that contributed to the success of Elizabethan theater. 6. Explain the reasons for the late Renaissance’s conservatism in music and theater. 7. Analyze the differences between artists and composers of the Venetian Renaissance and their High Renaissance precursors. 10 1. Describe the transition from Renaissance to baroque in Spanish art. 2. Identify the important stylistic features of Italian baroque art and music. 3. Identify the neoclassical elements of architecture, theater, and music at Louis XIV’s court. 4. Define several musical forms, both sacred and secular, in which Bach excelled as a composer. 5. Compare the style and subjects of Dutch baroque art with the aristocratic and Counter-Reformation baroque styles. 6. Identify examples of science’s link to mathematics in the discover- ies of the Scientific Revolution. 7. Identify the diverse elements that were synthesized in the English baroque style. 11 1. Summarize the Enlightenment philosophes’ program for reforming eighteenth-century society. 2. Identify the qualities of eighteenth-century art that most appealed to art’s parton classes. 3. Identify the artistic styles and themes that appealed to the middle- class public of the eighteenth century. 4. Explain how neoclassicism could express both conservative and revolutionary values. 5. Identify the aspects of eighteenth-century society that were criti- cized by the age’s great satirists. 12 1. Identify the leading philosophical and political ideas of the American and French revolutions. 2. Identify the essential characteristics shared by the romantic heroes, both historical and fictional. 3. Link the different social elements of romanticism to the historical and social circumstances of the romantic age. 4. Illustrate the romantic fascination with the demonic and grotesque by examples from several arts. 13 1. Define realism as it was practiced in nineteenth-century art and literature. 2. Identify the technical and scientific advances that contributed to the age’s social and artistic progress.



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

3. Explain Wagner’s concept of the “total work of art” as it was real- ized in his operas. 4. Explain why the symbolists and like-minded artists rejected the artistic tastes of middle-class society. 5. Summarize the principal characteristics of the impressionist and post-impressionist styles in painting. 6. Summarize the criticisms made by Ibsen and Dostoyevsky of Western industrial society. 14 1. Identify the historical events and forces that shaped the rise of modern mass society. 2. Discuss the ways in which modernists discarded or transformed long-standing traditions in the visual arts. 3. Summarize Freud’s view of the role of sexuality in human thought. 4. Explain why modernist music often outraged or alienated popular audiences. 5. Compare the different political beliefs that were communicated in the works of modernist artists. 6. Identify the most significant American innovators of the modernist era. 15 1. Describe the responses of artists and writers to the horrors of World War II and the rise of consumer society. 2. Describe the situation of the existential hero, as depicted in absur- dist theater and fiction. 3. Identify the modernist trends and techniques that were extended or developed by the post-war avant-garde. 4. Summarize the artistic goals of post-war architecture, as evident in the works of the International Style. 5. Describe the two major trends in avant-garde music after 1945. 6. Illustrate the stylistic tendencies of post-modern art with examples from several media or forms. 7. Summarize the changes in Western civilization at the end of the twentieth century.

Table of Contents


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-xxiii

Unit One

Chapter 1: The Humanities: An introduction to the Adventure . . . . . . . . . 1-5

Chapter 2: The Ancient World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14

Chapter 3: Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25

Chapter 4: Ancient Rome: The Spirit of Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-36

Chapter 5: The Spirit of Monotheism: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. . . . . . 37-46

Unit 1 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Unit 1 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-52

Unit 1 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Unit Two

Chapter 6: The Early Middle Ages: The Feudal Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55-65

Chapter 7: The Late Middle Ages: The Gothic Awakening . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-75

Chapter 8: The Renaissance Spirit in Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76-85

Unit 2 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Unit 2 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-91

Unit 2 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Unit Three

Chapter 9: Reformation and Late Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94-103

Chapter 10: The Spirit of Baroque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104-115

Chapter 11: The Spirit of Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116-125

Chapter 12: Revolution and Romanticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126-135

Unit 3 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

Unit 3 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137-141

Unit 3 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Unit Four

Chapter 13: The Industrial Age: The Spirit of Materialism . . . . . . . . . . . . 144-153

Chapter 14: The Spirit of Modernism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154-164

Chapter 15: The Contemporary Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165-175

Table of Contents


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Unit 4 Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Unit 4 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177-181

Unit 4 Essay Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Final Examination Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Final Examination Scheduling Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Chapter Number One The Humanities: An Introduction to the Adventure

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Characterize the modes of artistic expression and philosoph- ical reflection.

2. Explain pictorial arts, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, theater, opera, and the literary arts.

3. Explain how personal response to art is shaped by the work itself and by personal experience.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 15-25 of your textbook

• Reference: Adventures in the Human Spirit by Philip E. Bishop, Fifth edition



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Chapter One introduces the book, and the idea of the “humanities”. Humanities refers to “the study of the creative process of tradition as it occurred in the past and continues in the present.” The creative process of tradition is all that man does creatively throughout time that separates mankind from other creatures by its rich- ness and value – art, thinking, painting, music, litera- ture, sculpture, dance, etc. This chapter gives you important critical questions to consider when thinking about these areas, as we’ve pursued throughout history.

Key Terms


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.



Pictorial Arts:


‘Full-Round’ Sculpture:





Narrative Fiction:



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Chapter one reviews the various modes of artistic expres- sion and philosophical reflection. Pictorial arts, sculp- ture, architecture, music, dance, theater, opera, and lit- erary arts were all introduced.

Answer Keys


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Key Term Definitions

Tradition: The process of nurturing and transmitting creative spirit which sustains a civilization’s essential values and impresses them on succeed- ing generations.

Humanities: The study of the creative process of tradition as it occurred in the past and continues in the present.

Pictoral Arts: Painting, printmaking and photography.

Sculpture: The shaping of material into a three-dimensional work of art.

‘Full Round’ Sculpture: A sculpture shaped so that the work stands freely and can be seen from all sides. Also known as “free-standing.”

Architecture: The art of enclosing a space to provide shelter.

Melody: A series of tones that make some sense to the ear, and create a tune that the ear can follow.

Rhythm: Anything one can tap a foot to, a beat created by regularly accented tones.

Theater: The art of acting out dramatic literature in a live performance.

Narrative Fiction: Literature that tells a story.



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Chapter Number Two The Ancient World

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Characterize the likely purpose or function of stone-age art.

2. Identify similar religious themes and artistic features in ancient Near Eastern civilizations.

3. Explain the religious function of Egyptian art.

4. Identify the religious and philosophical achievements of early Asian civilizations.

5. Contrast the character and achievements of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.

Instructions to Students

• Read pages 26-39 of your textbook

• Reference: Adventures in the Human Spirit by Philip E. Bishop, Fifth edition



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

Chapter Two discusses possible ideas about the “first humans”, the first great cities, and characteristics of four civilizations or groups of civilizations that grew and developed several thousand years B.C. The four are Mesopotamia, Egypt, Asian Civilizations and The Aegean World. Each civilization contributed to the formation of the humanities, in writing, art, song, and architecture, among other areas. Students will read about monoliths, cave art, the major characteristics of the four major civi- lizations of the ancient world, the beliefs they held about life and death, ancient architecture and art (Egyptian sculpture, ziggurats, pyramids, statues etc.), and other relevant issues. The chapter also covers the likely pur- pose and function of stone age art, common religious themes and artistic features of these civilizations, the concepts of “myth” and “sacred history”, various philo- sophical achievements of ancient civilization, and the time-line in which these civilizations flourished and declined.

Key Terms


GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

The key terms listed below are terms you should be familiar with. Write your definition below each item. Check your answers at the end of this chapter.


Cave Artist:



Old Babylonians:

Code of Hammurabi:




Indus Valley Civilization:

Aegean World:



GED 120 Introduction to Humanities

The first humans appeared about 100,000 years ago and developed a culture that revered the forces of nature and remembered the dead. The first human expression in the arts took the form of elaborate cave paintings, with their dynamic animal figures, and small sculptures of clay and stone, often depicting powerfully symbolic female figures. Megalithic com- plexes such as Stonehenge in England—the first monumental human buildings— indicate early humans’ profound religious connection to the universe.

The first great cities appeared in the bronze-age Near East, on the fertile river plains of Mesopotamia. Here the Sumerians developed the first forms of writing and recorded their mythic thought in the Enuma efsh. Myths were also celebrated in rituals on huge temple-altars (ziggurats). The succession of great empires that dominated Mesopotamia included the Babylonian, with its law-giving king Hammurabi, and the Persian, remem- bered for its great palace at the capital Persepolis.

The geography of Egypt—protected by desert and unified by the Nile River—fostered a stable civilization ruled by pharaoh-kings. Egypt’s complex myths and rituals centered on the afterlife. To contain the mummified dead, the Egyptians built huge pyramids and elaborately decorated tombs. To honor the gods, they constructed vast temple complexes at Karnak and elsewhere. Egyptian arts reached a high point under the unorthodox pharaoh Akhenaten and in the gracefully decorated tomb of Nefertari.

In the Indus Valley of southern Asia, a highly developed civilization left the ruins of great cities such as Mohenjo-Daro but little in the form of art. This so-called Harappan civilization was supplanted by Aryan settlers, whose great legacy was the Vedic tradition of mystical prayers and hymns. In China, the bronze-age dynasties of the Shang and Zhou left masterpieces of jade and bronze, the foundation of China’s immensely rich artis- tic tradition.

The roots of the Western world as we know it can be traced to the Minoan civilization of ancient Crete (an eastern Mediterranean island) and the Mycenaean cities of mainland Greece. The peace-loving Minoans were masters of fine craft and practiced a goddess-centered religion. The Mycenaeans were fierce warriors and pirates who buried their warlords in tombs filled with fantastic riches. From the ruins of Mycenaean palace- cities (sacked by invaders c. 1150 B.C.), the civilization of clas- sical Greece was to arise.

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