In research assignment #4, you will learn the difference between bibliographic and footnote citations and draft an outline of your final essay, including (an) introductory paragraph(s) with your final (or near final) thesis statement.

After you’ve completed Research Assignment #4, you will receive feedback that will help you strengthen the clarity of your thesis, the organization of your project, and the soundness of your evidence.

Question 1 – Footnotes (15/100 pts)

Full Footnotes Within the body of your essay, you will need to provide footnote citations for your sources. A footnote is a numerical reference (called a superscript) embedded in the narrative itself and has a corresponding number at the bottom of the page with the source’s citation. Different word processing programs have different toolbar commands for footnoting (sometimes called reference in MS Word), so you’ll need to familiarize yourself with how yours works (note that footnotes are not the same as a footer). The major difference between bibliographic and footnote citations is the that bibliographic citations address the source as a whole, while footnotes (full or abbreviated) hone in on specific pages (or parts of the source). There are other important differences as well, including the order of an author’s name (first, last vs. last, first) and punctuation. Consult the Chicago-style page for a refresher on the differences between bibliographic and footnote citations (you may remember this from RA1).

Start a heading: “Q1 – Footnotes.”

In your research assignment #4 Word doc under Q1 heading, enter the correct Chicago-style full footnote citation for one of your sources. Label it as “Full Footnote.” Use a page number or page range (i.e. 11-13) that correspond(s) with an example that you will use in your final essay.

Abbreviated Footnotes For any single source, you should abbreviate all subsequent footnotes after the first one. In your RA4 doc under a Q1 heading, using the Chicago-style examples as references, enter the correct abbreviated footnote citation for the same source you used for the full footnote. Label it as “Abbreviated Footnote.” Use a page number or page range (i.e. 11-13) that correspond(s) with an example that you will use in your final essay.

Question 2 – Final Essay Outline (80/100 pts)

Creating a quality outline is a key step in all evidence-based writing. There are a number of basic requirements for the final essay which inform your outline work:

1. The introduction (one to two paragraphs) introduces your topic (often featuring a topical hook, or short example of your topic – consider using your contemporary news article as an opening example) AND includes your thesis statement and structure for your arguments.

2. The middle of the outline (which ultimately becomes the body of the paper) will likely work forward in time, or perhaps be organized by geography or sub-topics. Regardless of your structural approach, it is paramount that you maintain a consistent historical (chronological) orientation throughout.

3. Your outline should include footnote citations of all sources throughout.

4. The conclusion should summarize your main points and explain how a historical understanding of your issue is critical to understanding it in the present.


Start a new heading: “Q2 – Final Essay Outline”

In your research assignment #4 Word doc, provide a complete outline. Be sure to fully incorporate all elements from the four outline components list above. Consult the sample RA4 provided.

Question 3 – Library Help (5/100 pts)

Start a new heading: “Q3 – Library Help.”

Did you contact library reference staff for any of your work in any part of this research assignment (RA1 – RA4)? If so, what kind of help did you get? If you did not seek assistance, explain why and how you think assistance m

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