emergency disaster week 2

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Please answer the following questions: 400 WORDS

1. Why are public-private partnerships important in the National Incident Management System? 

2. During medical triage, which organizations or partnerships are involved in START triage?

3. What are some strategies to improve inter-agency communications and coordination between local, state, and federal governments?






Understanding Disaster Medicine

Natural disasters are increasing in both frequency and severity. In the past 40 years, there have been over 6000 documented natural disasters affecting more than 5 billion people. Three-fourths of these events and 98% of the related expenses have occurred in the past 10 years. It is estimated that this trend will continue. We live in a world of multiple threats. Each occurrence leads to a chain of events that affects our infrastructure, creates social and civil unrest, and causes additional disease. The net effect is that our response is hindered and additional losses are experienced. Disasters may be the consequence of human intent (terrorism), unintended results of human activity (industrial accidents), or natural occurrences. More often, it is the interaction of human and environmental effects that result in increased devastation.

We must recognize the concept that disasters are interconnected. Unintended but contributing consequences of human activity have altered the environment and increased our vulnerability. Atmospheric changes increase the probability of a major disaster and altered ecosystems limit natural defenses resulting in greater destruction. Human effects on the environment increase both the probability of disasters and our vulnerability. Change in the ecology, such as wetland encroachment, deforestation, bio-invasion and water diversion, decrease natural barriers to protection. Atmospheric alterations due to natural (e.g. El Nino, multidecadal trans-Atlantic cycle, etc.) and human influences increase the frequency and severity of storms and hurricanes.

National Response Framework (NRF)

The Federal ESFs bring together the capabilities of federal departments and agencies and other national-level assets.  GSA is the primary agency, along with FEMA Logistics, for ESF 7 Logistics and is a Support agency to nine other RESFs. The National Response Framework (NRF) is composed of a base document, Emergency Support Function (ESF) annexes, support annexes, and incident annexes. The annexes provide detailed information to assist with the implementation of the NRF.

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· Emergency Support Function (ESF) annexes

ESF annexes describe the federal coordinating structures that group resources and capabilities into functional areas that are most frequently needed in a national response.

Support Annexes

Support annexes describe the essential supporting processes and considerations that are most common to the majority of incidents.

Incident Annexes

Incident annexes describe the unique response aspects of incident categories.


Government resources alone cannot meet all the needs of those affected by terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and other catastrophic events. When disaster strikes, people throughout the community and our nation pitch in to help the response effort.

Disasters do not need to be large scale, global events. The majority of these threats will occur on a local level, affecting a defined community that may be unable to meet demands and rapidly become overwhelmed. Regardless of the cause, the end product and our roles and responsibilities are the same, to minimize the loss of life.

Disasters impact our health, community, and economy; they devastate the environment and significantly disrupt our daily life. The fundamental goals of disaster mitigation are to:

· Understand and define the threat

· Limit our vulnerabilities

· Prevent the occurrence when possible

· Minimize the effects and losses when they arise


In this lesson, we discussed how public health emergencies are increasing worldwide. More people equal more susceptibility. A broader, more extensive framework is necessary to protect communities from public health emergencies. Next, we will cover National Incident Management System, START triage, and public-private partnerships in emergencies.


Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2014, July). 
National Response Framework. Retrieved from FEMA website https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/32230.

U.S. General Services Administration. (2017, August). 
The National Response Plan. Retrieved from GSA website https://www.gsa.gov/governmentwide-initiatives/emergency-response/t


1. Why are public-private partnerships important in the National Incident Management System? 


Public-private partnerships constitute crucial components of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) as they facilitate the achievement of a harmonized and efficient reaction to emergencies and significant occurrences. The synergy between the public and private sectors can facilitate optimal resource allocation and effective coordination of response endeavors. 

The specialized resources, such as equipment, technology, and expertise, available to the private sector can be crucial in managing natural disasters, terrorist attacks, or other significant incidents. Engaging in partnerships with the public sector can establish the requisite legal and regulatory structure to guarantee the appropriate utilization of these resources, thereby promoting public welfare.


The collaboration between public and private entities is of utmost importance in enabling the exchange of information and intelligence, which is a critical component for effective incident management. Through establishing collaborative relationships and exchanging information, the private sector can enhance the accessibility of its resources and expertise to the public sector. In turn, the public sector can leverage its planning, coordination, and regulatory oversight competencies to augment the partnership.



Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2017). Public-Private Partnerships Fact Sheet. Retrieved from 



U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017). National Incident Management System, Second Edition. Retrieved from https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1508151197225-ced8c60378c3936adb92c1a3ee6b50b5/FINAL_NIMS_2017.pdf


2. During medical triage, which organizations or partnerships are involved in START triage?


The acronym START in medical triage refers to Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment. The system is extensively employed to effectively classify and rank patients according to their injuries or medical conditions, with the aim of guaranteeing appropriate and expeditious medical attention. The implementation of START triage is typically carried out by a multitude of organizations and partnerships, particularly in the context of large-scale disasters or emergencies.


The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a pivotal entity involved in the implementation of START triage. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel frequently serve as primary responders during emergency scenarios and perform a critical function in the initial evaluation and prioritization of patients. The individuals in question bear the responsibility of classifying patients into one of START’s three primary categories, namely immediate, delayed, or minimal.


The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is an additional entity that participates in the implementation of START triage. This collaborative effort at the federal level encompasses a variety of agencies and departments, including but not limited to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The National Incident Management System (NIMS) facilitates the organization and optimization of emergency response operations, with the aim of achieving efficient medical triage in the event of disasters.


The implementation of START triage may involve the participation of local and state health departments, hospitals, and community emergency response teams. These collectives collaborate to guarantee that patients receive appropriate assessment and therapy in accordance with their requirements while upholding the safety and protection of the vicinity.



American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. (2014). Triage education and methodology: Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) and resource allocation in mass casualty incidents. Retrieved from 



Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2017). National Incident Management System. Retrieved from 



National Library of Medicine. (2022). Simple triage and rapid treatment (START). Retrieved from 



3. What are some strategies to improve inter-agency communications and coordination between local, state, and federal governments?


The effectiveness of governance can be greatly influenced by inter-agency communication and coordination among local, state, and federal governments. This can facilitate the development of collaborative relationships, the sharing of resources, and the provision of optimal services to citizens. There exist various approaches that can be employed to enhance communication and coordination among different agencies. 


A recommended approach involves the establishment of a standardized set of communication protocols among various agencies. One possible approach is to establish a platform that facilitates the exchange of information and data, as well as to establish a recurring meeting cadence to deliberate on ongoing initiatives, obstacles, and prospective remedies. Organizations have the potential to optimize communication processes by utilizing technological advancements, such as web-based collaboration tools, email, and messaging.


An additional approach involves the establishment of unambiguous channels of responsibility and liability. It is imperative that every agency comprehends its respective roles, mandates, and jurisdictions. By clearly delineating their respective roles and duties, agencies can enhance the comprehension of their impact on a project, leading to a reduction in disputes and an enhancement in cooperation among different entities. 


The implementation of cross-training initiatives among staff members has the potential to enhance inter-agency communication and coordination. The process of developing a common comprehension of mandates and objectives facilitates enhanced collaboration, superior service provision, and optimal allocation of resources. It is possible to establish routine training and development initiatives for personnel with the aim of cultivating robust communication and interpersonal proficiencies. By acquiring the requisite skillset, personnel can proficiently manage communication obstacles, streamline technical terminology, and foster the exchange of information among inter-organizational collaborators. 



Barnett, A. J., Brown, A., Kim, J., Phillips, B., & Simpson, L. (2017). Enabling collaboration through leadership of inter-agency communication and coordination: A Scoping Review. International Journal of Integrated Care, 17(5), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.3245


Charlene, S., & Derweduwen, A. (2018). Enhancing Crisis Communication and Coordination across Governments and Business: Development of an Emergency Public-Private Partnership Model. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 15(2), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2017-0028


Hayes, B. (2019). Communication Tips for Cross-Functional Teams. Harvard Business Review.

Why are public-private partnerships important in the National Incident Management System? 

The private sector can financially contribute to emergency response, which can help quicken a response and help with long term recovery efforts (Chandra, 2016). Public-private partnerships are integral in National incident because they help increase effectiveness and efficiency. These partnerships help reduce the burden on government agencies. 

During medical triage, which organizations or partnerships are involved in START triage? 

Triage is assessing victims and prioritizing them based on their medical needs. START triage stand for simple triage and rapid treatment. (Williams, 2022). Mainly first responders are responsible for the triaging of patients. First responders delegate patients based on their status; they break them down into 4 categories. The categories are black (deceased), red (immediate), yellow (delayed), and green (walking around, minor injuries) (Williams, 2022). 

What are some strategies to improve inter-agency communications and coordination between local, state, and federal governments?

There are many strategies to improve collaboration between agencies. The first step would be to foster and build relationships between the agencies. Get agreements and plans in writing (Frayley, 2020). Know each agency’s role and responsibilities. Perform training exercises together and share resources. 


Chandra, A. (2016, June 12). What Role Does the Private Sector Have in Supporting Disaster Recovery, and What Challenges Does It Face in Doing So? | RAND. Rand. 


Frayley, M. (2020, December 3). 10 things you need to know to increase interagency cooperation and collaboration. Ems1. 


Williams, M. (2022, August 8). EMS Mass Casualty Triage – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. Ncbi. 



1. Why are public-private partnerships important in the National Incident Management System? 

It is important that organizations work together during a disaster or mass casualty to provide the best outcome. Public -private sector organizations can be a huge lifeline in a time of crisis because they have immediate access to commodities and services that can assist with incident response and stabilizing those other lifelines. In a moment of extreme need they can provide resources that are lifesaving, immediately to those in need

2. During medical triage, which organizations or partnerships are involved in START triage?

Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) is currently the most widely used triage system in the United States for mass casualty incidents.

BLACK: (Deceased/expectant) injuries incompatible with life or without spontaneous respiration; should not be moved forward to the collection point

RED: (Immediate) severe injuries but high potential for survival with treatment; taken to collection point first

YELLOW: (Delayed) serious injuries but not immediately life-threatening

GREEN: (Walking wounded) minor injuries

Emergencies services would be involved to include but not limited Fire department, EMS, and Police Department, anyone else in the community willing and able to help, healthcare professionals, and essentially all first responders.


1. What are some strategies to improve inter-agency communications and coordination between local, state, and federal governments?

To mitigate miscommunication and coordination issues between local, states, and federal government making a policy that mandates meetings and trainings. Making it greatly known the importance of cohesion and teamwork if very significant. I think another way to improve communications and coordination would have community involvement, actions speak louder than words.

Work Cited


EMS Mass Casualty Triage – Statpearls – NCBI Bookshelf, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459369/. Accessed 13 June 2023.

Nims Fact Sheet for Private Sector Organizations – Fema.Gov, www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fema_nims-private-sector-fact-sheet_05-2021.pdf. Accessed 13 June 2023.

Partnership for Public Service, and Lcollen. “3 Ways to Bolster Collaboration between Federal, State and Local Government.” 
Partnership for Public Service, 27 Apr. 2022, ourpublicservice.org/blog/3-ways-to-bolster-collaboration-between-federal-state-and-local-government/.






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