In this Performance Task Assessment, you will demonstrate your ability to use managerial accounting tools and measures appropriately. You are strongly encouraged to use the Academic Writing Checklist when completing this Assessment.

Overview

In this Performance Task Assessment, you will demonstrate your ability to use managerial accounting tools and measures appropriately. You are strongly encouraged to use the Academic Writing Checklist when completing this Assessment.

Your responses to this Assessment should:

  • Reflect the criteria provided in the Rubric.
  • Adhere to the required length.
  • Conform to APA style guidelines. You may use the Walden Writing Center’s APA Course Paper Template

Professional Skills: Written CommunicationTechnology, and Critical Thinking and Problem Solving are assessed in this Competency

This Assessment requires submission of two (2) files. Save your files as follows:

  • Save the Excel files for this Assessment as IG009_Excel_firstiniital_last name(for example, IG009_Excel_J_Smith). On your Excel file, create a tab for each spreadsheet, and label each tab with the appropriate part of the Assessment.
  • Save the written parts for this Assessment in a Word document as IG009_ firstiniital_lastname. Use headings to identify each part of the Assessment.

When you are ready to upload your completed Assessment, use the Assessment tab on the top navigation menu.

Instructions

This Assessment includes 6 parts, each related to a different case scenario. For each scenario, you will assume an important role with a fictional company and analyze various aspects of that company using accounting tools and measures. Parts I, II, IV, and V require you to make calculations using spreadsheet software such as Excel. Part III, requires you to analyze various types of centers for a specific company. Part VI requires you to analyze data presented in the accompanying project documents and make decisions based on that data. Access the IG009 Assessment Scenarios document provided with this Assessment and analyze the appropriate scenario for each part.

This assessment has six parts.  Click each of the items below to complete this assessment.

Part I: Performance Report and Variances

Access Part I of the IG009 Assessment Scenarios document. Honey Bear Confections (HBC) is a small organization dedicated to making bear-shaped sweets with honey as a sugar substitute. You have just been promoted to the position of manager of the production department at HBC when your supervisor shows you a static budget report. She tells you to “get it fixed.” You suspect she is alluding to a problem with productivity and efficiency. Review the “HBC Static Budget Report,” and then prepare a performance report using spreadsheet software, such as Excel.

Part II: Making Investment Decisions Using NPV, ARR, IRR, and Payback

Access Part II of the IG009 Assessment Scenarios document. As the new product development manager, you are considering investment proposals for two mutually exclusive investment opportunities. The two proposals must be evaluated using net present value (NPV), accounting rate of return (ARR), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback. Review the cash flow information in the “Investments” section of the Assessment Scenarios document, and then analyze the investment proposals using Excel or another spreadsheet software to calculate NPV, ARR, IRR, and payback. Write a report that presents your findings (1–2 pages).

Your report should include the following:

  • Your calculations of NPV, payback, IRR, and ARR
  • An evaluation of each of the investment opportunities
  • Your recommendation for which investment opportunity should yield the highest

Note: Part II requires you to submit an Excel sheet tab and a section in Word. Be sure each is clearly labeled when you submit your Assessment.

Part III: Cost Centers, Profit Centers, and Investment Centers

Select a company that you are familiar with, or do some research on a company you are interested in, then determine what that company’s cost centers, profit centers, and investment centers are (there may be more than one of each). Provide a rationale for your conclusions (3–4 paragraphs).

Part IV: Full Cost and Variable Cost Transfer Pricing Methods

Phipps manufactures circuit boards in Division A in a country with a 30% income tax rate and transfers these circuit boards to Division B in a country with a 40% income tax. An import duty of 15% of the transfer price is paid on all imported products. The import duty is not deductible in computing taxable income. The circuit boards’ full cost is $1,000 and variable cost is $700; they are sold by Division B for $1,200. The tax authorities in both countries allow firms to use either variable cost or full cost as the transfer price. Using Excel or another spreadsheet software, prepare a summary that shows a comparison of the full cost transfer pricing method and variable cost transfer pricing method. Your summary should clearly show the total taxes the company would be subject to under each method.

Part V: Computing Variances Using Standard and Actual Costs

Access Part V of the IG009 Assessment Scenarios document. You are the senior controller for Healing Touch, a manufacturer of high-quality products designed to help support healthy spines. Its newest product offering is a massage chair and you plan to perform a variance analysis of the chairs manufactured this month to determine if the standards are being met. Once you have completed the analysis, you plan to show it to the production department manager and ask for an explanation of any variances that you believe should be examined. Assuming that Healing Touch manufactured 500 massage chairs this month, use the data contained in Part V of the Assessment Scenarios document to calculate all materials and labor variances in Excel (or other spreadsheet software). Be sure to include price, quantity, wage rate, and labor efficiency variances.

Part VI: Break-Even Point

Access Part VI of the IG009 Assessment Scenarios document. Dr. Lucy Zang, a noted local podiatrist, plans to open a retail shoe store specializing in hard-to-find footwear for people with feet problems, such as bunions, flat feet, mallet toes, and diabetic feet. She has asked you to help her figure out what sales need to be each month to keep the store open, and has given you some basic numbers to work with. Using the estimates provided in Part VI of the Assessment Scenarios document, calculate the amount of sales the Happy Feet store must do each month to break even.

 

Research a professional license, certification, advanced degree, or designation related to your intended profession. Write a paper that meets the criteria above, and explains what you learned from your research and how this will influence your career.

The purpose of this assignment is to engage in a selected activity related to career development.

Write a 750-1,000 word paper based on one of the prompts below. The paper may be written in first person voice and must be grammatically correct. At least two external sources should be cited in the paper. Papers must be submitted within 1 week of the event date.

  1. Research a professional license, certification, advanced degree, or designation related to your intended profession. Write a paper that meets the criteria above, and explains what you learned from your research and how this will influence your career.
  2. Create a LinkedIn profile, or update your current profile (www.linkedin.com). Connect with your instructor and your fellow classmates. Write a paper that meets the criteria above, and explains why networking through LinkedIn is beneficial and how it will impact your career.
  3. Go to a GCU Accounting Society or an on-campus club or associate meeting related to your disciple. Write a paper that meets the criteria above, and explains what you learned from this meeting and how this will influence your career.
  4. Complete the GCU Career Compass, located at http://www.gcu.edu/Career-Services/Career-Compass.php. Write a paper that meets the criteria above, and explains what you learned by completing the Career Compass and how this will help you in determining your career path.
  5. Participate in other activities as directed by your course instructor.

Examining “The Golden Rule” and Virtue Ethics Essay (Critical Writing)

Introduction

As described by Harless (2004), human behavior is often thought of as erratic, unpredictable and as a result prone to sudden inexplicable changes that at times defy conventional thought (Harless, 143-147). Despite such behavioral nuances people still continue to conform to societal rules and conventions in what can be described as “norms of behavior” dictated by an individual’s inherent ethical and moral standards which ascribe to a behavioral standpoint of harmonious interaction with other members of a community.

As noted by Leach and Oakland (2010), these ethical and moral standards dictate how individual members of society perceive what can be considered adverse or positive aspects of certain behaviors and methods of decision making and as such are utilized as a means of determining how they should proceed with a particular action (Leach and Oakland, 197 – 201).

The culmination of such methods of decision making are what are known as ethical theories which help individuals come to terms with all aspects of a problem and how best to proceed with what can be considered an ethical compromise to resolving them. It is based on this that this paper will explore the concepts of “The Golden Rule” and virtue ethics in order to resolve the ethical case study that was given for consideration.

Ethical Issue

The ethical issue in this particular case is whether or not Alice should report the apparent mistake in Mark’s nutritional report to the company or whether she should tell Mark that she looked through the report despite it being marked confidential and explain to him the mistake she saw.

As noted by Jing-Ping (2011) ethical decisions are often made based on either conformity to a generally preconceived societal notion (i.e. crimes are bad hence the fact you should report a crime in progress) or based on inherent ethical or moral code (i.e. treat people as you want to be treated) (Jing-Ping, 21 – 31). In this particular case it can be seen that Alice has to decide whether to report the case or admit to Mark that she looked through the files, in either instance such as decision will definitely impact her friendship with Mark in some way.

Case Study Facts

The following is a brief outline of the various facts in the case presented which should shed some light in what ethical course action should be followed. First and foremost it must be noted that Mark and Alice have been best friends for quite some time and they even graduated from the same university.

This establishes the fact that they have a close personal relationship which should be taken into account when Alice will make a decision regarding whether to inform the company or not. It was also noted that in the case study Mark has a family to take care of and was barely making enough to support them as is, a fact well known by Alice.

Furthermore, the scenario in the case example clearly states that Mark is a good worker and has actually performed exceptionally well during his 3 years at the company. If Mark were to be fired from his job due to the error in the report not only would this have marred his 3 exceptional years working for the company but NC would lose a great worker.

What must be understood is that NC actually little tolerance for mistakes and as such should the mistake be discovered it would more than likely result in Mark being fired. Underpinning all of this is the fact that Alice violated Mark’s trust by looking at the sealed files, yet if she didn’t the mistake wouldn’t have been found out until it was too late.

Analysis Utilizing the Golden Rule

As stated by James Want (1999), the Golden Rule can be summarized into two distinct principles: that a person should treat others in the way that they themselves would like to be treated and a person should not treat others in a way that they themselves would not like to be treated (James Wang, 415). Basically the Golden rule is a concept with reciprocal action as its basis wherein people treat others in a positive manner due to the assumption that they themselves will also be treated similarly.

When utilizing this particular theory as means of analyzing the ethicality of a particular set of actions it is always the case that an individual takes into account how they would like to be treated should they be placed in a similar situation where they will feel the ramifications of a particular decision. In this particular there are two viewpoints to take into consideration: the viewpoint of Alice putting herself in Mark’s situation or in her placing herself in the situation of the company.

Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of Mark

From this viewpoint if Alice were to report the mistake to the company it would most likely result in Mark getting fired. It must be pointed out though that the Golden Rule only leads an individual towards making the best decision only if they fulfill the requirement of being highly ethical. Furthermore, it also makes the assumption that those who are affected by decisions are also highly ethical individuals.

While it must also be taken into consideration that Mark has a family to support, has performed admirably over the past several years and that he is Alice’s best friend the fact remains that under the Gold Rule of decision a highly ethical person wouldn’t ask nor expect a friend to lie for them thus if Mark and Alice are highly ethical individuals Alice would report Mark and Mark would accept the consequences of his actions if he was a loyal employee of the company.

Viewpoint where Alice Places Herself in the Situation of the Company

It must be noted though that from the perspective of the company Alice has a responsibility in ensuring the best interests of the company are followed through. If through inaction Alice allowed the actions of Mark to continue then this would result in possibly adverse consequences for the company in the future.

Taking the Golden Rule into consideration, if the roles were reversed Alice herself would want her employees to ensure the continued survival of the company by making sure that problems are prevented from occurring rather than knowingly allowing them to happen. As such if Alice didn’t report Mark to the company she would be complicit in allowing the company to experience a moment of failure.

It is based on these two perspectives that is likely that under the “Golden Rule” Alice would report Mark to the company.

Analysis using Virtue Ethics

Under the concept of virtue ethics decisions are made based on an individual’s inherent character or virtues wherein personal integrity and moral character are taken into consideration before making a decision. What must be understood is that from the perspective of a virtue ethicist the decision to tell a lie or not actually depends on how that decision reflects upon an individual’s moral behavior or inherent character.

When looking at the situation of Alice and Mark what must be taken into consideration is how would telling the company reflect on Alice’s moral character when she could still tell Mark about the mistake and have him fix it? In the case provided it was not stated that the mistake could not be corrected, the only thing standing in between the mistake being corrected is Alice admitting to Mark that she looked through the report marked “confidential”.

In this situation there are two possible outcomes: Alice would tell Mark that she looked through the documents, which would call her moral integrity into question since she should not have looked at them, or Alice would not tell Mark and report him to the company despite there being the opportunity to still correct the mistake.

Based on the fact that the virtue ethics perspective considers primarily the actor’s character, motivations, and intentions it can be seen that the best course of action would be to tell Mark about the mistake and have him correct it.

When Alice looked through the documents she was not driven by any malicious intentions or self-serving motivations, she was just curious, if she were to report Mark to the company despite there being an alternative means of resolving the problem this would call into questions her own moral character. Thus, taking the virtue ethics perspective into consideration, Alice would tell Mark about the problem and have him fix it.

Recommendation

Based on my analysis of the “Golden Rule” Alice should report Mark to the company however based on virtue ethics Alice should give Mark a chance to correct the mistake in the report. If Alice were to merely report Mark without giving him a chance to fix the mistake this would violate the principles of virtue ethics since she would knowingly cause an action (Mark getting fired) despite there being an alternative (having Mark fix the mistake).

On the other hand, if Alice were to inform Mark about the mistake yet he still doesn’t fix it under the “Golden Rule” Alice has the ethical responsibility to the company to report Mark for his mistake.

Works Cited

Halwani, Raja. “Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.” Hypatia 18.3 (2003): 161. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Harless, William. “Who’s Afraid of A Brave New World? An argument for the genetic manipulation of human behavior.” Boulevard 20.1 (2004): 143-150.

Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

James Wang, Qingjie. “The Golden Rule and Interpersonal Care–From A Confucian Perspective.” Philosophy East & West 49.4 (1999): 415.

Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Jing-Ping, Sun. “Ethical decision-making and ethical responding: an analysis and critique of various approaches through case study.” International Journal of Leadership in Education 14.1 (2011): 21-45. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Leach, Mark M., and Thomas Oakland. “Displaying Ethical Behaviors by Psychologists When Standards Are Unclear.” Ethics & Behavior 20.3/4 (2010): 197-206.

Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.

The main characters from The Wizard of Oz. Each has a vice, but together they are seeking to become more virtuous.

1. Virtue and Happiness

Virtues are excellent traits of character.[1] They shape how we act, think, and feel. They make us who we are. Virtues are acquired through good habits, over a long period of time.

1.1. Eudaimonia

According to Aristotle (384-322 BCE) virtues are those, and only those, character traits we need to be happy.[2] Many virtue ethicists today agree.[3] These virtue ethicists are called eudaimonists, after the Greek word eudaimonia, usually translated as “happiness,” “flourishing,” or “well-being.[4]

For eudaimonists, happiness is more than a feeling: it involves living well with others and pursuing worthwhile goals. This includes cultivating strong relationships, and succeeding at such projects as raising a family, fighting for justice, and (moderate yet enthusiastic) enjoyment of pleasure.[5]

Eudaimonists believe our happiness is not easily separated from that of other people. Many would consider the happiness of their friends and family as part of their own. Eudaimonists may extend this to complete strangers, and non-human animals. Similarly for causes or ideals: eudaimonists believe complicity in injustice and deceit reduces a person’s happiness.,[6]

If eudaimonists are right about happiness, then it is plausible that we need virtues such as honesty, kindness, gratitude and justice to be happy. This is not to say that the virtues will guarantee happiness. But eudaimonists believe we cannot be truly happy without them.

One concern is that vicious people often seem happy. For example, dictators live in palaces, apparently rather pleasantly. Eudaimonists may not think this amounts to happiness, but many would disagree. And if dictators can be happy, then we certainly can be happy without the virtues. Answering this objection is an ongoing project for eudaimonists.[7]

1.2. Emotion, Intelligence, and Developing Virtue

Eudaimonists believe emotions are essential to happiness, and that our emotions are shaped by our habits. Good emotional habits are a question of balance.

For example, eudaimonists argue that honest people habitually want to and enjoy telling the truth, but not so much that they will ignore all other considerations–a habit of enjoying pointing out other people’s shortcomings will leave us friendless, and so is not part of honesty.[8]

Because virtue requires balancing competing considerations, such as telling the truth and considering other people’s feelings, virtue also requires experience in making moral decisions. Virtue ethicists call this intellectual ability practical intelligence, or wisdom.[9]

2. Virtue and Right Action

Virtue ethicists believe we can use virtue to understand how we should act, or what makes actions right.

According to some virtue ethicists, an action is right if, and only if, it is what a virtuous person would characteristically do under the circumstances.[10] On rare occasions, virtuous people do the wrong thing. But this is not acting characteristically.

2.1. Being Specific

“Do what virtuous people would do” is not very specific, and we may be left wondering what the theory is actually saying we should do.

One way to make it more specific is to generate rules for each of the virtues and vices, called “v-rules.” Two examples of v-rules are: be kind, don’t be cruel. The v-rules give specific guidance in many cases: writing an email just to hurt someone’s feelings is cruel, so don’t do it.[11]

Unfortunately, the virtues can conflict: if a friend asks whether we like their new partner, it may be more honest to say we do not, but kinder to say we do. In this case it is hard to say what the virtuous person would do.

Virtue ethicists might respond that other ethical theories will also struggle to give clear guidance in hard cases.[12]

Second, they might try to understand how a virtuous person would think about the situation. Remember that virtuous people have practical intelligence, and habitually care about other people’s happiness and telling the truth. So they may consider a lot of particular details, including how close the friendship is, how bad the partner is, how gently the friend may be told.[13]

This may not provide a specific answer, but virtue ethicists hope they can at least provide a helpful model for thinking about hard cases.[14]

2.2. Explaining Why

We have seen how virtue ethics tells us what to do. But we also want to know why we should do it.

Virtue ethicists point out that if we ask virtuous people, they will explain why they did what they did.[15] Their reasoning results from their excellent emotional habits and practical intelligence–that is, from their virtue. And if we want to be happy, we need to cultivate virtue. So these should be our reasons too.

But in explaining their decision, the virtuous person won’t necessarily mention virtue. They might, for example, say, “I wanted to avoid hurting their feelings, so I told the truth gently.”[16]

It might then seem that something other than virtue–in our example, the importance of other people’s feelings–explains why the action is rightBut then this other thing should be central to ethical theory, instead of virtue.

Virtue ethicists may respond that the moral weight of this other thing depends on which character traits are virtues. Accordingly, if kindness were not a virtue, there may be no moral reason to care about others’ feelings.[17]

3. Conclusion

Virtue ethicists recommend reflecting on the character traits we need to be happy. They hope this will help us make better moral decisions. Virtue ethics may not always yield clear answers, but perhaps acknowledging moral uncertainty is not a vice.

Notes

[1] Others may define virtue as admirable or merely good traits of character. For additional definitions of virtue and understandings of virtue ethics, see Hursthouse and Pettigrove’s “Virtue Ethics.”

[2] Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book One, Chapter 9, Lines 1099b25-29. For this interpretation, see Nussbaum, The Fragility of Goodness, p. 6.

[3] Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics, pp. 165-169, “Virtue Theory and Abortion”, p. 226, Foot, Natural Goodness, pp. 99-116.

There are many other accounts of virtue worth considering. One major alternative is sentimentalist accounts, such as that of Hume and Zagbzebski, who define virtues as those character traits that attract love or admiration. Some scholars argue that Confucian ethics is a virtue ethic, though this is debated: see Wong, “Chinese Ethics.” Also see John Ramsey’s Mengzi’s Moral Psychology, Part 1: The Four Moral Sprouts. For an African understanding of virtue, see Thaddeus Metz’s The African Ethic of Ubuntu.

[4] Hursthouse has a detailed and accessible discussion of the merits of different translations of eudaimonia in On Virtue Ethics, pp. 9-10.

[5] Some people find this account of virtue surprising because they think virtue must involve sacrificing one’s own happiness for the sake of other people, and living like a saint, a monk, or just being a really boring and miserable person. In this case it may be more helpful to think in terms of ‘good character’ than ‘virtue’. David Hume amusingly argued that some alleged virtues, such as humility, celibacy, silence, and solitude, were vices. See his Enquiry 9.1.

[6] The idea that injustice erodes everybody’s happiness is not to deny that it especially harms people who are treated unjustly. However, eudaimonists consider being unjust, or deceiving others to be bad for us.

[7] For a compelling discussion of this objection to eudaimonism, see Blackburn, Being Good, pp. 112-118Eudaimonists have been trying to answer this objection for a long time. Indeed, arguing that it is more beneficial to be just than unjust is one of the major themes of Plato’s Republic. For more recent attempts to make the case, see Hursthouse’s On Virtue Ethics, Chapter 8, or Foot, Natural Goodness, especially Chapter 7. See also Kiki Berk’s Happiness.

[8] The idea that the virtues involve finding a balance is called ‘the doctrine of the mean.’ See Nicomachean Ethics, Book II, Chapter 6, lines 1106b30-1107a5. For one contemporary account of the emotional aspects of virtue, see Hursthouse’s On Virtue Ethics, pp.108-121.

[9] Aristotle discusses practical intelligence in Nicomachean Ethics Book 6. For a contemporary account see Hursthouse’s On Virtue Ethics, pp. 59-62.

[10] Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics, pp. 28-29. This is sometimes called a qualified-agent account. For some alternatives, see van Zyl’s “Virtue Ethics and Right Action”.

[11] Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics, pp. 28-29.

[12] For other moral theories, see Deontology: Kantian Ethics by Andrew Chapman and Introduction to Consequentialism by Shane Gronholz. When reading, you might consider whether these theories would give you clearer guidance about your friend’s partner.

[13] See Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book 2, chapter 9, lines 1109a25-30. Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics pp. 128-129.

[14] For two examples of how virtue ethics may be helpfully applied to tough moral decisions, see Hursthouse’s “Virtue Theory and Abortion”, and Foot’s “Euthanasia”.

[15] Hursthouse, “Virtue Ethics and Abortion”, especially p. 227, pp. 234-237. “Do what a virtuous person would do” is only supposed to tell us what we should do, not how we should think.

[16] This objection is discussed in Shafer-Landau’s The Fundamentals of Ethics, pp. 272-274.

[17] On this connection between facts about morality on facts about virtue and human happiness, see Hursthouse “Virtue Theory and Abortion”, pp. 236-238.

References

Aristotle. Nicomachean EthicsC. 355-322 BCE. Trans. Roger Crisp. Cambridge UP. 2014.

Blackburn, S. Being Good. Oxford UP. 2001.

Boxill, B. “How Injustice Pays.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 9(4): 359-371. 1980.

Foot, P. Natural Goodness. Oxford UP. 2001.

Foot, P. “Euthanasia”. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 6(2): 85–112. 1977.

Foot, P. “Moral Beliefs.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. 59: 83-104. 1958.

Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. 1777.

Hursthouse, R. “Virtue Theory and Abortion.” Philosophy & Public Affairs. 20(3): 223-246. 1991.

Hursthouse, R. On Virtue Ethics. Oxford UP. 1999.

Hursthouse, Rosalind and Glen Pettigrove, “Virtue Ethics”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018 Edition), Zalta, E.N (ed.). 2018,

Nussbaum, M. The Fragility of Goodness. Cambridge UP. 2nd Edition, 2001.

van Zyl, L. “Virtue Ethics and Right Action”. In Russell, D. C (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Virtue Ethics. Cambridge UP. 2013.

Plato. Republic. C. 375 BCE. Trans. Paul Shorey. Harvard UP. 1969.

Shafer-Landau, R. The Fundamentals of Ethics. Fourth Edition. Oxford UP. 2017.

Wong, D. “Chinese Ethics”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2021 Edition). Zalta, E.N (ed). 2021.

Zagzebski, L.T. Exemplarist Moral Theory. Oxford UP. 2017.

According to Kant, why is breaking a promise or lying immoral? Do you agree with his reasoning? Why or why not? Can you imagine a case where one ought to lie or break a promise? Explain.

Description

 

 

The assignment is an essay discussion and i can choose from topic A, B, or C. It has to be from 350-500 words. Anything used from a website has to be cited with the URL and date accessed. If using the book then the page has to be cited.

Choose either Topic A, Topic B, or Topic C. To answer these topics completely, it takes a minimum of 350 words. Use the topic questions and the scoring rubric to see if your draft responds fully to all parts of the question. A complete thoughtful answer is more important than word count.

⁞ Topics for your Essay, Choose one

Topic A:

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of act-utilitarianism and virtue ethics. Which do you think is the better theory? How would you combine the two approaches to fashion a better theory?

OR

Topic B:

Suppose you have an opportunity to either: (1) send $800 to an area suffering from famine, in order to save a dozen people from starvation or (2) give the money to your little sister to buy books for college. Which would you do? Why? Explain which moral theory aligns with your decision-making process.

OR

Topic C:

According to Kant, why is breaking a promise or lying immoral? Do you agree with his reasoning? Why or why not? Can you imagine a case where one ought to lie or break a promise? Explain.

Clearly explain the author’s position on your topic (animal rights, euthanasia, or global poverty). This should be formatted like a thesis statement

Initial Post

In this Module, you have learned about Virtue Ethics and spent time thinking about an article written on your applied ethics topic from the perspective of a virtue ethicist. In your initial post, you must do the following:

  1. Clearly explain the author’s position on your topic (animal rights, euthanasia, or global poverty). This should be formatted like a thesis statement (e.g., Slote believes that it is wrong to ….).
  2. Clearly explain the author’s reasons in support of this position. Make sure to do so well enough that your classmates who are working on another topic understand the author’s argument as well as how it counts as an argument from a virtue ethical perspective.
  3. Then, state whether you agree with the author’s conclusion and explain why or why not.

*Remember, the article you need to read for this discussion forum can be found in 5.2: Applying Virtue Ethics and is based on the topic that you’ve chosen. You should be writing on one of the following articles:

Description

 

Respond to one of the following three “news clippings” related to virtue ethics from your Pozgar text. Write a 1- 2 page essay addressing the discussion questions posed for the one you selected. Be sure to clearly identify the news clipping you selected.

Adhere to APA formatting and cite all sources. Review the rubric for further information on how your assignment will be graded.

Points: 40

Watch the following 3 videos and choose one to address for your assignment.

CASE SELECTED:
#1. Wrong-Operation Doctor ( LINK: http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/southcentral/… )

Assignment Discussion Questions

1. Discuss the issues of integrity in this case.

2. Should criminal charges be considered in this case, if accurately reported? Discuss your answer.

3. Why did you choose to respond to this story?

 

4. How is integrity displayed in your clinical setting?

HISTORY:

 

Judgment Upheld in Arkansas Brain Surgery Lawsuit

The Arkansas Supreme Court has upheld an $11 million judgment in a medical malpractice lawsuit against an insurer for Arkansas Children’s Hospital (ACH), in a suit brought by a Mabelvale couple after a doctor operated on the wrong side of their son’s brain.

The Dec. 13 ruling rejected appeals by by Proassurance Indemnity Co. and of the parents of Cody Metheny.

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The Metheny’s wanted the court to restore the original $20 million judgment after it was reduced by a judge to $11 million. The insurance company argued for a new trial so a jury could consider whether doctors involved in the surgery should share blame.

The court rejected both arguments.

Cody Metheny was 15 when he underwent surgery in an effort to end seizures that originated in the right side of his brain. The surgeon, Dr. Badih Adada, who performed surgeries at ACH but was employed by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), operated on the wrong side of the brain at first, the left side, and destroyed brain tissue in the process, according to documents released by the Court. After realizing his mistake, Dr. Adada proceeded to operate on the correct side of the brain.

After the surgery, Dr. Adada admitted to Metheny’s parents he had initially started the operation on the left side of the brain but said he had not harmed it, and had successfully removed the right-side lesion, according to Court documents.

Metheny now lives in a rehabilitation center.

Some 15 months after the surgery, the Methenys found out that tissue had wrongly been removed from the left side of the boy’s brain.

In their original suit against the hospital and the surgeon, the Methenys “sought both compensatory and punitive damages based on two counts of medical negligence, as well as one count of outrage,” the Court noted.

The circuit court dismissed the outrage claim. Dr. Adada and other physicians named in the lawsuit settled with the Methenys but the case proceeded against ACH.

At trial the jury found in favor of the Methenys and awarded the $20 million in damages, which the circuit court reduced to $11 million, “an amount consistent with ProAssurance’s liability coverage for ACH,” according to the Court’s opinion, written by Associate Justice Donald L. Corbin.

ProAssurance in its appeal asserted that the circuit court failed to “instruct the jury in a manner that would allow it to apportion liability among it and certain physicians who were sued in a prior case but ultimately settled;” refused to “allow ProAssurance to present evidence of fault attributable to the settling physicians; and “denied denying ProAssurance’s motion for judgment notwithstanding the verdict (JNOV) where the evidence supporting Cody’s future damages was based on improperly bundled calculations.”

Rejecting ProAssurance’s appeal, the Court noted that it found no errors in the actions of the circuit court.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of act-utilitarianism and virtue ethics. Which do you think is the better theory? How would you combine the two approaches to fashion a better theory?

Question Description

I’m working on a philosophy discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

 

  • M2: Lesson 4 – Consequentialist Theories: Maximize the Good (Ch-5)
  • M2: Lesson 5 – Nonconsequentialist Theories: Do Your Duty (Ch-6)
  • M2: Lesson 6 – Virtue Ethics: Be A Good Person (Ch-7)
  • M2: Lesson 7 – Feminist Ethics and the Ethics of Care (Ch-8)

Essay Length tips–To answer these topics completely, it takes a minimum of 350 words. Use the topic questions and the scoring rubric to see if your draft responds fully to all parts of the question. A complete thoughtful answer is more important than word count.

Topics for your Essay, Choose one

Topic A:

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of act-utilitarianism and virtue ethics. Which do you think is the better theory? How would you combine the two approaches to fashion a better theory?

Topic B:

Suppose you have an opportunity to either: (1) send $800 to an area suffering from famine to save a dozen people from starvation or (2) give the money to your little sister to buy books for college. Which would you do? Why? Explain which moral theory aligns with your decision-making process.

Topic C:

According to Kant, why is breaking a promise or lying immoral? Do you agree with his reasoning? Why or why not? Can you imagine a case where one ought to lie or break a promise? Explain.

Description

 

 

Judge the medical case studied in class during Week 7 in the Discussion Board. In the video, philosophers applied the three major ethical principles you learned in this class:Kant’s Categorical Imperative, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics. In a five paragraphessay, apply ONE ethical theory to decide the moral course of action in the medical case of the premature twins studied in class. Apply the ethical theory in each paragraph to support your arguments throughout the entire essay. Not using the ethical theory results in an automatic zero. Using more than one ethical theory results in an automatic zero.

Nearly 43 million private sector workers in the US hold jobs that do not offer paid sick leave. The majority of these workers are employed in the service sector, where interactions with customers form a key part of their jobs.

Please put yourself in the position of Kate. She is trying to make an ethical decision. Describe her reasoning process and conclusion using utilitarian, Kantian and virtue ethics theories. Finally, describe how Catholic Social Teaching would impact the ethical analysis. Please also indicate which approach you feel the most comfortable with and would likely personally use.

It is important to show a very logical step-by-step indication of how Kate should figure out the solution that she should make.

Here is the scenario:

Nearly 43 million private sector workers in the US hold jobs that do not offer paid sick leave. The majority of these workers are employed in the service sector, where interactions with customers form a key part of their jobs.

Kate, a server at a fast food restaurant called Blake’s Burgers, is one of these workers. In the past, her bosses encouraged her to take the day off when she was sick, because coming in would put the health of her coworkers and customers at risk. Recently, however, the company cut her hours, and Kate could no longer afford to take a day off without pay.

A few months after the company cut her hours, Kate caught the flu and was unsure what to do. If she stayed home, she would lose the pay that she desperately needed, and run the risk of losing the job. She had been working for Blake’s Burgers for many years, and she thought it was unfair that she could be fired for taking an action that would ultimately help the business.

On the other hand, going to work would pose a number of threats. Since Kate was likely contagious, she could get her coworkers sick, thereby confronting them with the same dilemma she faced now. Because her job involves handling food, she could also get her customers sick. Not only would this harm those customers, but it would have a negative effect on the business as a whole. After all, if people became sick from eating at Blake’s Burgers, they would be more likely to avoid the establishment in the future, urge their friends to do the same, and ultimately harm the company’s business.

 

On an national scale, the impact of Kate’s dilemma is huge. The Center for American Progress estimates that unhealthy workers cost employers some $160 billion a year in lost productivity. In addition, a substantial trend of workers continuing to perform their duties while sick is particularly concerning during moments of crisis and concern for public health, such as the currently developing COVID-19 “Coronavirus” outbreak across the United States and the world.

The essay assignment is being introduced earlier in the module so that you can work on it as you progress through the module rather than waiting until you finish everything else. Given the immediacy of the deadline of Essay 4, I highly recommend working on the essay as you progress through the steps.

Description

 

 

The essay assignment is being introduced earlier in the module so that you can work on it as you progress through the module rather than waiting until you finish everything else. Given the immediacy of the deadline of Essay 4, I highly recommend working on the essay as you progress through the steps.

Return to this page after completing the step for each ethical theory, including the page that applies the theory to the scene from An Enemy of the People. The application pages for each theory provide as example to use in applying the theories to the case below.

Some historical background

Until relatively recently in human history, plagues were a recurring feature of life. Of course, in the 1300s, the Black Death killed somewhere between 75 and 200 million people worldwide. It killed between 30% and 60% of Europe’s population. It took 200 years for the population in Europe to reach pre-plague levels. In 1665-1666, England experienced a plague epidemic, which ended up killing about 25% of London’s population. The plague spread to other parts of England as well.

Eventually it reached a small village named Eyam.

That village is the setting of a fictionalized account of what happened in the Eyam. So grab a cup of coffee or tea and read the excerpt from Brooks’s novel, then come back here.

Geraldine Brooks, excerpt from Year of Wonders

There’s a lot going on even just in this excerpt. For the essay assignment, you will apply the different ethical theories discussed in the course to this case.

Below are the instructions.

Explain the case

First paragraph: summary

Summarize the situation. Choose a focus for your essay. Focus either the decision of the narrator, Anna Frith, in the church after the minister, Michael Mompellion, delivers his sermon and proposes a way forward for the village. Or focus on the decision of Colonel Bradford, which we see in his confrontation with Mompellion in the final scene of the excerpt.

Make sure to provide a general background so that the reader can make sense of the significance of Anna’s or Colonel Bradford’s decision. Include a statements about what is threatening the village and the surrounding area as well as what the minister is proposing and why. Describe it in a way that someone unfamiliar with the situation would be able to understand it sufficiently to follow your thinking through the rest of your essay. Be sure to include anything that will be relevant to your application of the ethical theories later. (That means, you may want to revise this paragraph after writing drafts of the other paragraphs to make sure you’ve included the various details of the situation you’ll need for readers to make sense of what you say later.)

Apply the ethical theories

Second paragraph: Act Consequentialism

First, explain (a) what determines which action in any situation is morally required according to Act Consequentialism and (b) the purpose of secondary rules within Act Consequentialism .

Second, discuss the character’s options using Act Consequentialism.

  1. What are two or three of the most likely significant consequences of each choice?
  2. What intrinsically good or bad things are associated with these consequences (pain? pleasure? community? knowledge? virtue? health? achievement? freedom?)
  3. Which secondary rules would be relevant in this situation? Recall that since we almost always lack sufficient information and time to determine which choice maximizes intrinsic good, we are forced to rely on secondary rules to guide our decision making. Which ones are relevant here?

Note: You need not arrive at a definite conclusion about which would be the required choice according to Act Consequentialism nor about what the person ought to choose—rather, demonstrate your understanding by discussing which consideration in this situation would be relevant for arrive at a conclusion.

Third paragraph: Immanuel Kant (humanity formulation only)

Consider the character’s choices through the lens of Kant’s humanity formulation, which would emphasize treating persons always as ends and never merely as means.

First, explain how the morality of actions are assessed according to Kant’s Humanity Formulation of the Categorical Imperative.

Second, discuss the character’s choices using Kant’s Humanity Formulation of the categorical imperative. How does each decision accord with Kant’s suggestion that we ought always to treat other people as ends and never merely as means? For each choice, does doing it fail to treat anyone as an end? Does it treat anyone as a mere means? Is there a clearly right answer for Kant here? Explain.

The morally right action would, of course, be the one that avoids treating others as mere means while also treating them, as far as possible, as ends. In your response, you do not need to determine which choice would be the right action according Kant’s humanity formulation. Rather, you’re highlighting the factors would be relevant to determining which choice is right one, assessing the choices within Kant’s framework.

Fourth paragraph: Ross’s theory of prima facie ethics

Consider the character’s choices through the lens of W.D. Ross’s theory of prima facie ethics, which would emphasize consideration of several types of duties.

First, explain Ross’s theory of prima facie duties.

Second, discuss the character’s choices using Ross’s Theory of Prima Facie Ethics. Answer these questions in your discussion: What prima facie duties would the character have in this situation? List all of those that would provide a moral reason for each option. Be clear about which prima facie duties go with which decision. The morally right action would, of course, be the one that fulfills the character’s actual duty, that one of the character’s prima facie duties that is, as Ross says, the most stringent in that situation. In your response, you do not need to determine which choice would be the right action according W.D. Ross’s theory of prima facie ethics. Rather, you’re highlighting the factors would be relevant to determining which choice is right one, assessing the choices within Ross’s framework.

While Ross would say that we cannot know with absolute certainty which among our prima facie duties is the actual duty in that situation, which one do you think would be the character’s actual duty?

Note: Don’t just list Ross’s general categories of prima facie duties. Rather, list which prima facie duties the character would have and to whom. For example: Don’t just say that the character has prima facie duties of fidelity, gratitude, beneficence, etc. Say, rather, that the character has a duty to keep a promise to X to do Y, and a duty not to harm Z. Doing this will make more evident whether the character has multiple instances of the same kind of duty (say, a duty to keep promises to a number of different people).

Fifth paragraph: Virtue ethics

Consider the choices through the lens of virtue ethics, which would choosing the action that a fully virtuous person would characteristically choose in that type of situation.

Firstexplain virtue ethics as presented in the course and in the assigned readings.

Second, discuss the character’s choices using the virtue ethical theory of morality. The morally right action would, of course, be the one that involves acting a virtuousway. In your response, you do not need to determine with certainty which choice would be the right action according virtue ethics.

Rather, you’re highlighting the factors would be relevant to determining which choice is right one, assessing the choices within a virtue ethics framework. Which considerations would be relevant to the situation, according to the virtue ethical theory?

To do that, discuss two virtues that seem relevant to the situation. Give a detailed sketch of how the virtues you mention would play out. You can choose from among the virtues discussed by Hurka (compassion, beneficence, courage) and Hursthouse. You could also consider these virtues: loyalty, love, consideration, generosity, trustworthiness (use the definitions at https://virtuesproject.com/virtuesdef.html (Links to an external site.))

Then for each virtue write two or three sentences developing the virtue further using Hursthouse’s discussion of honesty as a model. That is, describe those virtues in more details regarding (a) which type of actions would characterize someone with that virtue, (b) how would they carry out those actions, (c) what emotions and attitudes would they have that would be informed by having that virtue.

Then explain how an overall virtuous person might respond in this situation (bringing together the two virtues you discussed).

Rubric

PHIL 230 Essay 3 rubric (Summer 2019)

PHIL 230 Essay 3 rubric (Summer 2019)

Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSummary of case: completion
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAct Consequentialism: accuracy and integration
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeKant’s humanity: accuracy and integration
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRoss: accuracy and integration
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeVirtue ethics: accuracy and integration
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOverall completion, clarity, and organization
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; unsatisfactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOverall insightfulness
3.0 ptsGood; Excellent 2.0 ptsCompetent 1.0 ptsNeeds improvement; Unsatsifactory 0.0 ptsMissing or not addressed
3.0 pts
Total Points: 21.0

In this assignment, you will create a project management plan (PMP) baseline, which includes a scope (including a WBS), a project schedule, and a project budget. This assignment will be divided into four major elements, along with their individual elements.

In this assignment, you will create a project management plan (PMP) baseline, which includes a scope (including a WBS), a project schedule, and a project budget. This assignment will be divided into four major elements, along with their individual elements.

For your assignment,

  • Develop the scope document in MS Word. The scope document should:
    • Create a scope description consistent with the authority granted in the project charter.
    • List the project deliverables that will enable resolution of the current problems in the current logistics operation.
    • Outline the acceptance criteria for each deliverable.
    • Establish the project’s limitations or boundaries.
    • Summarize the change control process that will be used during the project.
  • Create an indented WBS for five to 10 intermediate tasks using ProjectLibre.
  • Develop a project schedule using the WBS you have already created as the starting point. This should be completed using ProjectLibre. The project will start February of Year 0, and should finish in December.
    Note: Save your project schedule, including the Gantt chart, in ProjectLibre.

The project schedule should:

  • Start on February 1st and complete before December 31st of the year you are taking this class. That will be Year 0.
  • Identify the precursor activities as necessary.
  • Sequence the activities.
  • Indicate a single start and end date for each task.
  • Create a project budget. You may create the budget in ProjectLibre or in MS Excel.
    • If you choose MS Excel:
      • Copy your work in ProjectLibre to MS Excel:
        • Put the cursor in the upper-left box to darken all the columns, use “CTRL C” to copy the ProjectLibre content, and then paste into MS Excel.
      • Add another column for budget. Assign a budget to each task. You have full discretion to develop the budget subject to the following guidelines:
      • The total budget may not exceed $100,000.
      • Each task must be assigned a budget.
    • If you choose ProjectLibre:
      • You have full discretion to develop the budget subject to the following guidelines:
        • The total budget may not exceed $100,000.
        • Each task must be assigned a budget.

What are Tesla’s strengths and weaknesses? Does it have any sources of sustainable competitive advantage?

1. What are the challenges and opportunities of competing in the electric vehicle industry?

2. What are Tesla’s strengths and weaknesses? Does it have any sources of sustainable competitive advantage?

3. How is the Tesla Model S positioned in the market? How do its functional-level strategies align with this positioning?

4. Did it make sense for Tesla to enter the market with a high-end car, and plan a transition path to a mass-market car? Explain.

5. Why did Tesla enter residential power storage and solar cell production? Is the company trying to do too many things at once?