NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Discussions and Assignments

NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology

Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology

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What’s Happening This Module?

This course is composed of eight (8) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic and each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will draw upon the knowledge you gain by completing various Knowledge Checks and Case Study Assignments.

Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology is a 2-week module, Weeks 1 and 2 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of cellular processes and the alterations that lead to various diseases. You will evaluate the genetic environment and its impact on these diseases. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Weeks 1 and 2
Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1.
Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis You are encouraged to work on your Module 1 Assignment throughout the module. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 2.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 1

Week 2

 

Week 1: Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment

One of the more common biology analogies refers to cells as the “building blocks” of life. This rightfully places an emphasis on understanding cells, cellular behavior, and the impact of the environment in which they function.

Such an understanding helps explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health. Just as importantly, it helps explain how breakdowns in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

This week, you examine cellular processes that are subject to alterations that can lead to disease. You evaluate the genetic environments within which these processes exist as well as the impact these environments have on disease.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Evaluate the impact of the genetic environment on disease

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents (pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (pp. 289–303; stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction);Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 1 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 1 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Discussion and Assignment. (4m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 1 (14m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds   

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children,or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Photo Credit: Getty Images

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.

To prepare:

  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

 

Assignment

Practicum Manual Acknowledgment

The Practicum Manual describes the structure and timing of the classroom-based and practicum experiences and the policies students must follow to be successful in the nurse practitioner (NP) specialties.

Click here and follow the instructions to confirm you have downloaded and read the entire MSN Nurse Practitioner Practicum Manual and will abide by the requirements described in order to successfully complete this program.

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact altered physiology.

Practicum – Upcoming Deadline

In the Nurse Practitioner programs of study (FNP, AGACNP, AGPCNP, and PMHNP) you are required to take several practicum courses. If you plan on taking a practicum course within the next two terms, you will need to submit your application via Meditrek .

For information on the practicum application process and deadlines, please visit the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Application Process – Graduate web page.

Please take the time to review the Appropriate Preceptors and Field Sites for your courses.

Please take the time to review the practicum manuals, FAQs, Webinars and any required forms on the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Student Resources and Manuals web page.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 2

 

Week 2: Altered Physiology

With a place squarely in the spotlight for patients diagnosed with all manner of disease, APRNs must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide patients’ understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans.

This expertise goes beyond an understanding of disease and sciences, such as cellular pathophysiology. APRNs must become experts in their patients, understanding their medical backgrounds, pertinent characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the immune system and the resultant disease processes. You consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes
  • Analyze alterations in the immune system that result in disease processes
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1: Cellular Biology; Summary Review
  • Chapter 2: Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology: Environmental Agents(pp. 46-61; begin again with Manifestations of Cellular Injury pp. 83-97); Summary Review
  • Chapter 3: The Cellular Environment: Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases,
  • Chapter 4: Genes and Genetic Diseases (stop at Elements of formal genetics); Summary Review
  • Chapter 5: Genes, Environment-Lifestyle, and Common Diseases (stop at Genetics of common diseases); Summary Review
  • Chapter 7: Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing
  • Chapter 8: Adaptive Immunity (stop at Generation of clonal diversity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 9: Alterations in Immunity and Inflammation (stop at Deficiencies in immunity); Summary Review
  • Chapter 10: Infection (stop at Infectious parasites and protozoans); (start at HIV); Summary Review
  • Chapter 11: Stress and Disease (stop at Stress, illness & coping)Summary Review
  • Chapter 12: Cancer Biology (stop at Resistance to destruction);Summary Review
  • Chapter 13: Cancer Epidemiology (stop at Environmental-Lifestyle factors); Summary Review

Note: You previously read these chapters in Week 1 and you are encouraged to review once again for this week.

Justiz-Vaillant, A. A., & Zito, P. M. (2019). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/

Credit Line: Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2019, June 18). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513315/. Used with permission of Stat Pearls.
Note: This article was presented in the Week 1 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Foundational Concepts of Cellular Pathophysiology – Week 2 (8m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Immunity and Inflammation

Khan Academy (2010, February 24). Inflammatory response | Human anatomy and physiology  | Health & medicine [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXSuEIMrPQk  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

Soo, P. (2018, July 28). Pathophysiology Ch 10 alterations in immune function [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz0wx1-jTds   

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 37 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #1

MedCram. (2012, April 28). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4wMEMhvrQxE

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

 

Acid-Base Balance #2

MedCram. (2012, April 29). Medical acid base balance, disorders & ABGs explained clearly | 2 of 8 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GmEeKVTpOKI  

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Hyponatremia

MedCram. (2017, December 23). Hyponatremia explained clearly [LK1] (remastered) – Electrolyte imbalances [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLajK5Vy55M

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 15 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 3, 7, and 8 that relate to alterations in immunity, hyponatremia, and acid/base balance.

Note: To access the online resources included with the text, you need to complete the FREE online registration that is located at https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student

To Register to View the Content

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/cs/store?role=student
  2. Enter the name of the textbook, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children,or ISBN 9780323654395 (name of text without the edition number) in the Search textbox.
  3. Complete the registration process.

To View the Content for This Text

  1. Go to https://evolve.elsevier.com/
  2. Click on Student Site.
  3. Type in your username and password.
  4. Click on the Login button.
  5. Click on the plus sign icon for Resources on the left side of the screen.
  6. Click on the name of the textbook for this course.
  7. Expand the menu on the left to locate all the chapters.
  8. Navigate to the desired content (checklists, videos, animations, etc.).

Note: Clicking on the URLs in the APA citations for the Resources from the textbook will not link directly to the desired online content. Use the online menu to navigate to the desired content.

Module 1 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

  • Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.
  • Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.
  • Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.
By Day 7 of Week 2

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 1 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 1 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 2, you will analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 3 Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In the Week 3 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 2. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

Module 2

 

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders is a 2-week module, Weeks 3 and 4 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of cellular processes and the alterations that lead to various cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and disorders. You will evaluate the genetic environment and its impact on these diseases. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Weeks 3 and 4
Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Complete by Day 7 of Week 3
Module 2 Case Study Analysis You are encouraged to work on your Module 2 Assignment throughout the module. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 4.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 3

Week 4

 Week 3: Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

The circulatory system and the respiratory system are powerful partners in health. While they work closely together in good health, a disease or disorder that manifests in one can have a significant impact on both, hampering the pair’s ability to collaborate.

Cardiovascular and respiratory disease and disorders are among the most common reasons for hospital visits, and among the leading causes of fatality. Heart disease and pneumonias are among the most familiar, but a wide variety of issues can impact physiological functioning of one or both systems.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You explore common diseases and disorders that impact these systems, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery  hypertension); Summary Review

Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 2 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 2 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and Assignment. (4m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Cardiovascular Respiratory Disorders – Week 3 (16m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • myocardial infarction
    • endocarditis
    • myocarditis
    • valvular disorders
    • lipid panels
    • coagulation
    • clotting cascade
    • deep vein thrombosis
    • hypertension
    • heart failure
    • COPD
    • asthma
    • pneumonias

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

Complete the Knowledge Check by Day 7 of Week 3

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 2 Knowledge Check

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 4?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine the alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes through case study analysis. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact altered physiology.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Week 4: Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

Cardiovascular and respiratory disorders can quickly become dangerous healthcare matters, and they routinely land among the leading causes of hospital admissions. Disorders in these areas are complicated by the fact that these two systems work so closely as contributors to overall health. APRNs working to form a similarly close partnership with patients must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to guide the understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. This includes an understanding of patient medical backgrounds, relevant characteristics, and other variables that can be factors in their diagnoses and treatments.

This week, you examine alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze processes related to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders
  • Analyze alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes
  • Analyze racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery hypertension); Summary Review

Note: The above chapters were first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read them previously you are encouraged to review them this week.

Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management, and utilization, 5(7). doi:10.3390/jcm5070062

 

Note: The above article was first presented in the Week 3 resources. If you read it previously you are encouraged to review it this week.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems – Week 4 (15m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.
(Previously reviewed in Week 3)

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Module 2 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the fact that these two systems work so closely together. A variety of factors and circumstances that impact the emergence and severity of issues in one system can have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their capacity to work together. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.

Photo Credit: yodiyim / Adobe Stock

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following

  • The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.
By Day 7 of Week 4

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 2 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 2 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 2 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 3, you will analyze processes related to gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders through case study analysis. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the relevant systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 5 Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

In Week 5 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 3. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

 

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 5 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases and disorders that impact gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning within these systems.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7 of Week 5
Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Complete by Day 7 of Week 5

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 5

 Week 5: Concepts of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Patients of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders often face life-altering changes, including changes to diet, new treatment regimens, and more. For some disorders, treatments can include surgery.

Gastrointestinal conditions, such as ulcers, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis, often cause varying levels of pain and discomfort. Hepatobiliary conditions can also bring significant changes to patient routines and well-being.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders. You explore common disorders in these categories, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 38: Structure and Function of the Renal and Urological Systems including Summary Review
  • Chapter 39: Alteration of Renal and Urinary Function (stop at Fluids and electrolytes); Summary Review
  • Chapter 41: Structure and Function of the Digestive System (stop at Tests of digestive function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 42: Alterations of Digestive Function (stop at Cancer of the digestive track); Summary Review

Osna, N. A., Donohue, T. M., Jr., & Kharbanda, K. K. (2017). Alcoholic liver disease: Pathogenesis and current management. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 38(2), 7–21

 

Document: NURS 6501 Midterm Exam Review (PDF document) 

 

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Midterm Exam in Week 6.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 3 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 3 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check. (2m)

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Concepts of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders – Week 5 (15m)

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Liver Function Tests

MedCram. (2013, April 14). Liver function tests LFTs explained clearly by MedCram.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFdTgty0T0I

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 11 minutes.

 

Liver Diseases

MedCram. (2019, May 15). Diagnosis of key liver diseases: Hepatitis A, B C vs. alcoholic vs. ischemic (AST vs ALT labs) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZRHA2JvCGA 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

 

Liver Pathophysiology

MedCram. (2013, April 9). Liver explained clearly: Pathophysiology, LFTs, hepatic diseases  [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTGkB8nOu7g

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 14 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 41 and 42 that relate to the hepatobiliary system. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Ulcers
    • Hepatitis markers
    • After HP shots
    • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    • Pancreatitis
    • Liver failure—acute and chronic
    • Gall bladder disease
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Diverticulitis
    • Jaundice
    • Bilirubin
    • Gastrointestinal bleed – upper and lower
    • Hepatic encephalopathy
    • Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., appendicitis)
    • Renal blood flow
    • Glomerular filtration rate
    • Kidney stones
    • Infections – urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis
    • Acute kidney injury
    • Renal failure – acute and chronic

Photo Credit: Getty Images

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 5

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 3 Knowledge Check

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 4?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 4, you will analyze processes related to endocrine disorders. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the relevant systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, that may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 6 Knowledge Check: Endocrine Disorders

In the Week 6 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 4. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Also, during this week you will take your Midterm Exam. Please make sure to finalize and complete your Knowledge Check prior to completing your exam.

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

Module 4

 

Module 4: Endocrine Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 4: Endocrine Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 6 of the course. In this module you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases and disorders that impact endocrine systems. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning within these systems.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7 of Week 6
Knowledge Check: Endocrine Disorders Complete by Day 5 of Week 6
Midterm Exam Complete by Day 7 of Week 6

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 6

 Week 6: Concepts of Endocrine Disorders

Endocrine disorders are complex matters, and there is not always a one-size-fits-all treatment. Particularly in matters requiring the adjustment of hormone levels, treatment may require a custom approach tailored to individual patients. An understanding of these complications is essential to supporting these individual treatment plans.

This week, you examine alterations in the endocrine system and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 21: Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 22: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 23: Obesity and Disorders of Nutrition, including Summary Review

American Diabetes Association (2020). Standards of medical care of patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 26(suppl 1), pp. s33-s50. https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/suppl_1/s33

Orlander, P. R. (2018). Hypothyroidism. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/122393-overview

 

Hoorn, E. J., & Zietse, R. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia: Compilation of the guidelines. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 28(5), 1340–1349

 

Document: NURS 6501 Midterm Exam Review (PDF document) 

 

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Midterm Exam in Week 6.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 4 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 4 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Midterm. (3m)

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Concepts of Endocrine Disorders – Week 6 (24m)

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Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 21 through 23 related to the endocrine system and disorders. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Optional Resources (click to expand/reduce)

 

The following source provides various tutorials related to maximizing your time management and managing stress. Feel free to access this resource to support you as you move through this course.

Walden University. (2019). ASC success strategies interactive tutorials. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/academic-skills-center/skills/tutorials/success-strategies

 

 

Knowledge Check: Endocrine Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Diabetes
    • Hyper- and hypothyroidism
    • Adrenal disorders
    • Parathyroidism (hyper and hypo)
    • Checks & balances / negative feedback
    • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Pheochromocytosis
    • Diabetes insipidus
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

(Note: It is strongly recommended that you take the Knowledge Check at least 48 hours before taking the Midterm Exam.)

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 5 of Week 6

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 4 Knowledge Check

 

Midterm Exam

This 101-question exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources, including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource, are to be used to complete this exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

This exam will be on topics covered in Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Prior to starting the exam, you should review all of your materials. This exam is timed with a limit of 2 hours for completion. When time is up, your exam will automatically submit.

(Note: It is strongly recommended that you take the Knowledge Check at least 48 hours before taking the Midterm exam.)

Photo Credit: Getty Images

To prepare:

To help you review for your midterm exam, access the Midterm Exam Review document found in this week’s Learning Resources as well as any Knowledge Check feedback you might have received. (Note: You will also need to review all of your materials from each of these weeks to also help you better prepare for your midterm.)

By Day 7 of Week 6

Submit your Midterm Exam.

To complete your exam:

Midterm Exam

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 5?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 5, you will analyze processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders through case study analysis. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the relevant systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 7 Knowledge Check: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

In the Week 7 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 5. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module

To go to the next Module:

 

Module 5: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 5: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders is a 2-week module, Weeks 7 and 8 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases and disorders that impact neurological and musculoskeletal systems. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning within these systems.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7, Weeks 7 and 8
Knowledge Check: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7
Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis You are encouraged to work on your Module 5 Assignment throughout the module. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 8.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 7

Week 8

 Week 7: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 1

Anatomists often use the analogy of a house to explain the human body, with skeletal systems, respiratory systems, and circulatory systems represented as a home’s framing structure, ventilation, and piping, respectively. Such analogies further emphasize the point that relationships between systems can result in complications when issues arise in one system.

With hundreds of diseases that can impact the brain, spine, and nerves, neurological disorders represent a complicated array of issues that present significant health concerns. Disorders such as strokes and Parkinson’s disease not only affect the nervous system, however; they can have secondary impacts in other areas, especially the musculoskeletal system.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of neurological disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the Neurologic System
  • Chapter 16: Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function (stop at Sleep); Summary Review
  • Chapter 17: Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function (start at Acute confusional states and delirium) (stop at Alterations in neuromotor functions); (Parkinson’s Disease); Summary Review
  • Chapter 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction (stop at Degenerative disorders of the spine); (start at Cerebrovascular disorders) (stop at Tumors of the central nervous system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 44: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System (stop at Components of muscle function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 45: Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function (stop at Bone tumors); (start at Disorders of joints); Summary Review
  • Chapter 47: Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument (section on Lyme Disease)

Chin, L. S. (2018). Spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/793582-overview#a4

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 5 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 5 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Assignment. (3m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Khan Academy. (2019b). Ischemic stroke . Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system-diseases/stroke/v/ischemic-stroke 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 8 minutes.

Osmosis.org. (2019, June 12). Osteoporosis  – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUQ_tt_zJDo 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 9 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 15, 16, 18, and sections of Chapters 44 and 45 that relate to the neurological and musculoskeletal systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Stroke
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Transient Ischemic Attack
    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Headache
    • Seizure disorders
    • Head injury
    • Spinal cord injury
    • Inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system
    • Osteoporosis
    • Osteopenia
    • Bursitis
    • Tendinitis
    • Gout
    • Lyme Disease
    • Spondylosis
    • Fractures
    • Parkinson’s
    • Alzheimer’s

Three basic bone-formations:

    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoclasts

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Libra

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 7

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 5 Knowledge Check

 

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 8

 

Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 2

As homeowners know all too well, there is a continuous need for maintenance and repair. Some efforts are precautionary in nature, while others are the result of issues that surface over time.

Similarly, musculoskeletal disorders can develop over time. For some disorders, such as osteoporosis, precautionary treatments are a potential option. But much like issues that surface in a home over time, many musculoskeletal issues can be very serious concerns, and they can have a significant impact on patients’ lives.

This week, you continue to examine fundamental concepts of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Note: The below resources were first presented in Week 7. If you have previously reviewed them, you are encouraged to read or view them again here.

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems (stop at Aging and the nervous system)
  • Chapter 16: Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function (stop at Sleep); Summary Review
  • o   Chapter 17: Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function; pp. 504–511, pp. 516–530 (start at Acute confusional states and delirium) (stop at Alterations in neuromotor functions); (Parkinson’s Disease); Summary Review
  • Chapter 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction (stop at Degenerative disorders of the spine); (start at Cerebrovascular disorders) (stop at Tumors of the central nervous system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 44: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System (stop at Components of muscle function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 45: Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function (stop at Bone tumors); (start at Disorders of joints); Summary Review

Chin, L. S. (2018). Spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/793582-overview#a4

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Khan Academy. (2019b). Ischemic stroke. Retrieved from ttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-system-diseases/stroke/v/ischemic-stroke

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 8 minutes.

Osmosis.org. (2019, June 12). Osteoporosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUQ_tt_zJDo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 9 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 15, 16, 18, and the sections of Chapters 44 and 45 that relate to the neurological and musculoskeletal systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critically important component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the impact that that these two systems can have on each other. A variety of factors and circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in one system can also have a role in the performance of the other.

Effective analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their mutual impact. For example, patient characteristics such as, racial and ethnic variables can play a role.

Photo Credit: jijomathai – stock.adobe.com

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment. For APRNs this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:

  • Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.
  • Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
  • How these processes interact to affect the patient.

Day 7 of Week 8

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 5 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 5 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 5 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 5 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 5 Assignment

 

Module 6: Psychological Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 6: Psychological Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 9 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of disorders that impact patterns of behavior or psychology that can affect multiple areas of life.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7 of Week 9
Knowledge Check: Psychological Disorders Complete by Day 7 of Week 9

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 9

 Week 9: Concepts of Psychological Disorders

Among the many risk factors for mental disorders are genetics and other pathophysiological factors. While other factors, such as environmental factors or substance abuse, can also have an impact, it is important to recognize the connections between biological factors and psychological disorders.

Ranging from anxiety to schizophrenia, psychological disorders offer unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Clearly, the presence of these disorders can be life-altering for patients, but they can also significantly impact families and other loved ones.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of psychological disorders. You explore common psychological disorders, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  •  Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 19: Neurobiology of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, including Summary Review

Locke, A. B., Kirst, N., & Shultz, C. G. (2015). Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults. American Family Physician, 91(9), 617–624. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2015/0501/p617.html

Credit Line: Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults by Locke, A. B., Kirst, N., & Shultz, C., in American Family Physician, Vol. 91/Issue 9. Copyright 2015 by American Academy of Family Physicians. Reprinted by permission of American Academy of Family Physicians via the Copyright Clearance Center.

McIntyre, R. S. & Calabrese, J. R. (2019). Bipolar depression: The clinical characteristics and unmet needs of a complex disorder. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 1–14. doi:10.1080/03007995.2019.1636017. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03007995.2019.1636017

Credit Line: Bipolar depression: The clinical characteristics and unmet needs of a complex disorder by McIntyre, R. S. & Calabrese, J. R., in Current Medical Research and Opinion. Copyright 2019 by Librapharm Ltd. Reprinted by permission of Librapharm Ltd via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 6 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 6 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check. (1m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Concepts of Psychological Disorders – Week 9 (12m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Generalized Anxiety Syndrome

Osmosis.org. (2016, February 29). Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – causes, symptoms, & treatment [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mPwQTiMSj8

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 5 minutes.

 

Knowledge Check: Psychological Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Generalized anxiety disorder
    • Depression
    • Bipolar disorders
    • Schizophrenia
    • Delirium and dementia
    • Obsessive compulsive disease

Photo Credit: agsandrew – stock.adobe.com

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 9

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 6 Knowledge Check

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 7?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 7, you will analyze processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders through case study analysis. To do this, you will analyze alterations in the relevant systems and the resultant disease processes. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact physiological functioning and altered physiology.

Week 10 Knowledge Check: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

In the Week 10 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 7. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Next Module

To go to the next module:

Module 7

 

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 10 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases and disorders that impact women’s and men’s health, including infections and hematologic disorders. You will also evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on physiological functioning within these populations.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7 of Week 10
Knowledge Check: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Complete by Day 7 of Week 10
Module 7 Assignment: Case Study Analysis Submit by Day 7 of Week 10

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 10

 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

Literature, cinema, and other cultural references have long examined differences between women and men. These observations extend well beyond obvious and even inconspicuous traits to include cultural, behavioral, and biological differences that can impact pathophysiological process and, ultimately, health.

Understanding these differences in traits and their impact on pathophysiology can better equip acute care nurses to communicate to patients of both sexes. Furthermore, APRNs who are able to communicate these differences can better guide care to patients, whatever their gender.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of women’s and men’s health disorders. You also explore common infections and hematologic disorders, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span
  • Analyze processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems (stop at Tests of reproductive function); Summary Review
  • Chapter 25: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System (stop at Organ prolapse); pp. 787–788 (start at Impaired fertility) (stop at Disorders of the female breast); Summary Review
  • Chapter 26: Alterations of the Male Reproductive System (stop at Hormone levels); Summary Review
  • Chapter 27: Sexually Transmitted Infections, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 28: Structure and Function of the Hematological System (stop at Clinical evaluation of the hematological system); Summary Review
  • Chapter 29: Alterations of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Hemostatic Function, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 30: Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function, including Summary Review

Low, N. & Broutet N. J. (2017). Sexually transmitted infections – Research priorities for new challenges. PLoS Medicine, (12), e1002481

 

Kessler, C. M. (2019). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura [LK1] (ITP). Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202158-overview

Nagalia, S. (2019). Pernicious anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview#a3

Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. [LK1] (2019). Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management. Blood Journal, 131(5). Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/131/5/505?sso-checked=true

Credit Line: Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management by Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I., in Blood Journal, Vol. 131/Issue 5. Copyright 2019 by American Society of Hematology. Reprinted by permission of American Society of Hematology via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Document: NURS 6501 Final Exam Review (PDF document) 

 

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Final Exam in Week 11.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 7 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 7 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Assignment. (3m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Khan Academy. (2019a). Chronic disease vs iron deficiency anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/hematologic-system-diseases-2/iron-deficiency-anemia-and-anemia-of-chronic-disease/v/chronic-disease-vs-iron-deficiency-anemia

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 5 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 24, 26, 28, and 30 that relate to the reproductive and hematological systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Prostate
    • Epididymitis
    • Factors that affect fertility
    • Reproductive health
    • Alterations and fertility
    • Anemia
    • ITP and TTP
    • DIC
    • Thrombocytopeni

Photo Credit: Getty Images

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 7 of Week 10

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 7 Knowledge Check

 

Module 7 Assignment: Case Study Analysis

An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact..

An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following as it applies to the scenario you were provided (not all may apply to each scenario):

  • The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
  • Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.
  • Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction.
  • Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.
  • Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).
Day 7 of Week 10

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M7Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Module 7 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Module 7  Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M7Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Module 7 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Module 7 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10

To participate in this Assignment:

Module 7 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 8?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 8, you will examine pediatric pathophysiology. You will identify diseases, disorders and issues relevant to the treatment of children. You will also take the Final Exam for the course.

Week 11 Knowledge Check: Pediatrics

In the Week 11 Knowledge Check, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Module 11. This Knowledge Check will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Knowledge Check, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan your time accordingly.

Week 11 Final Exam: Pediatrics

Photo Credit: Giii / iStock / Getty Images Plus / Getty Images

In the Week 11 Final Exam, you will demonstrate your understanding of the topics covered during Weeks 7–11 of the course. This Final Exam will be composed of a series of questions related to specific scenarios provided. It is highly recommended that you review the Learning Resources in their entirety prior to taking the Final Exam, since the resources cover the topics addressed. Plan

Next Module

To go to the next module:

 

Module 8: Pediatrics

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What’s Happening This Module?

Module 8: Pediatrics is a 1-week module, Week 11, the final week of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases and disorders that impact the health of infants, children, and adolescents. You will also examine concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span. Lastly, you will take the Final Exam for the course.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1–7 of Week 11
Knowledge Check: Pediatrics Complete by Day 5 of Week 11
Final Exam Submit by Day 7 of Week 11

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 11

 Week 11: Concepts of Pediatrics

Pediatric disorders can present unique challenges to patients, families, and healthcare providers. Disorders in these areas are complicated by the fact that young patients can have difficulties communicating symptoms. Furthermore, the manner in which disease and disorders manifest in children may be unique.

APRNs working to support these patients and their loved ones must demonstrate not only support and compassion, but expertise to communicate and guide understanding of diagnoses and treatment plans. This includes an understanding of disease and disorders at the pediatric level.

This week, you examine pathophysiology in pediatrics. You apply key terms, concepts, and principles in this area to demonstrate an understanding of the impact they have on altered physiology in children.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 14: Cancer in Children, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 20: Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children (stop at Childhood tumors); Summary Review
  • Chapter 34: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function in Children (stop at Defects decreasing pulmonary blood flow); Summary Review
  • Chapter 37: Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children (stop at Congenital malformations); Summary Review
  • Chapter 40: Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 43: Alterations of Digestive Function in Children, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 46: Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children (stop at Avascular diseases); (start at Cerebral palsy) (musculoskeletal tumors in children); Summary Review
  • Chapter 48: Alterations of the Integument in Children, including Summary Review
  • Chapter 50: Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Children, including Summary Review

U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2019). Normal growth and development. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm

Document: NURS 6501 Final Exam Review (PDF document) 

 

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Final Exam in Week 11.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Module 8 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 8 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Final Exam. (3m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Pediatrics – Week 11 (14m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Wyatt, K. (2018, February 4). Pediatrics – Growth and development milestones review  [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZG60nC3RJwc

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 34 minutes.

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapter 20, 34, 37, 40, 43, and 46 that relate to alterations in hematological function in children. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Knowledge Check: Pediatrics

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

    • Growth and development
    • Normal growth patterns
    • Scoliosis (ortho)
    • Kawasaki
    • Alterations in children
    • Congenital (heart syndrome)
    • PDAs
    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
    • Asthma
    • Lead poisoning and effects on neurological functioning
    • Sickle cell
    • Hemophilia

 

Photo Credit: laflor / E+ / Getty Images

(Note: It is strongly recommended that you take the Knowledge Check at least 48 hours before taking the Final Exam.)

Complete the Knowledge Check By Day 5 of Week 11

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 8 Knowledge Check

 

Final Exam

This 101-question exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources, including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource, are to be used to complete this exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

This exam will be on topics covered in Weeks 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Prior to starting the exam, you should review all of your materials. This exam is timed with a limit of 2 hours for completion. When time is up, your exam will automatically submit.

(Note: It is strongly recommended that you take the Knowledge Check at least 48 hours before taking the Final Exam.)

Photo Credit: Getty Images

By Day 7 of Week 11

Complete and submit your Final Exam.

To complete your exam:

Final Exam

 

What’s Coming Up?

Congratulations! After you have finished all of the assignments for this week, you have completed the course. Please submit your Course Evaluation by Day 7.

 

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NURS6521 ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGY DISCUSSIONS AND ASSIGNMENTS ORDER NOW!!!

NURS6521 ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGY

 

 

Module 1: Foundational Concepts of Advanced Pharmacology

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What’s Happening This Module?

This course is composed of eight (8) separate modules. Each module consists of an overarching topic in which each week within the module includes specific subtopics for learning. As you work through each module, you will have an opportunity to draw upon the knowledge you gain in various discussion and assignment components which will be due throughout each of the modules.

Module 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing is a one-week module. In Week 1 of the course, you will examine how patient factors may influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. You will also examine the ethical and legal implications of prescribing drugs, as well as advanced practice nurse strategies in guiding prescription drug decision-making.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7 Week 1
Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Post by Day 3 of Week 1, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 1.
Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1.

Go to the Week’s Content

 

Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing

How do beta-blockers work? What exactly do antibiotics do to the bacteria they target? What effects does an anti-depressant have on blood flow?

Questions like these are related to the underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. As an advanced practice nurse, understanding these fundamental pharmacotherapeutic concepts is important to ensure that the prescription drugs you recommend for your patients will be safe and effective to treat and/or manage their symptoms. Additionally, as the advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to ensure that when prescribing prescription drugs, you adhere to the ethical and legal principles set forth for prescribing drugs as an added layer of protection and safety for the patients you will treat.

This week, you will analyze factors that may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes of a patient and assess the details of a personalized plan of care that you develop based on influencing factors and patient history. You will also evaluate and analyze ethical and legal implications and practices related to prescribing drugs, including disclosure and nondisclosure, and analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in patients
  • Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of care
  • Evaluate ethical and legal implications related to prescribing drugs
  • Analyze ethical and legal practices of prescribing drugs
  • Analyze strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure
  • Justify advanced practice nurse strategies to guide prescription drug decision-making
  • Analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3)
  • Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7)
  • Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12)
  • Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33)
  • Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42)
  • Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45)

American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 

This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm

 

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

 

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf
This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html

 

This website details key aspects of drug registration.

 

Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development, Interpretation, and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.

 

This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list

 

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

 

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17

 

This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing.

Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

 

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology

Meet Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons College of Nursing and Health Sciences as she discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (8m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Nature Video. (2016). The evolution of oral anticoagulants [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gp-ucDRiaUA
Note:
This media program is approximately 5 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2015). Pharmacology Pharmocokinetics (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKV5iaUVBUI&t=16s
Note: This media program is approximately 14 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2017).  Pharmacology Diuretics (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9OBvNpnS0h4&t=664s
Note:
This media program is approximately 18 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2017). Pharmacology Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Made easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9xSqezCMHnw&t=1205s
Note:
This media program is approximately 23 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2015). Pharmacology Pharmocokinetics (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKV5iaUVBUI&t=16s
Note: This media program is approximately 14 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2016). Pharmacology – Adrenergic receptors & agonists (MADE EASY) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtmV-yMDYPI&t=372s
Note: This media program is approximately 18 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2017). Drugs for Hyperlipidemia (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Of1Aewx-zRM&t=24s
Note:
This media program is approximately 14 minutes.

 

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Ingram Publishing

When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease.

For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug.

To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patients they described. In addition, suggest how the personalized plan of care might change if the age of the patient were different and/or if the patient had a comorbid condition, such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

 

Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient?

These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage

As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.

To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.
  • Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.
  • Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.
By Day 7 of Week 1

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
  • Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.
  • Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
  • Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 1

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 1 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 2?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders and the types of drugs prescribed to patients with respiratory disorders.

Looking Ahead: Week 2 Assignment

In Week 2, your Instructor will assign you a case study related to Assignment 1 by Day 1 of the week. Please make sure to review the “Course Announcements” area of the course to verify your assigned case study. Please plan ahead to ensure you have time to review your case study and Learning Resources in order to complete your Assignment on time.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Practicum – Upcoming Deadline

In the Nurse Practitioner programs of study (FNP, AGACNP, AGPCNP, and PMHNP) you are required to take several practicum courses. If you plan on taking a practicum course within the next two terms, you will need to submit your application via Meditrek .

For information on the practicum application process and deadlines, please visit the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Application Process – Graduate web page.

Please take the time to review the Appropriate Preceptors and Field Sites for your courses.

Please take the time to review the practicum manuals, FAQs, Webinars and any required forms on the Field Experience: College of Nursing: Student Resources and Manuals web page.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 2

 

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 2: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 2 and 3 of the course. In this module, you will examine how patient factors may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics used in the treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You will also explore and suggest drug therapy plans for asthma and analyze the stepwise approach for asthma treatment and management.

 

 

 

 

 

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 2 and 3
Assignment 1: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.
Assignment 2: Asthma and Stepwise Management Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 2: Cardiovascular System

Alterations of the cardiovascular system can cause serious adverse events and may lead to death when not treated in a timely and safe manner. Unfortunately, many patients with cardiovascular disorders are unaware until complications appear. In clinical settings, patients often present with symptoms of several cardiovascular disorders, making it essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse, to be able to recognize these symptoms and recommend appropriate drug treatment options.

This week, you examine the impact of patient factors that may lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapy for cardiovascular disorders. You also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders based on patient factors and overall health needs.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the influence of patient factors on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes
  • Analyze the impact of changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes on patient drug therapies
  • Evaluate drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 33, “Review of Hemodynamics” (pp. 285–289)
  • Chapter 37, “Diuretics” (pp. 290–296)
  • Chapter 38, “Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System” (pp. 297–307)
  • Chapter 39, “Calcium Channel Blockers” (pp. 308–312)
  • Chapter 40, “Vasodilators” (pp. 313–317)
  • Chapter 41, “Drugs for Hypertension” (pp. 316–324)
  • Chapter 42, “Drugs for Heart Failure” (pp. 325–336)
  • Chapter 43, “Antidysrhythmic Drugs” (pp. 337–348)
  • Chapter 44, “Prophylaxis of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels” (pp. 349–363)
  • Chapter 45, “Drugs for Angina Pectoris” (pp. 364–371)
  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders

…heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease…

—Murphy et al., 2018

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.
By Day 7 of Week 2

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 2 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 2 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 2 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine strategies for the treatment and management of respiratory disorders, including asthma. You will analyze asthma and stepwise management and consider the impact of this approach for patient health.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 3

 

Week 3: Respiratory System

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are significant public health burdens. Currently, more than 25 million people in the United States have asthma (HealthyPeople.gov, 2019). As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with respiratory disorders, including asthma or COPD. Understanding specific treatment protocols as well as the types of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat respiratory disorders is important to ensure the effective and safe delivery of advanced nursing practice.

This week, you will evaluate drug therapy plans for patients who present with asthma and analyze the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management from a patient in your professional practice.

Reference: HealthyPeople.gov. (2019). Respiratory diseases. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/respiratory-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate drug therapy plans for asthma
  • Assess the impact of asthma treatments on patients
  • Analyze the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 62, “Drugs for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease” (pp. 557–579)
  • Chapter 63, “Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds” (pp. 580–588)

Document: APA Presentation Template

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Speed Pharmacology. (2020). Drugs for asthma and COPD (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DVZ9pl0rGY
Note:
This media program is approximately 14 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2017). Antihistamines (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5PHANcdA_E&t=25s
Note:
This media program is approximately 10 minutes.

 

Optional Resources (click to expand/reduce)

 

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (2007). Expert panel report 3 (EPR3): Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm

 

This web resource presents guidelines for diagnosing and managing asthma and outlines treatment recommendations for specific age groups.

 

 

Assignment: Asthma and Stepwise Management

Asthma is a respiratory disorder that affects children and adults. Advanced practice nurses often provide treatment to patients with these disorders. Sometimes patients require immediate treatment, making it essential that you recognize and distinguish minor asthma symptoms from serious, life-threatening ones. Since symptoms and attacks are often induced by a trigger, advanced practice nurses must also help patients identify their triggers and recommend appropriate management options. Like many other disorders, there are various approaches to treating and managing care for asthmatic patients depending on individual patient factors.

Photo Credit: Photo Library / Getty Images

One method that supports the clinical decision making of drug therapy plans for asthmatic patients is the stepwise approach, which you explore in this Assignment.

To Prepare
  • Reflect on drugs used to treat asthmatic patients, including long-term control and quick relief treatment options for patients. Think about the impact these drugs might have on patients, including adults and children.
  • Consider how you might apply the stepwise approach to address the health needs of a patient in your practice.
  • Reflect on how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease.
By Day 7 of Week 3

Create a 5- to 6-slide PowerPoint presentation that can be used in a staff development meeting on presenting different approaches for implementing the stepwise approach for asthma treatment. Be sure to address the following:

  • Describe long-term control and quick relief treatment options for the asthma patient from your practice as well as the impact these drugs might have on your patient.
  • Explain the stepwise approach to asthma treatment and management for your patient.
  • Explain how stepwise management assists health care providers and patients in gaining and maintaining control of the disease. Be specific.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
  • NOTE: SafeAssign does not accept files over 10MB in size. Please attempt to keep your files under 10MB.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 3 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 3

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 3 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with potential GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will also develop a drug therapy plan based on patient history and diagnosis.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Systems

Symptoms of various gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders often overlap, making diagnosis and treatment challenging. For example, symptoms such as vomiting, constipation, and bloating are non-specific and could also be the result of underlying medical history or current prescription drug use. As an advanced practice nurse, you could be potentially responsible for providing care to a patient who may present with non-specific symptoms related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems.

How would you proceed to care for this patient? What type of drug therapy might you recommend, not knowing current medical history or prescription drug use? Are there certain drugs you should avoid in ensuring a drug-drug interaction does not occur? These are the types of questions that may guide you in your role as an advanced practice nurse.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 3: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Systems is a 1-week module, Week 4 of the course. In this module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with potential GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You also develop a drug therapy plan based on patient history and diagnosis.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 4
Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 4

Week 4: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter patients who will present with symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Of special note, is the consideration that most symptoms concerning the GI tract are non-specific and therefore, diagnosing diagnoses of the GI tract require thoughtful and careful investigation. Similarly, hepatobiliary disorders may also mirror many of the signs and symptoms that patients present when suffering from GI disorders.

How might you tease out the specific signs and symptoms between these potential disorders and body systems? What drug therapy plans will best address these disorders for your patients?

This week, you examine GI and hepatobiliary disorders. You will review a patient case study and consider those factors in recommending and prescribing a drug therapy plan fo your patient.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate diagnoses for patients with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders
  • Justify drug therapy plans based on patient history and diagnosis

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 64, “Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease” (pp. 589–597)
  • Chapter 65, “Laxatives” (pp. 598–604)
  • Chapter 66, “Other Gastrointestinal Drugs” (pp. 605–616)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)

Chalasani, N., Younossi, Z., Lavine, J. E., Charlton, M., Cusi, K., Rinella, M., . . . Sanya, A. J. (2018). The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology, 67(1), 328–357. Retrieved from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/hep.29367

 

This article details the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Review this article to gain an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology as well as the suggested pharmacotherapeutics that might be recommended to treat this disorder.

 

Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

Gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary disorders affect the structure and function of the GI tract. Many of these disorders often have similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, nausea, bloating, and fatigue. Since multiple disorders can be tied to the same symptoms, it is important for advanced practice nurses to carefully evaluate patients and prescribe a treatment that targets the cause rather than the symptom.

Once the underlying cause is identified, an appropriate drug therapy plan can be recommended based on medical history and individual patient factors. In this Assignment, you examine a case study of a patient who presents with symptoms of a possible GI/hepatobiliary disorder, and you design an appropriate drug therapy plan.

To Prepare
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment
  • Reflect on the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and drugs currently prescribed.
  • Think about a possible diagnosis for the patient. Consider whether the patient has a disorder related to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary system or whether the symptoms are the result of a disorder from another system or other factors, such as pregnancy, drugs, or a psychological disorder.
  • Consider an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
By Day 7 of Week 4

Write a 1-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain your diagnosis for the patient, including your rationale for the diagnosis.
  • Describe an appropriate drug therapy plan based on the patient’s history, diagnosis, and drugs currently prescribed.
  • Justify why you would recommend this drug therapy plan for this patient. Be specific and provide examples.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 4 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 4 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 4?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, such as diabetes, and you will consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of these drugs.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Module 4: Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays an important role in the regulation and coordination of activities throughout the body. When alterations of these systems occur, many patients require long-term drug therapies. In addition to drugs prescribed by their health care providers, patients with these disorders also often take herbal and dietary supplements. This may impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as pose a concern of adverse drug reactions in patients. When treating patients with endocrine disorders, it is important to educate them on associated risks. As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you must carefully consider all drug, herbal, and dietary therapies prior to finalizing treatment plans.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 4: Endocrine System is a 1-week module, Week 5 of the course. In this module, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with endocrine disorders, as well as consider the impact of patient factors on the effects of drugs. You also examine types of diabetes and the impact of diabetes drugs on patients.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 5
Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments Post by Day 3 of Week 5, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 5.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

The endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout the body which affect such things as growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Some of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease. Not surprisingly, treating any one endocrine disorder may have effects on other body systems or their functions. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may suffer from endocrine disorders requires an acute understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system. Additionally, a solid understanding of patient factors and behaviors will assist in developing the best drug therapy plans possible to treat your patients. Some of most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include

This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management.

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Differentiate types of diabetes
  • Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
  • Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
  • Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

 

This article provides guidance on pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment as it pertains to treating patients with diabetes. Reflect on the content of this article as you continue to examine potential drug treatments for patients with diabetes.

Document: Mid-Term Summary & Study Guide (PDF)

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Speed Pharmacology. (2017). Drugs for Diabetes (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWDQyaKVols&t=79s
Note:
This media program is approximately 17 minutes.

 

Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

Photo Credit: [Mark Hatfield]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
  • Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
  • Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.
By Day 3 of Week 5

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 5

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different type of diabetes than you did. Provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for treatment and management.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 5 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 5

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 5 Discussion

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 5?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine diagnoses for patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Looking Ahead: Midterm Exam

Please review the Resources and content in the previous modules in preparation for your Midterm Exam in Module 5.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 5

 

Module 5: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Systems and Opioids

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 5: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 6 and 7 of the course. In this module, you will analyze drugs prescribed to treat neurological and musculoskeletal disorders and explore patient education strategies for treatment and management of these disorders. You will also evaluate the impact of patient factors on the effects of prescribed drugs and drug therapy plans for neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders. You will also complete your Midterm Exam.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 6 and 7
Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders You are encouraged to begin your Assignment in Week 6 and continue working on it in Week 7. However, this Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 8 in Module 6.
Midterm Exam Complete by Day 7 of Week 7.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 6: Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders and Opioids

Sabrina is a 26 year old female who has just been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. She has scheduled an appointment for a follow up with her physician but has several questions about her diagnosis and is calling the Nurse Helpline for her hospital network. As she talks with the advanced practice nurse, she learns that her diagnosis also impacts her neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. Although multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder, both the neurologic and musculoskeletal systems will be affected by adverse symptoms that Sabrina needs to be aware of and for which specific drug therapy plans and other treatment options need to be decided on.

As an advanced practice nurse, what types of drugs will best address potential neurologic and musculoskeletal symptoms Sabrina might experience?

This week, you will evaluate patients for the treatment of neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders by focusing on specific patient case studies through a decision tree exercise. You will analyze the decisions you will make in the decision tree exercise and reflect on your experiences in proposing the recommended actions to address the health needs in the patient case study.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Justify decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurologic and musculoskeletal disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 11, “Basic Principles of Neuropharmacology” (pp. 67–71)
  • Chapter 12, “Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System” (pp. 72–81)
  • Chapter 12, “Muscarinic Agonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors” (pp. 82–89)
  • Chapter 14, “Muscarinic Antagonists” (pp. 90-98)
  • Chapter 15, “Adrenergic Agonists” (pp. 99–107)
  • Chapter 16, “Adrenergic Antagonists” (pp. 108–119)
  • Chapter 17, “Indirect-Acting Antiadrenergic Agents” (pp. 120–124)
  • Chapter 18, “Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology” (pp. 125–126)
  • Chapter 19, “Drugs for Parkinson Disease” (pp. 127–142)
  • Chapter 20, “Drugs for Alzheimer Disease” (pp. 159–166)
  • Chapter 21, “Drugs for Seizure Disorders” (pp. 150–170)
  • Chapter 22, “Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity” (pp. 171–178)
  • Chapter 24, “Opioid Analgesics, Opioid Antagonists, and Nonopioid Centrally Acting Analgesics” (pp. 183–194)
  • Chapter 59, “Drug Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis” (pp. 513–527)
  • Chapter 60, “Drug Therapy of Gout” (pp. 528–536)
  • Chapter 61, “Drugs Affecting Calcium Levels and Bone Mineralization” (pp. 537–556)

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2019). Dementia. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=5

 

This website provides information relating to the diagnosis, treatment, and patient education of dementia. It also presents information on complications and special cases of dementia.

 

Linn, B. S., Mahvan, T., Smith, B. E. Y., Oung, A. B., Aschenbrenner, H., & Berg, J. M. (2020). Tips and tools for safe opioid prescribing: This review–with tables summarizing opioid options, dosing considerations, and recommendations for tapering–will help you provide rigorous Tx for noncancer pain while ensuring patient safety. Journal of Family Practice, 69(6), 280–292.

 

Document: Mid-Term Summary & Study Guide (PDF)

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019b). Alzheimer’s disease [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat Alzheimer’s disease.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019e). Complex regional pain disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat complex regional pain disorders.

 

Disorders of The Nervous System

Reflect on the comprehensive review of disorders of the nervous system and think about how you might recommend or prescribe pharmacotherapeutics to treat these disorders. (15m)

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Speed Pharmacology. (2019). Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z84iypHdftQ&t=13s
Note:
This media program is approximately 9 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2019). Pharmacology- Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euzRPrvrwj0&t=31s
Note:
This media program is approximately 7 minutes.

 

Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

For your Assignment, your Instructor will assign you one of the decision tree interactive media pieces provided in the Resources. As you examine the patient case studies in this module’s Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting symptoms of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

Photo Credit: KATERYNA KON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Science Photo Library / Getty Images

To Prepare
  • Review the interactive media piece assigned by your Instructor.
  • Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of the disorder presented in the interactive media piece.
  • Consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with the symptoms of the patient case study you were assigned.
  • You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this patient. Reflect on potential co-morbid physical as well as patient factors that might impact the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.
By Day 7 of Week 8

Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following:

  • Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented.
  • Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.

You will submit this Assignment in Week 8.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 8 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 8 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 8 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 7?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will continue working on your Assignment started in Week 6, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Week 7: Midterm Exam

This week, you will continue working on your Assignment started in Week 6, and you will complete your Midterm Exam.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Identify key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat patient disorders

Midterm Exam

The Exam covers the content you have explored throughout the first 6 weeks of this course.

This exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources—including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource—are to be used to complete this quiz. You are not allowed to take screenshots or record the exam questions in any other format while taking the exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

By Day 7 of Week 7

Complete the Midterm Exam. You have 120 minutes to complete the exam. You may only attempt this exam once.

Submission and Grading Information

Complete the Exam by Day 7 of Week 7

To Complete this Exam:

Week 7 Exam

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 6?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients who present with psychological disorders.

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients who present with psychological disorders.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Module 6: Psychological Disorders

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act…mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018

As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may present with psychological disorders requires critical clinical decision making. It is your expertise in clinical decision making that will ensure that the pharmacotherapeutics and other suggested treatments prescribed to your patients will not only promote positive patient health outcomes but will lead to sustained health and well-being.

Reference: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Mental health. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/index.htm

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 6: Psychological Disorders is a 1-week module, Week 8 of the course. In this module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with psychological disorders. You also examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat psychological disorders on a patient’s pathophysiology.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 8
Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders Post by Day 3 of Week 8, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 8.
Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 8

Week 8: Pharmacology for Psychological Disorders

How does an advanced practice nurse determine the best treatment option or pharmacotherapeutic to recommend for patients with psychological disorders?

Much like assessing or recommending pharmacotherapeutics for other conditions or disorders, as an advanced practice nurse, you may encounter a patient who presents with a psychological disorder. Understanding the guiding principles related to treating patients with psychological disorders as well as the effects of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s overall health and well-being is critical for the safe and effective delivery of care.

This week, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with psychological disorders. You also examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat psychological disorders on a patient’s pathophysiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of psychological disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with psychological disorders
  • Analyze impacts of pharmacotherapeutics for psychological disorders on patient pathophysiology
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Justify decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 26, “Antipsychotic Agents and Their Use in Schizophrenia” (pp. 203–213)
  • Chapter 27, “Antidepressants” (pp. 214–226)
  • Chapter 28, “Drugs for Bipolar Disorder” (pp. 228–233)
  • Chapter 29, “Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs” (pp. 234–242)
  • Chapter 30, “Management of Anxiety Disorders” (pp. 243–247)
  • Chapter 31, “Central Nervous System Stimulants and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder” (pp. 248–254)

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019a). Adult geriatric depression [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat adult geriatric depression.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019c). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019d). Bipolar therapy [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics for bipolar therapy.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019g). Generalized anxiety disorder [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

In this interactive media piece, you will engage in a set of decisions for prescribing and recommending pharmacotherapeutics to treat generalized anxiety disorder.

Speed Pharmacology. (2016). Pharmacology – Antidepressants – SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, MAOIs, Lithium (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T25jvLC6X0w&t=3s
Note:
This media program is approximately 19 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2018). Pharmacology – Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Hypnotics (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZHudeMho8g&t=24s
Note:
This media program is approximately 8 minutes.

 

Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorders, such as depression, bipolar, and anxiety disorders can present several complications for patients of all ages. These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, potentially impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders have many drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with psychological disorders.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

For this Discussion, you will select an interactive media piece to practice decision making when treating patients with psychological disorders. You will recommend the most effective pharmacotherapeutic to treat the psychological disorder presented and examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s pathophysiology.

To Prepare
  • Review this week’s interactive media pieces and select one to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Reflect on the decision steps in the interactive media pieces, and consider the potential impacts from the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics on the patient’s pathophysiology.
By Day 3 of Week 8

Post a brief explanation of the psychological disorder presented and the decision steps you applied in completing the interactive media piece for the psychological disorder you selected. Then, explain how the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics you recommended may impact the patient’s pathophysiology. How might these potential impacts inform how you would suggest treatment plans for this patient? Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 8

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who selected a different interactive media piece on a psychological disorder, and provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments to address the patient’s pathophysiology.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 8 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 8 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 8

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 8 Discussion

 

Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal

By Day 7 of Week 8

Submit your Assignment, started in Week 6.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Photo Credit: KATERYNA KON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Science Photo Library / Getty Images

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 8 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK8Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 8 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 8 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 8 Assignment

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 7?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine types of drugs prescribed to address women’s and men’s health, infections, and disorders of the hematologic system.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

 

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Systems

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 7: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Systems is a 2-week module, Weeks 9 and 10 of the course. In this module, you will examine women’s and men’s health, infectious diseases, and hematologic disorders as well as the types of drugs used to treat aspects of these disorders or health systems.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Weeks 9 and 10
Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders Post by Day 3 of Week 9, and respond to your colleagues by Day 6 of Week 10.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 9

Week 10

Week 9: Women’s and Men’s Health/Infections and Hematologic Systems, Part I

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely encounter many disorders associated with women’s and men’s health, such as hormone deficiencies, cancers, and other functional and structural abnormalities. Disorders such as these not only result in physiological consequences but also psychological consequences, such as embarrassment, guilt, or profound disappointment for patients. For these reasons, the provider-patient relationship must be carefully managed. During evaluations, patients must feel comfortable answering questions so that you, as a key health-care provider, will be able to diagnose and recommend appropriate treatment options. Advanced practice nurses must be able to educate patients on these disorders and help relieve associated stigmas and concerns.

This week, you examine women’s and men’s health concerns as well as the types of drugs used to treat disorders that affect women’s and men’s health. You also explore how to treat aspects of these disorders on other health systems.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of complex health issues
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of infections
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of hematologic disorders
  • Analyze patient education strategies for the management and treatment of complex comorbidities

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 364–371)
  • Chapter 47, “Drugs for Deficiency Anemias” (pp. 389–396)
  • Chapter 50, “Estrogens and Progestins: Basic Pharmacology and Noncontraceptive Applications” (pp. 425–436)
  • Chapter 51, “Birth Control” (pp. 437–446)
  • Chapter 52, “Androgens” (pp. 447–453)
  • Chapter 53, “Male Sexual Dysfunction and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia” (pp. 454–466)
  • Chapter 70, “Basic Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 651–661)
  • Chapter 71, “Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall I: Penicillins” (pp. 662–668)
  • Chapter 75, “Sulfonamides Antibiotics and Trimethoprim” (pp. 688–694)
  • Chapter 76, “Drug Therapy of Urinary Tract Infections” (pp. 695–699)
  • Chapter 78, “Miscellaneous Antibacterial Drugs” (pp. 711–714)
  • Chapter 79, “Antifungal Agents” (pp. 715–722)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)
  • Chapter 82, “Drug Therapy of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” (pp. 763–770)

Lunenfeld, B., Mskhalaya, G., Zitzmann, M., Arver, S., Kalinchenko, S., Tishova, Y., & Morgentaler, A. (2015). Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Aging Male, 18(1), 5–15. doi:10.3109/13685538.2015.1004049

 

This article presents recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Reflect on the concepts presented and consider how this might impact your role as an advanced practice nurse in treating men’s health disorders.

Montaner, J. S. G., Lima, V. D., Harrigan, P. R., Lourenço, L., Yip, B., Nosyk, B., … Kendall, P. (2014). Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” experience in a Canadian setting. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e87872. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087872

 

This study examines HAART therapy and its sustainability and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission.

 

Roberts, H., & Hickey, M. (2016). Managing the menopause: An update. Maturitas, 86(2016), 53–58. .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.01.007

 

This article provides an update on treatments on Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), genito-urinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, and mood disturbance that are common during the menopause transition.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). Guide to clinical preventive services, 2014: Section 2. Recommendations for adults. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/section2.html

 

This website lists various preventive services available for men and women and provides information about available screenings, tests, preventive medication, and counseling.

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019h). Pathopharmacology: Pharmacology and immunological disorders: Improvements in medications and drug administration [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note:
The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.
Nurse Manager, Bette Nunn discusses how technology has improved the practice of administering drugs and created new and improved drug therapies. The importance of using technology as well as a patient’s knowledge of their own drug history is also discussed.
Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Speed Pharmacology. (2018). Pharmacology – Antibiotics – Cell wall & membrane inhibitors (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMk6VWVpRpo&t=504s
Note:
This media program is approximately 16 minutes.

Speed Pharmacology. (2018). Pharmacology – Antibiotics – DNA, RNA, folic acid, protein synthesis inhibitors (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HQmvQJWzNY&t=32s
Note:
This media program is approximately 16 minutes.

 

Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders

As an advanced practice nurse, you will likely experience patient encounters with complex comorbidities. For example, consider a female patient who is pregnant who also presents with hypertension, diabetes, and has a recent tuberculosis infection. How might the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions affect the pharmacotherapeutics you might recommend to help address your patient’s health needs? What education strategies might you recommend for ensuring positive patient health outcomes?

For this Discussion, you will be assigned a patient case study and will consider how to address the patient’s current drug therapy plans. You will then suggest recommendations on how to revise these drug therapy plans to ensure effective, safe, and quality patient care for positive patient health outcomes.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

To Prepare
    • Review the Resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
    • Your Instructor will assign you a complex case study to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.
By Day 3 of Week 9

Post a brief description of your patient’s health needs from the patient case study you assigned. Be specific. Then, explain the type of treatment regimen you would recommend for treating your patient, including the choice or pharmacotherapeutics you would recommend and explain why. Be sure to justify your response. Explain a patient education strategy you might recommend for assisting your patient with the management of their health needs. Be specific and provide examples.

You will respond to your colleagues’ posts in Week 10.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 9 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 9 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 10

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 9 Discussion

 

What’s Coming Up in Week 10?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will continue working on your Discussion assigned in Week 9, as you examine the types of drugs used to treat infections and disorders of the hematologic system.

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Week 10

 

Week 10: Women’s and Men’s Health/Infections and Hematologic Systems, Part II

Bacterial and viral infections may spread through the direct contact of bodily fluids such as blood or through vectors, who help to spread infections via the blood. When you think of infections and the hematologic system, what comes to mind?

Infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, or other hemorrhagic fevers are some examples of infections that impact the hematologic system. However, disorders of the hematologic system, such as anemia or blood clotting factor disorders, can also have a deleterious effect on a patient’s health and well-being. As an advanced practice nurse, you will need to understand the different types of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat infections and disorders of the hematologic system as you work to enhance patient-centered approaches for safe, quality, and effective care.

This week, you will examine infections and hematologic disorders, as well as the types of drugs used to treat aspects of these disorders or health systems.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of complex health issues
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of infections
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of hematologic disorders
  • Analyze patient education strategies for the management and treatment of complex comorbidities

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 46, “Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Drugs” (pp. 372–388)
  • Chapter 47, “Drugs for Deficiency Anemias” (pp. 389–396)
  • Chapter 50, “Estrogens and Progestins: Basic Pharmacology and Noncontraceptive Applications” (pp. 425–436)
  • Chapter 51, “Birth Control” (pp. 437–446)
  • Chapter 52, “Androgens” (pp. 447–453)
  • Chapter 53, “Male Sexual Dysfunction and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia” (pp. 454–466)
  • Chapter 70, “Basic Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 651–661)
  • Chapter 71, “Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall I: Penicillins” (pp. 662–668)
  • Chapter 75, “Sulfonamides Antibiotics and Trimethoprim” (pp. 688–694)
  • Chapter 76, “Drug Therapy of Urinary Tract Infections” (pp. 695–699)
  • Chapter 78, “Miscellaneous Antibacterial Drugs” (pp. 711–714)
  • Chapter 79, “Antifungal Agents” (pp. 715–722)
  • Chapter 80, “Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections” (pp. 723–743)
  • Chapter 82, “Drug Therapy of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” (pp. 763–770)

Lunenfeld, B., Mskhalaya, G., Zitzmann, M., Arver, S., Kalinchenko, S., Tishova, Y., & Morgentaler, A. (2015). Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Aging Male, 18(1), 5–15. doi:10.3109/13685538.2015.1004049

 

This article presents recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of hypogonadism in men. Reflect on the concepts presented and consider how this might impact your role as an advanced practice nurse in treating men’s health disorders.

Montaner, J. S. G., Lima, V. D., Harrigan, P. R., Lourenço, L., Yip, B., Nosyk, B., … Kendall, P. (2014). Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” experience in a Canadian setting. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e87872. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087872

 

This study examines HAART therapy and its sustainability and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission.

 

Roberts, H., & Hickey, M. (2016). Managing the menopause: An update. Maturitas, 86(2016), 53–58. .https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.01.007

 

This article provides an update on treatments on Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), genito-urinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, and mood disturbance that are common during the menopause transition.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). Guide to clinical preventive services, 2014: Section 2. Recommendations for adults. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/section2.html

 

This website lists various preventive services available for men and women and provides information about available screenings, tests, preventive medication, and counseling.

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019h). Pathopharmacology: Pharmacology and immunological disorders: Improvements in medications and drug administration [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Note:
The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.
Nurse Manager, Bette Nunn discusses how technology has improved the practice of administering drugs and created new and improved drug therapies. The importance of using technology as well as a patient’s knowledge of their own drug history is also discussed.

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

Discussion: Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders

To Prepare
    • Review the resources for this module and reflect on the different health needs and body systems presented.
    • Review your peers case studies from Week 9.
    • Consider how you will practice critical decision making for prescribing appropriate drugs and treatment to address the complex patient health needs in the patient case study you selected.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

By Day 6 of Week 10

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses from Week 9 and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days who were assigned a different patient case study, and provide recommendations for alternative drug treatments to address the patient’s pathophysiology. Be specific and provide examples.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 9 Discussion Rubric

 

Post by Day 3 of Week 9 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 10

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 9 Discussion

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 8?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In the next module, you will examine prescribing drugs and the off-label use of drugs to treat pediatric patients. You will also complete your Final Exam.

Looking Ahead: Final Exam

Please review the Resources and content in the previous modules in preparation for your Final Exam in Module 8.

 

Next Week

To go to the next week:

Module 8

 

Module 8: Pediatrics

As an advanced practice nurse, you provide patient care across all stages of the lifespan. While you may not necessarily specialize in pediatrics, you will likely come across pediatric patients and may be involved in developing, implementing, and recommending drug therapy plans for pediatric patients. Of special note, the proper dosing and administration of pharmacotherapeutics for pediatric patients ensures their continued growth, development, and promotion of positive health outcomes.

What’s Happening This Module?

Module 8: Pediatrics is a 1-week module, Week 11 of the course. In this module, you will examine the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children and explore strategies for making off-label drug use safer for children. You also complete your Final Exam.

What do I have to do? When do I have to do it?
Review your Learning Resources Days 1-7, Week 11
Assignment: Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics Submit your Assignment by Day 5 of Week 11.
Final Exam Complete by Day 7 of Week 11.

Go to the Week’s Content

Week 11

Week 11: Pediatrics

Children, like adults, deal with variety of health issues, but they also have issues that are more prevalent within their population. One issue that significantly impacts children is the prescription of drugs for off-label use. As an advanced practice nurse, how do you determine the appropriate use of off-label drugs in pediatrics? Are there certain drugs that should be avoided with pediatric patients?

This week, you examine the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children. You also explore strategies for making off-label drug use safer for children from infancy to adolescence, as it is essential that you are prepared to make drug-related decisions for pediatric patients in clinical settings.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the practice of prescribing off-label drugs to children
  • Analyze strategies to make the off-label use of drugs safer for children
  • Identify key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat patient disorders

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 9, “Drug Therapy in Pediatric Patients” (pp. 58—60)

Corny, J., Lebel, D., Bailey, B., & Bussieres, J. (2015). Unlicensed and off-label drug use in children before and after pediatric governmental initiatives. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20(4), 316–328. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557722/

 

This article highlights pediatric governmental initiatives to prevent unlicensed and off-label drug use in children. Review these initiatives and guidelines and how they might impact your practice as an advanced practice nurse.

 

Panther, S. G., Knotts, A. M., Odom-Maryon, T., Daratha, K., Woo, T., & Klein, T. A. (2017). Off-label prescribing trends for ADHD medications in very young children. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 22(6), 423–429. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-22.6.423

 

This study examines the frequency of off-label prescribing to children and explores factors that impact off-label prescribing. This study also examines off-label prescribing to children with ADHD.

Document: Final Exam Study Guide (PDF)

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Laureate Education (Producer). (2019i). Therapy for pediatric clients with mood disorders [Interactive media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

Assignment: Off-Label Drug Use in Pediatrics

The unapproved use of approved drugs, also called off-label use, with children is quite common. This is because pediatric dosage guidelines are typically unavailable, since very few drugs have been specifically researched and tested with children.

When treating children, prescribers often adjust dosages approved for adults to accommodate a child’s weight. However, children are not just “smaller” adults. Adults and children process and respond to drugs differently in their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

Children even respond differently during stages from infancy to adolescence. This poses potential safety concerns when prescribing drugs to pediatric patients. As an advanced practice nurse, you have to be aware of safety implications of the off-label use of drugs with this patient group.

To Prepare
  • Review the interactive media piece in this week’s Resources and reflect on the types of drugs used to treat pediatric patients with mood disorders.
  • Reflect on situations in which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use.
  • Think about strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Consider specific off-label drugs that you think require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.
By Day 5 of Week 11

Write a 1-page narrative in APA format that addresses the following:

  • Explain the circumstances under which children should be prescribed drugs for off-label use. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Describe strategies to make the off-label use and dosage of drugs safer for children from infancy to adolescence. Include descriptions and names of off-label drugs that require extra care and attention when used in pediatrics.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK11Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 11 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 11 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK11Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 11 Assignment Rubric

 

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 11 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 5 of Week 11

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 11 Assignment

 

Final Exam

This Exam covers the content you have explored throughout this course.

This exam is a test of your knowledge in preparation for your certification exam. No outside resources—including books, notes, websites, or any other type of resource—are to be used to complete this exam. You are not allowed to take screenshots or record the exam questions in any other format while taking the exam. You are expected to comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct.

Photo Credit: Getty Images

By Day 7 of Week 11

Complete the Final Exam.

Submission and Grading Information

Complete the Exam by Day 7 of Week 11

To Complete this Exam:

Week 11 Exam

 

Module in Review

In this module, you evaluated the practice and circumstances of prescribing off-label drugs to children and analyzed the strategies used to make their use and dosage safer for children. After you have completed the Discussion and the Final Exam for this week, you have finished the course. Congratulations! Please complete the Course Evaluation form and submit by Day 7.

Congratulations! After you have finished all of the assignments for this week, you have completed the course. Please submit your Course Evaluation by Day 7.

 

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The Leadership Imperative Case Study

Please follow instructions in the attached documents and ensure you meet the requirements in the rubric.

This one will be based on the NCO Common Core Competency of LEADERSHIP.

Write an Executive Summary on the “The Leadership Imperative Case Study” through the NCO C3 lens of Leadership. Your task is to participate in lessons within the MLC, complete your required readings, and then analyze a required case study with a directed focus using one component from the NCO Core Competencies. You will then summarize the case study staying relevant to the directed question from the lesson. The EXSUM will focus on the historical case study, but will be supported by other research conducted to support your findings. Cite at least two references aside from your case study. The purpose of the EXSUM is to give you a tool to use throughout your career when summarizing events. The case studies will allow you to see how the actors represented or embodied these current competencies. Late submission subtract 10 points per day.

Task: The G-3 asks you the Operations NCO to write an EXSUM based on this question: “Within the NCO C3 of Leadership, what is the unit’s proficiency in mission command?” Support findings through the lens of current doctrine. Use the provided case study.

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This is a military based cybersecurity group project

Please follow all directions in the attached documents. This is a military based cybersecurity group project. My piece of the project is the history of cybersecurity (see attached outline) with 3 supporting ideas; the military pre-cybersecurity, the beginning of cybersecurity in the military, and current military cybersecurity. Please ensure you meet all requirements based off of the attached rubric. I will also need talking points to brief my part of the project with.

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The Operation Overlord Case Study through the NCO C3 Lens of Communication

Write an Executive Summary on the “The Operation Overlord Case Study” through the NCO C3 lens of Communication. Your task is to participate in lessons within the MLC, complete your required readings, and then analyze a required case study with a directed focus using one component from the NCO Core Competencies. You will then summarize the case study staying relevant to the directed question from the lesson. The EXSUM will focus on the historical case study, but will be supported by other research conducted to support your findings. Cite at least two references. The purpose of the EXSUM is to give you a tool to use throughout your career when summarizing events. The case studies will allow you to see how the actors represented or embodied these current competencies. Late submission subtract 10 points per day.

Task: The G-3 asks you the Operations NCO to write an EXSUM and poses this question: “Within the NCO C3 of Communications, what is the greatest communication challenge for leaders; and how can you as a leader measure the effectiveness of your communication skills?”  Support findings through the lens of current doctrine. Use the provided case study.

Must use TC 7-22.7 as a reference

TC 7-22.7 Link:

https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/ARN20340_TC%207-22×7%20FINAL%20WEB.pdf

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What in the provided case study can be applied to the NCO C3 of Leadership

Please follow the Rubric and examples below. Use Military publications as references when available. Must us FM 7-22.7 as a reference.

 

Task: The G-3 asks you the Operations NCO to write an EXSUM and poses this question. “What in the provided case study can be applied to the NCO C3 of Leadership?” Support findings through the lens of current doctrine.

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Describe the three types of project risks and detail the situation in which each type is most relevant

  • Week 5 Discussion

    Discussion Topic

     

    Task: Reply to this topic
     Due March 18 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this topic.

    Before the end of the unit, begin commenting on at least two of your classmates’ responses. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Submit your responses in the Discussion Area.

    For multihospital systems, scenario analysis has both advantages and disadvantages.

    • Assess whether the advantages or disadvantages are greater.
    • Assess whether financial analysis should or shouldn’t play a dominant role in capital budgeting decisions.
    • Provide reasons for and evidence in support of your responses.

    Comment on the postings of two of your classmates. Is your assessment the same or different? Why or why not?

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Submission Details:

    • Your initial posting should be addressed at 300-500 words. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Be sure to cite your sources using APA format.
    • Respond to your peers throughout the unit. Justify your answers with examples, research, and reasoning. Follow up posts need to be submitted by the end of the week.

    Use the following rubric as a guide to complete your discussion responses.

  • Week 5 Project

    Assignment

     

    Task: Submit to complete this assignment
     Due March 22 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this assignment, please review the expanded grading rubric for specific instructions relating to content and formatting.

    • Describe the three types of project risks and detail the situation in which each type is most relevant when making a capital budgeting decision. Be sure to include the effect of correlation.
    • Compare and contrast cash accounting methodology and accrual accounting methodology in order to illustrate how each works best for different types of companies.

    Submission Details:

    • To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.
    •  Your assignment should be addressed in an 8- to 10-page document.
    •  Submit your document to this appropriate Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

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You are the chief financial officer (CFO) of a multi-physician clinic

  • Week 4 Discussion

    Discussion Topic

    Task: Reply to this topic
     Due March 11 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this topic.

    Before the end of the unit, begin commenting on at least two of your classmates’ responses. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Submit your responses in the Discussion Area.

    The capital asset pricing model, or CAPM, is used to price an individual security or portfolio. The general idea behind CAPM is that investors should be compensated in two ways, for the time value of their money and risk incurred. The model helps investors calculate risks and what type of return they should expect on their investment. The time money value is represented by the risk-free rate, usually a 10-year government bond yield, and compensates the investors for placing money in an investment over a period of time. That is added to the other half of the formula which represents risk. It calculates the amount of compensation the investor needs for taking on additional risk. This is done by taking a Beta, which measures a stock’s volatility, and multiplies by its premium. The premium is calculated by subtracting the risk-free rate of return from the expected return of the market. For example, the expected return of a stock can be figured out in the following way using a model. If the risk-free rate is 3% the Beta or risk measure of the stock is 3 and the expected market return over the period is 11%. The stock is expected to return 27%. In short, if the expected return does not make the risk worth it, the investment should not be made.

    Respond to the following questions:

    • You are the chief financial officer (CFO) of a multi-physician clinic. Do you see weaknesses or strengths in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)? Explain your response and support it with examples. Include a consideration of the small market line (SML).
    • Your chief executive officer (CEO) asks you to decide between debt and equity financing. Explain which the best option is. Discuss the factors that influence your decision.

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Your initial posting should be addressed at 300-500 words. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Be sure to cite your sources using APA format.

    Respond to your peers throughout the Week. Justify your answers with examples, research, and reasoning. Follow up posts need to be submitted by the end of week.

    Use the following rubric as a guide to complete your discussion responses.

  • Week 4 Project

    Assignment

    Task: Submit to complete this assignment
     Due March 15 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this assignment, please review the expanded grading rubric for specific instructions relating to content and formatting.

    Money has different values based on time. Money in your pocket has a current value, but money owed to you has a varying value based on how sure it is that you will receive it and when. It is possible to estimate its value. In this assignment, you will analyze the value of money on the basis of this Week’s learning.

    Review Understanding The Time Value of Money to attain more information on how the value of money is based on time.

    Find the following values for a lump sum assuming annual compounding:

    • The future value of $500 invested at 8 percent for 1 year
    • The future value of $500 invested at 8 percent for 5 years
    • The present value of $500 to be received in 1 year when the opportunity cost rate is 8 percent
    • The present value of $500 to be received in 5 years when the opportunity cost rate is 8 percent
    • Analyze present and future values and their implications for the balance sheet and the budget of an organization.

    Submission Details:

    •  To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your  work and  provide references for the citations in APA format.
    •  Your assignment should be addressed in a 2- to 3-page document.
    •  Submit your document to this appropriate Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

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Explain how the CVP graphs would change in a capitated environment

  • Week 3 Discussion

    Discussion Topic

     

    Task: Reply to this topic
     Due March 4 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this topic.

    Before the end of the Week, begin commenting on at least two of your classmates’ responses. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Submit your responses in the Discussion Area.

    Review the CVP-graph PDF for more information on CVP graphs and how to read them. Assuming the graphs are drawn to the same scale, consider the break-even charts—cost-volume-profit (CVP) graphs—below for two competing providers operating in a fee-for-service environment. On the basis of your understanding of variable cost rate, per-unit revenue, contribution margin, fixed costs, and the CVP graphs above, answer the following questions:

    • Explain how the CVP graphs would change if the providers were operating in a discounted fee-for-service environment.
    • Explain how the CVP graphs would change in a capitated environment. Evaluate which provider is in the best position to grow its business.
    • Provide reasons for and evidence in support of your responses.

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Your initial posting should be addressed at 300-500 words. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Be sure to cite your sources using APA format.

    Respond to your peers throughout the unit. Justify your answers with examples, research, and reasoning. Follow up posts need to be submitted by the end of the week.

    Use the following rubric as a guide to complete your discussion responses.

  • Week 3 Project

    Assignment

     

    Task: Submit to complete this assignment
     Due March 8 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this assignment, please review the expanded grading rubric for specific instructions relating to content and formatting.

    Consider the following data and make your best analysis of per member per month (PMPM) rates, considering reductions in utilization or pricing. Bay Pines Medical Center estimates that a capitated population of 50,000 would have the following base case utilization and total cost characteristics:

     Service Category  Inpatient Days
     per 1,000 Enrollees
     Average Cost
     per Day
     General  150  $1,500
     Surgical  125  $1,800
     Psychiatric  70  $700
     Alcohol/Drug Abuse  38  $500
     Maternity  42  $1,500
     Total  425  $1,367

    In addition to medical costs, Bay Pines allocates 10 percent of the total premium for administration/reserves.

     On the basis of your data analysis, respond to the following:

    • What is the PMPM rate that Bay Pines must set to cover medical costs plus administrative expenses?
    • What would be the rate if a utilization management program were to reduce utilization within each patient service category by 10 percent? And by 20 percent?
    • Consider the initial base case utilization assumption. What rate would be set if the average cost on each service were reduced by 10 percent?
    • Assume that both utilization and cost reductions were made. What would the premium be?

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Submission Details:

    •  Your assignment should be addressed in an 8- to 10-page document.
    •  Submit your document to this appropriate Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

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Identify 6 major third-party payers who provide revenue to healthcare providers

  • Week 1 Discussion

    Discussion Topic

    Task: Reply to this topic
     Due February 18 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this discussion forum, please review the link “Doing Discussion Questions Right,” the expanded grading rubric for the forum, and any specific instructions for this topic.

    Before the end of the unit, begin commenting on at least two of your classmates’ responses. You can ask technical questions or respond generally to the overall experience. Be objective, clear, and concise. Always use constructive language, even in criticism, to work toward the goal of positive progress. Submit your responses in  the Discussion Area

    • Describe the following healthcare service settings and predict which will have the most impact on our national economy in the next five years: hospitals, ambulatory care, home healthcare, long-term care, and integrated delivery systems.

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Your initial posting should be addressed at 300-500 words. Submit your document to this Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Be sure to cite your  sources using APA format.

    Respond to your peers throughout the Week. Justify your answers with examples, research, and reasoning. Follow up posts need to be submitted by the end of the week.

    Use the following rubric as a guide to complete your discussion responses.

  • Week 1 Project

    Assignment

    Task: Submit to complete this assignment
     Due February 22 at 11:59 PM

    Before beginning work on this assignment, please review the expanded grading rubric for specific instructions relating to content and formatting.

    Identify 6 major third-party payers who provide revenue to healthcare providers. Analyze at least 2 provider incentives and risks under each of the following  reimbursement methods:

    • Cost based
    • Charge based
    • Per procedure
    • Per diagnosis
    • Per diem
    • Bundled payment
    • Capitation
    • Fee for service

    To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your  work and  provide references for the citations in APA format.

    Submission Details :

    •  Your assignment should be addressed in a 2- to 3-page document.
    •  Submit your document to this appropriate Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

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