Knowledge Assessment
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Information about test norms allows you to equate scores across different tests of the same construct and lets you compare individuals to each other. Once you have the standard deviation of a score, you can calculate that individual’s zscore. Zscores, also known as standard scores, tell you how many standard deviations away from the mean an individual is. Scores that are 2 standard deviations away from the mean represent the most extreme 5% of the population and often are considered to be unusual enough to warrant special consideration, such as a clinical diagnosis. For instance, IQ scores that are two standard deviations above the mean (130 or greater) are considered in a “gifted” range, and scores two standard deviations below the mean are considered intellectually deficient (70 or lower). Scores on measures of depression that are two standard deviations above the mean often are considered to represent clinical depression.
Tscores are another kind of standard score. The MMPI is the best known example of a test that uses Tscores. (Note that Tscores have nothing to do with ttests.) Zscores have a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1; Tscores have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Thus, the average score on a test would be assigned a Tscore of 50 and a zscore of zero. A score that was one standard deviation below average would be assigned a Tscore of 40 and a zscore of –1.
For this Knowledge Assessment, you consider how raw test scores can be converted into more meaningful standardized scores, allowing you to meaningfully compare tests and to compare individuals.
In the provided dataset, you previously created a RiskTaking scale by adding items R1 through R6.
Question 1.
What are the mean and standard deviation for the RiskTaking scale (ANALYZE>DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS>DESCRIPTIVES)?
a. 
17.08, 5.02 

b. 
14.23, 6.01 

c. 
18.95, 3.76 

d. 
16.23, 7.22 
Question 2.
George obtained a raw score of 20 on the RiskTaking scale. What is his zscore?
a. 
0.23 

b. 
0.03 

c. 
0.58 

d. 
1.63 
Question 3.
Given George’s zscore, what is his approximate percentile? Use the chart above to formulate your answer.
a. 
56 

b. 
58 

c. 
72 

d. 
80 
Question 4.
Tscores are used on some psychological tests, such as the MMPI. Tscores have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, and therefore a zscore of 1 (one standard deviation below the mean) would be converted to a Tscore of 40. What is George’s Tscore on the RiskTaking scale?
a. 
45 

b. 
56 

c. 
58 

d. 
66 
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