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Goal Setting in Sport
Basic Types of Goals
Outcome goals focus on the outcomes of sporting events and usually involve some sort of interpersonal comparison.
Performance goals specify an end product of performance that will be achieved by the athlete relatively independent of other performers and the team.
Process goals focus on specific behaviors exhibited throughout a performance. A typical process goal for an athlete might be to keep the left elbow straight while executing a golf drive.
Effectiveness of Goal Types
Used in isolation, outcome goals are the least effective, but when used in conjunction with performance and process goals, they are helpful.
Research supports a multiple goal setting strategy.
Athlete must understand differences and use all three effectively.
Why is Goal Setting Effective?
Development of New Learning Strategies.
Goal setting causes the athlete to focus her attention upon the task and upon achieving the goal relative to the task.
Once an athlete’s attention is directed toward a particular goal, it is necessary for the athlete to put forth the effort necessary to achieve the goal.
As long as the goal is present and the athlete wants to obtain the goal, he will persist in the effort needed to accomplish it.
Development of New Learning Strategies
Setting of new goals not only directs attention, mobilizes effort, and nurtures persistence, but it forces the athlete to learn new and better ways of accomplishing a skill or task.
Principles of Effective Goal Setting
Make goals specific, measurable, and observable.
Clearly identify time constraints.
Use moderately difficult goals.
Write goals down and monitor them.
Use mix of process, performance & outcome goals (continued).
Principles of Effective Goal Setting (Continued)
Use short and long-range goals.
Set team and individual performance goals.
Set practice and competition goals.
Make sure goals are internalized by athlete.
Consider personality and individual differences in goal setting.
The SMART Principle
Goals should be:
A Team Approach to Goal Setting
The Planning Phase.
The Meeting Phase.
The Evaluation Phase.
Common Goal Setting Pitfalls
Poorly written goal statements.
Failure to devise a goal-attainment strategy.
Failure to follow goal-attainment strategy.
Failure to monitor performance progress.
Discouragement (goals too difficulty, use of outcome goals, too many goals).
Chapter 10 objectives
• List, define, and give an example of each of the three types of goals
• Describe the functions of goal setting in sport
• Explain the effectiveness of each type of goal and/or combination of goals on sport performance
• Describe the principles and pitfalls of goal setting
NOTE: “Completing the outlines, reading the textbook, reviewing the Power points, and completing the written assignments will allow you to meet the above
learning objectives.” (K. Kardiasmenos, personal communication)