Reaction to two different post

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1. The first idea was that which was informed by religion. For instance, the idea by the Greeks that people were originally born with double arms, legs and internal organs; the splitting of these people would define whether you were gay, lesbian or straight (Hyde, 02/2016). This idea proceeded onto the place where Sigmund Freud discussed the aspects of sexuality. However, being a part of the Victorian age Dr. Freud found tension and Richard von Krafft-Ebbing was the first person to coin the phrases homosexuality and heterosexuality (Hyde, 02/2016). The German Magnus Herschfeld was instrumental in dealing with homosexuality and he introduced the term transvestite (Hyde, 02/2016). According to Von Ehrenkrook, 2011 the pervasive presence of gender deviancy within the political landscape underscores its potency to help shape the boundaries and guidelines, be they political, social, cultural or ethnic.

Bringing the idea of homosexuality to a place where it resembles more of today’s ideas than of those of the Greeks. “By the 1990s we had a rich array of sex research, including major national surveys, detailed investigations of sexual disorders and sexual orientation, and studies of the biological processes underlying sexual response” (Hyde, 02/2016, p. 5). This has impacted current counseling practices by opening the door for counselors to be open and accepting of homosexuality. It gives us the needed space to talk about things that were once taboo and add them to the list of normal or acceptable sexual practices.

The second idea that has changed greatly is that of the Chinese. Beginning about 4,000 years ago they created a society based on acceptance and understanding of sexuality. They had the first books on sexuality which included a reference to erotic literature (Hyde, 02/2016). However, about 1,000 years ago things changed and an idea about restricting the sexual practices of people began. In 1949, when the communist government formed the People’s Republic of China, they placed a ban on all sexually intimate writings (Hyde, 02/2016). By the 1970’s, however, people began smuggling erotic tapes into the country and holding viewing parties. In 1985 the government ordered a ban on all pornography, but by the time that Edward Laumann extended his sex survey to China in 2004, he found that there was a general swing towards liberalizing things in the arena of sex. Unfortunately, most people still live in the country where the idea of liberalizing isn’t as progressive as it is in the larger cities (Hyde, 02/2016). The way that this has impacted the counseling world is by giving a foundation to work from when working with Chinese people that have recently emigrated from China. By knowing if they are from the city or the country, it can give the counselor a good place to start with when discussing sexuality and sex practices.

The third idea that has changed a great deal is the theme that American Indian men are both exotic and erotic individuals (Hyde, 02/2016). In the 1990’s romance novels changed American Indian men into “handsome and virile, yet tender and vulnerable, and magnificent lovers for white women” (Hyde, 02/2016, p. 16). Where once there were strict rules on courting now they have begun to encourage their younger peoples to have sex. This will help the profession of counseling by allowing the counselor to discuss the topic of premarital sex with an openness once forbidden.

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2. Three issues identified as being challenging with sexual analysis are sampling, the accuracy of measurements made throughout the research, and ethical standards as they apply to all areas of research. Sampling and finding the means in which to obtain subjects can be tedious and frustrating. The population to be studied needs to be chosen through a variety of methods. Random sampling can be used on a targeted population in order to obtain accurate results. Unfortunately it’s difficult to collect random sampling, when the population is large and cumbersome to measure. Conducting an effective survey is methodical, but the subject matter is highly subjective, or left to the participants responses; meaning it can change depending on other variables relating to the subject. Measures can be taken in an attempt to obtain accurate data, but having an entirely accurate response from the subjects is highly improbable (Hyde & DeLamater, 2017).

When conducting research in sexuality, regardless of the population, there are going to be distorted measurements among participants. Being a sensitive topic, and mostly private, finding ways to accurately measure findings and assign them to particular categories can be challenging. After clients respond to tests, in order to derive a higher probability of accuracy, the test-retest method can be employed. The same test, perhaps worded differently, is given to the client after a certain period of time to enable more accurate responses. In addition to self-reports, surveys can be conducted, but have their own set of challenges. Sexuality and sexual behavior are difficult to measure when utilizing direct observation due to the client’s uncomfortability with having an audience (Hyde & DeLamater, 2017).

Conclusively, ethical standards are a crucial factor in all studies. Studies on sexuality are very sensitive and are especially prone to ethically challenging methods and variations. Research on subjective matter and how the subject perceives the question or statement, and the response, will dictate the result. First the client needs to be aware of the study, the nature and sensitivity of the material, and to whom and where it will be published. Informed consent will contain this information and be reviewed with the test subject. Nonmaleficence, which indicates to do no harm, is the primary measurement of research for the client. Having an accurate representation of the population considered needs to be practiced (ACA, 2014; Hyde & DeLamater, 2017).

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