Apologetics argument: introduction and conclusion

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Self-Selected Apologetics Argument: Analysis and Critique – Research Stage Template

Type your name here:

Make sure you review and understand the assignment instructions and the grading rubric before you attempt to complete any part of this template. Do not change any aspect of this template; do not delete anything from it. Instead, type your content in the spaces provided. Before typing your content, you should review the entire template to be sure you understand what is required.

The purpose of this template is to provide you with a few major building blocks that can be incorporated into your final paper. In the sections provided below, you will insert your approved thesis statement, you will begin building the foundation for what will become the first two major sections in the body of your final paper, and you will footnote after each bullet point and reference in the bibliography sources used in your bullet point formulations (at least two from the opposing worldview).

1.
Approved Thesis Statement

The religion of Islam believes that Allah is the only God, whereas Christianity believes that there is one true and living God that exists in three Persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and yet with many similarities and differences between the Bible and the Quran and Islam and Christianity, the truth remains that at the name of Jesus, every knee should bow and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord.

The remainder of this form will help you begin working on the first two major sections of your final paper – the analysis and the critique of the worldview you are writing about.

The basic outline for your final paper should follow this structure:

I.
Introduction

II. Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

III. Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

IV. Defense of Christianity

V. Conclusion

In what follows, you will be crafting the building blocks that will eventually become sections II and III in the outline.

1.
Introduction

Religion is a complicated and multi-faceted component of human life that has been the topic of discussion, debate, and investigation for millennia. It can mold the beliefs, values, and ethical standards of people and entire groups, and it has played a significant role in influencing human history and the development of civilizations. Since their inception, the world’s two greatest and most pervasive faiths, Islam and Christianity, have been compared and contrasted greatly. There are many points of agreement between these two faiths, such as their shared commitment to a single, all-powerful deity and their shared goals of fostering peace and justice (Oni 2021, 3). However, there are also significant points of divergence, including their divergent views on God, the role of sacred texts, the meaning of life, and the nature of the religious practice. This paper will analyze and critique a worldview thesis statement that contends that. In contrast, Christianity acknowledges the existence of one God who manifests himself in three different persons—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; Islam believes in only one God named Allah.

2.
Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section will form the building blocks of what will become the first major section in the body of your final paper (section II in the outline above): Summarize the worldview by using aspects of its presuppositions and beliefs using one sentence per bullet point (revision and/or expansion of these bullet points is required in the next stage of the project). The number of bullet points needed will be determined by thesis and the quality of your research but at least two are required.

· Islam and Christianity adhere to the idea that there is only one God, despite the fact that the two religions hold various contradictory beliefs and practices (Oni 2021, 3). Islam emphasizes allegiance to Allah and a life of virtue, while Christianity emphasizes a personal relationship with God and the promise of eternal life. Islam has a distinct conception of God since Allah is regarded as the lone, unrivalled deity who is neither a partner nor an equal. The Quran is the most important book in Islam and is believed to be the authentic word of God as it was given to the Prophet Muhammad. (Gastelum 2018, 137). Humans are commanded to surrender to Allah, whom the Quran describes as merciful, just, and all-powerful. As far as Muslims are concerned, all existence is directed toward the worship of Allah and the fulfilment of His commands, the ultimate reward for which is entry into Paradise. On the other hand, Christian belief holds that there is one God, who is also three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Bible is the most significant book in the Christian canon since it contains God’s divinely inspired words and provides guidance for dealing with life’s most difficult issues. According to biblical teaching, having a relationship with the loving God who created us is the ultimate purpose of existence. Christians believe that by putting their trust in Jesus Christ, they will be forgiven and granted eternal life with God.

· The significance of religious texts is yet another crucial component. Muslims consider the Quran to be the exact words of God, and it is from this text that Muslims get their ethical and religious guidance. The moral and legal foundations and the instructions for worship outlined in this book make it an indispensable resource for Muslims who wish to put their faith into practice. On the other hand, Christians look to the Bible for both revelation and guidance, but they do not consider it to be the literal word of God. Christians hold that the Bible is the word of God and that it was written by divine inspiration. They look to it as a source of wisdom to help them navigate the obstacles of everyday life.

· Regarding religious observances, prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage are some of Islam’s most revered rituals and customs. Praying five times a day while facing Mecca is essential to the Islamic faith and practice. Muslim practice also includes fasting during the holy month of Ramadan as a means of spiritual cleansing and becoming closer to Allah. A pilgrimage to Mecca is an integral part of the Islamic religion since it is seen as a method to show love for Allah and unity with other Muslims. On the contrary, Christians have a number of significant rituals and customs, such as prayer, worship, and Communion, that are central to their faith (Parry 2022, 278). Christians place great value on prayer as a means of connecting with God and expressing their devotion and gratitude. Collective acts of worship, typically in a church, are also central to the Christian life. The Christian practice of Communion is fundamental since it serves as a means of commemorating Jesus’ atoning death and showing love and support for fellow Christians.

Overall, there are numerous shared and divergent beliefs and behaviours between Islam and Christianity. Although adherents of both faiths acknowledge the existence of a divine creator, they hold vastly different views on God and the meaning of life (Oni 2021, 3). Each religion has its own ideas and ideals, which are reflected in its sacred books, beliefs and values.

3.
Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section focuses on helping you build what will become the second major section of the body of your final paper (section III in the outline above): Evaluate aspects of your selected worldview to show where it fails to provide a rationale, livable, comprehensive system.

· Though Christians and Muslims both profess a belief in a single Creator, the God of each faith is distinctly different. While Christians believe in a personal, loving God who is actively engaged in the world, Muslims view Allah as a separate, impersonal deity. Also, there are considerable discrepancies between the teachings of the Quran and the Bible. For instance, there are fundamental differences between the Quranic and Biblical accounts of creation and human origin, which give rise to divergent views on the meaning of life and the nature of the world. In addition, the Quran’s teachings on salvation and the afterlife diverge from the Bible, resulting in different perspectives on the point of human existence.

· The Islamic religion’s narrow conception of God has been critiqued for a long time. Even though the idea that there is only one God, known as Allah, is fundamental to Islam, there are others who contend that this does not provide an adequate picture of the divine nature. The lack of the notion of the Trinity implies that the complexity and depth of the divine nature are not addressed (Griffel 2022, 379). This is because the concept of the Trinity incorporates numerous facets of the divine nature, such as the traits of love, wisdom, and power. Another critique of the Islamic conception of God is that the Quran does not give an exhaustive explanation of God and the characteristics that characterize him. Even while the Quran is claimed to be the literal word of God and is regarded as a compilation of divine revelations, it does not contain the extensive descriptions and explanations of God’s essence and personality that are contained in other religious books. This results in various interpretations and beliefs held by Muslims, which can also contribute to a fragmented knowledge of God.

· The Christian doctrine of the Trinity has been a subject of critique because it is unclear and contradictory. For individuals who have not been exposed to the doctrine of a triune God, the idea that there is just one God despite the fact that he manifests himself as three separate divine beings may be challenging to comprehend. People can become confused regarding the nature and attributes of God as a result of a lack of clarity such as this, which can lead them to question the reality of the theology.

· Also, the concept of the Trinity, which is central to the Christian understanding of God, has been questioned because it is the product of human interpretation and is not founded on the teachings of Jesus. Some people believe that Jesus never presented the idea of the Trinity to his followers and that the doctrine of the Trinity was developed via human interpretation and theological conjecture. Consequently, some people have asserted that the dogma of the Trinity is not founded on divine revelation but rather on human ingenuity.

· The concept of a religious authority constitutes another critique of the competing worldviews. When it comes to Islam, Quranic verses and Prophet Muhammad’s sayings and deeds (Hadith) form the basis of Islamic belief. They are considered the most authoritative sources of religious doctrine (Griffel 2022, 379). This topic has been the subject of debate due to the assertion made by certain individuals that Islam is dependent on the direction of Prophet Muhammad, who was a human being and not divine. On the other hand, Christianity acknowledges the authority of the Bible as the word of God. It focuses significantly on personal relationships and interactions with God. 2 Timothy 3:16 NKJV states, “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness”. This verse highlights the significance of the Bible as God’s authoritative message and its function in molding the believer into a devoted servant of God.

· Notwithstanding these critiques, Christianity continues to be a viable worldview. Christianity provides a distinctive worldview because it emphasizes God’s unmerited favour and mercy. The concept of a triune God provides a deep and nuanced framework for comprehending the deity and the divine-human connection. The Bible also offers thorough guidance for leading a meaningful life and provides responses to the most critical questions in life. The Bible contains morals, ethics, and justice lessons that guide ethical lives. The Bible also provides a history of the globe and the occasions that have formed humanity. This involves the creation of the universe, the history of humankind, and the birth, ministry, and crucifixion of Jesus Christ, which are at the center of the Christian faith.

Conclusion

While Christianity and Islam share some commonalities and divergences, each religion’s worldview is unique in its understanding of the nature of God, the meaning of life, the universe, and the purpose of human existence. While Muslims consider Allah the supreme deity, Christians believe in one God who manifests Himself in Trinity. Christianity, despite critiques, is still a valid worldview that provides billions of individuals with hope, comfort, and guidance. It presents a thorough blueprint for leading a fulfilling life and a compelling worldview based on God’s grace and unconditional love.

4.
Turabian bibliography (must be located on its own separate page; see below):

Bibliography

Gastelum, Arturo. “No God but One: Allah or Jesus? A Former Muslim Investigates the Evidence for Islam and Christianity, Nabeelqureshi, Zondervan, 2016 (ISBN 978-0-310-52255-3), 318 Pp., Pb $17.99.”
Reviews in Religion & Theology 25, no. 1 (2018): 137–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/rirt.13175.

Griffel, Frank. “24. Religious Critique as a Popularization of Philosophy.”
The Popularization of Philosophy in Medieval Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, (2022), 379–88.
https://doi.org/10.1484/m.patma-eb.5.124251.

Oni, Idris Ajani. “A Comparative Analysis of Selected Fundamentals of Christianity and Islam,” 2021. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202109.0304.v1.

Parry, Jonathan. “Stratford Canning and the Politics of Christianity and Islam.”
Promised Lands, (2022), 278–97. https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691181899.003.0010.

1

APOL 500

Self-Selected Apologetics Argument: Introduction and Conclusion – Final Stage Assignment Instructions

Overview

Most of your argument has been written and now it is time to package it as a paper. You will have received feedback after each section from your professor and should have been able to integrate that feedback effectively. You may still be making some minor changes to the argument but it is now time to prepare it as a paper.

The introduction and conclusion are intended to show that you have a strong thesis and can summarize how you supported or argued for your thesis. They are excellent activities in helping you to find the best way to simply statement what may be a complex argument. If you can state your thesis concisely and precisely, then you have most likely written a strong argument and are ready to go out into the world and use it appropriately.

Instructions

Use a paper format for this stage. There is no template used for this assignment. A current Turabian format title page, footnotes, and bibliography are required.

1. The three sections developed in earlier will form the basis of the structure of your paper. They must be treated as three separate sections in the body of the paper. Edit as needed what you have already written.

2. In addition, the paper must have a proper introduction and conclusion.

a. The introduction (one paragraph, 3-5 sentences, no direct quotes or citable information) must be built around the thesis statement. This thesis statement provides unity to the overall presentation, so every word of the paper must be related to and supportive of the thesis statement.

b. The conclusion (also one paragraph, 3-5 sentences, no direct quotes or citable information) must summarize the main points presented that support your thesis. This is neither an outline of your paper nor a reiteration of the argument but rather a summary of how you supported your thesis.

3. Including both the introduction and conclusion but not the title and bibliography pages, the total length of the paper must be 2200 – 2600 words in current Turabian format (including the main text only, not footnotes, front matter, or the bibliography). In the final submission, assertions should be supported by 8 – 11 resources (more are allowed). Scripture should be used when applicable but does not count as one of the countable bibliographic resources. If the course textbooks are used, they should be footnoted and placed in the bibliography but they do not count towards the required 8 – 11 resources.

Given these instructions, the basic outline for your paper should be as follows:

I. Introduction

II. Analysis of the Opposing Worldview

III. Critique of the Opposing Worldview

IV. Defense of Christianity

V. Conclusion

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 2 of 2

APOL 500

Self-Selected Apologetics Argument: Expansion and Defense – Writing Stage Template

Type your name here:

Make sure you review and understand the assignment instructions and the grading rubric before you attempt to complete any part of this template. Do not change any aspect of this template; do not delete anything from it. Instead, type your content in the spaces provided. Before typing your content, you should review the entire template to be sure you understand what is required.

The purpose of this template is to provide you with a few major building blocks that can be incorporated into your final paper. In the sections provided below, you will insert your approved thesis statement, you will begin building the foundation for what will become the first two major sections in the body of your final paper, and you will footnote after each bullet point and reference in the bibliography sources used in your bullet point formulations (at least two from the opposing worldview).

1.
Approved Thesis Statement

The religion of Islam believes that Allah is the only God, whereas Christianity believes that there is one true and living God that exists in three Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and yet with many similarities and differences between the Bible and the Quran and Islam and Christianity, the truth remains that at the name of Jesus, every knee should bow and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord.

The remainder of this form will help you continue working on what will be the body of your final paper – an expansion of the analysis and the critique of the worldview you are writing about, and a formulation of a defense of Christianity against the opposing worldview you have selected.

The basic outline for your final paper should follow this structure:

I.
Introduction

II. Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

III. Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

IV. Defense of Christianity

V. Conclusion

In what follows, you will be writing out the building blocks that will eventually become sections II, III, and IV in the outline.

2.
Expansion of the Analysis of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section will expands on the building blocks of what will be the first major section in the body of your final paper (section II in the outline above): Revise, add, or omit any bullet points as needed as you expand this section by putting the bullet points in expanded paragraph form. It should be about 600 words when you are finished. Tips on how to expand this section are found in the assignment instructions.

This section examines the similarities and contrasts between Islam and Christianity regarding their ideas, the religious scriptures they follow, and the rituals they practice. Although faiths and adherents worship the same deity, they do not share the same beliefs or practices. These beliefs and practices significantly impact how their members live their lives (Oni 2021, 3). In spite of their differences, both religions uphold significant beliefs and ideals that play a significant role in the lives of those who follow them. This section is structured around three key topics: religious beliefs, texts, and practices. By analyzing these aspects, this section aims to provide a comprehensive review of the primary distinctions and parallels between Islam and Christianity.

The central tenet of Islam and Christianity is the belief in a single, all-powerful God. There are, nonetheless, significant distinctions in their customs and beliefs. The Shahada, the Muslim profession of faith, emphasizes the oneness of God, which is the foundation of the Islamic worldview. Islam believes in the existence of only one God, Allah, who is omnipotent, omniscient, and merciful. This fundamental idea shapes Islamic theology and informs all aspects of Muslim life. An essential component of the Islamic worldview that influences Muslim actions and beliefs is the belief in the afterlife and judgment day. The Islamic worldview is also significantly influenced by the Five Pillars of Islam (Gastelum 2018, 137). These pillars are the Shahada (statement of faith), Salah, Zakat, Sawm (fasting), and Hajj. Every Muslim must engage in these rituals to help them stay connected to Allah and lead moral lives. On the other hand, Christian theology holds that the triune God — Father, Son, and Holy Spirit — is one and the same God. Christianity’s core beliefs and rituals revolve around this understanding of the Holy Trinity. Jesus Christ, in the eyes of Christians, is the divinely sent savior of the world. The Bible provides the foundation for this conviction by stating that God made humans in his image and loves them without condition. By trusting in Jesus Christ, sinners can be cleansed and granted eternal life. A key pillar of Christianity is the idea that one can be saved by faith in Jesus Christ. Christianity also offers a set of ethical guidelines to follow, derived from the teachings of Jesus and the Ten Commandments. These teachings serve as a blueprint for Christian conduct because they promote love for God and love for one another.

Both religions value religious scriptures, but they interpret and ascribe different authority to them. While Christians use the Bible as a source of inspiration and guidance and do not regard it as the literal word of God, Muslims see the Quran as the exact words of God and the primary source of ethical and religious advice (Szpiech 2021, 78). Christians believe the Bible to be God’s inerrant word, written under the influence of the Holy Spirit, and look to it as a guide for living.

Praying, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca are all important aspects of Islamic practice. Prayer is an integral part of the Muslim faith, and Muslims pray five times a day with their faces turned toward Mecca. Keeping the fast during the holy month of Ramadan is said to be a way of purifying one’s spirit and getting closer to Allah while making the pilgrimage to Mecca is thought to reflect love for Allah and unity with other Muslims. In contrast, Christians regard praying, worshiping, and taking Communion as essential rites and practices in their religion. Individual acts of worship are essential to Christianity, and prayer is the primary means through which Christians communicate with God and convey their love and appreciation (Parry 2022, 278). Communion is a way for Christians to show their love for one another and to remember the sacrifice that Jesus made for their sins by dying on the cross.

Overall, even while Muslims and Christians believe in the existence of only one God, their views on the nature of God and the meaning of life are very different. The two religions’ distinctive ideals and beliefs are reflected in the religious observances and rituals, such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage (Szpiech 2021, 78). Gaining a better grasp of the contrasts and similarities between these faiths can help encourage interfaith communication and create greater understanding and tolerance.

3.
Expansion of the Critique of Aspects of the Opposing Worldview

This section is focused on helping you build out what will be the second major section of the body of your final paper (section III in the outline above): Again, revise, add, or omit any bullets point as needed as you expand this section by putting the bullet points in expanded paragraph form. It should be about 600-750 words when you are finished. Tips on how to expand this section are found in the assignment instructions.

The section critiques the conflicting worldviews of Islamic and Christian conceptions of God. Muslims see Allah as a distinct, impersonal deity, while Christians believe in a personable, loving God who is actively concerned in humanity. These distinctions are represented in the Qur’anic and Biblical doctrines, which differ fundamentally in how they explain creation, the history of humanity, salvation and the afterlife, and notions of religious authority. The critique is based on examining the key distinctions and contradictions between the two worldviews, which results in opposing opinions on the purpose of life, the nature of the universe, and the existence of God. The Christian theology of the Trinity is questioned for its ambiguity and incoherence, while the Islamic view of God is critiqued for its brevity and lack of clarity. In both worldviews, the idea of religious authority is also examined.

The limited conception of God held by adherents to the Islamic religion is an aspect that has been the subject of critique for quite some time. Even though the concept that there is only one God, who is referred to as Allah, is one of the essential tenets of Islam, some people argue that this does not present an accurate image of the divine nature (Netton 2018, 2). The absence of the concept of the holy Trinity suggests that the layered profoundness of the divine essence are not considered.

The Quran’s descriptions of God are also a subject of critiques. Some argue that the Quran does not fully explain God or the qualities that define him as a person. Because of this, Muslims hold various interpretations and beliefs, which can lead to a fractured understanding of God. On the other hand, Christians consider the scripture as the inerrant word of God and the source of truth regarding God’s being and behavior.

The Trinity has also been the subject of critique due to its complexity. People who have never heard of a God who exists in a triune nature may find the Christian belief of the Trinity difficult to understand (Netton 2018, 2). Due to a lack of clarity, some individuals are prone to developing confusion concerning the nature and attributes of God, which might ultimately cause them to critique the veracity of the theology. In addition, the doctrine of the Trinity is not based on the teachings of Jesus but rather was developed through human interpretation after Jesus’ death and resurrection. Therefore Jesus never introduced the concept to his followers. Consequently, some contend that the doctrine of the Trinity is not established by divine revelation but by the creative reasoning of humans.

A further critique of the alternative worldviews is constituted by the idea of religious authority. It is widely held that the passages of the Quran and the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad, referred to as the Hadith, are the most authoritative sources of Islamic theological theory. On the other hand, this topic has been the subject of discussion because others contend that Islam relies on the guidance of Prophet Muhammad, a human and not a divine being. Contrary, Christianity recognizes the power of the Bible as the word of God and places a significant amount of emphasis on personal relationships and encounters with God (Griffel 2022, 379). The Bible is seen as the authoritative message from God. It plays a significant part in transforming a believer into a loyal servant of God. 2 Timothy 3:16 NKJV states, “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.”This verse emphasizes the importance of the Bible as God’s inspired word and how it transforms the believer into a loyal servant of God.

Overall, Islam is critiqued for failing to adequately address the intricacy and depth of the divine essence because of the lack of the Trinity. Some also argue that the Christian idea of the Trinity is not based on Jesus’s teachings because it is too complicated and contradictory. Furthermore, there is a controversy over the nature of religious authority, with Muslims looking to the Quran and Hadith as the final word from God and Christians focusing on the Bible. These critiques highlight the fact that each religion has its unique understanding of God and its unique perspectives on the world.

4.
Defense of Christianity against an Opposing Worldview

This section focuses on responding to the aspects of the opposing worldview that cast doubts on Christianity, using your critique of the worldview and the strengths of Christianity, particularly in comparison to the opposing worldview. This will be the third and final major section of the body of your final paper (section IV in the outline above). It should be about 750-1000 words when you are finished. Tips on how to approach this section are found in the assignment instructions.

This section offers a defense for the Christian worldview. Despite critiques and challenges, Christianity continues to be an essential and viable worldview for many people all over the world. Its emphasis on grace, a personal relationship with God, a solid moral compass, a commitment to social justice, and a strong feeling of a community set Christianity apart from other religions. Among other distinctive elements of Christianity are its emphasis on the Trinity and its use of the Bible as a manual for finding purpose in one’s existence (Dweck 2019, 213). Furthermore, Christianity stands out because of its many positive contributions to global progress throughout history.

One of the key aspects that sets Christianity apart from other religions is its emphasis on the grace and mercy of God, which are freely given without being earned. This idea, frequently referred to as grace, emphasizes that God’s compassion and forgiveness are freely given rather than being something that must be earned via good acts or merit. Christianity also allows having a personal relationship with God by placing one’s faith in Jesus Christ. Christians believe that God loves them without conditions and has a purpose and a direction for their lives (Smith 2018, 100). Additionally, Christianity offers people a moral compass by instructing them to love their neighbors, forgive, be compassionate, and be agents of change in society. Additionally, the necessity of social justice, the promotion of equality, and treating people with respect and dignity is emphasized strongly in the Christian religion. Lastly, the Christian faith fosters community and fellowship among its adherents. Christians congregate in churches and other places of worship to receive support, encouragement, and friendship from others who share their faith. In these settings, they can grow in their faith. When people are going through challenging circumstances and are in need of support and encouragement from others, having a feeling of community is extremely vital.

Belief in a holy Trinity, a multi-faceted and nuanced framework for comprehending the nature of God and the relationship between God and people, is another distinctive feature of Christianity that sets it apart from other world religions. The doctrine of the Trinity, which holds that God exists in three different persons “the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit” provides a more profound comprehension of both the character of God and the part he plays in the affairs of the world.

Also, the Bible, an essential component of the Christian worldview, offers exceptional support to the Christian worldview. The Bible offers a plethora of advice and direction for living a purposeful life and provides answers to some of the most difficult questions in life (Dweck 2019, 213). The Bible is an all-encompassing manual that teaches folks how to live decent lives by providing them with morality, ethics, and lessons on justice. In addition, the Bible provides a detailed account of the history of the world, beginning with the origin of the universe and continuing through the evolution of people, as well as the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ, which are the cornerstones of the Christian faith. This extensive history not only offers many Christians a feeling of purpose and direction in life, but it also serves as a foundation for comprehending the world in which they live.

Furthermore, following a Christian worldview can instill a sense of optimism and purpose in one’s life. Christians believe that they were created for a certain reason and that their lives have meaning and worth because of this belief. The teachings of Jesus, who promised that those who follow Him would have eternal life, lend credence to this idea and help keep it alive.

Lastly, the Christian religion has made an excellent contribution to the development of the globe throughout history hence setting it apart from other faiths. Christians have been at the forefront of many of the world’s most important social and humanitarian campaigns, such as the abolition of slavery, the civil rights movement, the battle against inequity and poverty, and many more (Amos 2022, 68). Christians have contributed substantially to non-religious domains such as technology, literature, and the arts.

In conclusion, despite the critiques that have been leveled against it, Christianity remains a valid worldview that provides a distinctive perspective on God and the universe. Its emphasis on grace and its sophisticated framework for comprehending the supernatural offers a profound and nuanced viewpoint on life. The Bible offers a thorough direction for living a life that is meaningful and has a purpose.

5.
Turabian bibliography (must be located on its separate page; see below):

Bibliography

Amos, Clare. “The Concept of Human Rights in Christianity.” The Concept of Human Rights in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, 2022, 63–118. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110561579-004.

Dweck, Yaacob. “Christianity.” Dissident Rabbi, 2019, 213–54. https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691183572.003.0006.

Gastelum, Arturo. “No God but One: Allah or Jesus? A Former Muslim Investigates the Evidence for Islam and Christianity, Nabeelqureshi, Zondervan, 2016 (ISBN 978-0-310-52255-3), 318 Pp., Pb $17.99.” Reviews in Religion & Theology 25, no. 1 (2018): 137–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/rirt.13175.

Griffel, Frank. “24. Religious Critique as a Popularization of Philosophy.” The Popularization of Philosophy in Medieval Islam, Judaism, and Christianity, (2022), 379–88.
https://doi.org/10.1484/m.patma-eb.5.124251.

Netton, Ian Richard. “Islam, Christianity and the Realms of the Miraculous,” 2018. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748699063.001.0001.

Oni, Idris Ajani. “A Comparative Analysis of Selected Fundamentals of Christianity and Islam,” 2021. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202109.0304.v1.

Parry, Jonathan. “Stratford Canning and the Politics of Christianity and Islam.” Promised Lands, (2022), 278–97. https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691181899.003.0010.

Smith, David. “Contemporary Christianity.” A Brief Introduction to Christianity, 2019, 93–100. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv47w46q.23.

Szpiech, Ryan. “Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in Medieval Europe.” The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Europe, 2021, 78–99. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198834267.013.4.

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