APA format, please least references and cite within the text.Total word count at least 1900 words Thank you. Article (select the link): Barlow & Barlow, 2002Topic Summary Read the article: “Racial Pr

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APA format, please least references and cite within the text.

Total word count at least 1900 words

Thank you.

Article (select the link): Barlow & Barlow, 2002

  1. Topic Summary

Read the article: “Racial Profiling: A Survey of African American Police Officers”(Barlow & Barlow, 2002). Using concepts from chapters 1-6 as the basis for your analysis, in a narrative format of 750 or more words, summarize:

(a) the research problem,

(b) the literature review,

(c) data-gathering strategy,

(d) any hypotheses,

(e) the dependent and independent variable in one of the cause-effect relationships tested by the researchers,

(f) how the dependent and independent variable were operationalized,

(g) other variables that should have been measured and/or controlled, and

(h) the key findings and/or policy issues.

2.  Topic Analysis

This research utilized a mixed-methods approach (i.e., quantitative and qualitative). Identify the quantitative aspect, the qualitative aspect, and explain the value of using this approach. Were there any discrepancies or unexpected findings between the two methods (i.e., did the qualitative data contradict or refute the quantitative data)?

  1. Briefly sketch out the advantages and disadvantages of using mail surveys, internet surveys, and phone surveys for research. Overall, which survey method do you think is the best? Explain your rationale.

  2. Go to the Research Triangle Institute site at THIS LINK. Click on “Survey Research and Services” and then on “Capabilities”. Under “Data Collection” read about the institute’s methods for computer-assisted interviewing and mixed-mode data collection. Scroll down, under “Methodologies” read the section on “Questionnaire Design and Evaluation,” to learn about innovative techniques including cognitive pretesting. What does this add to your treatment and understanding of survey research?

  3. Executive Decision

Appendix A of this article contains the questionnaire on racial profiling that was used for this research. What issues of validity concern you about this questionnaire? What issues of validity concern you about the research article? What questions should have been asked that were omitted? If you were to conduct this research, what would be different? Be detailed in your answer.

APA format, please least references and cite within the text.Total word count at least 1900 words Thank you. Article (select the link): Barlow & Barlow, 2002Topic Summary Read the article: “Racial Pr
http://pqx.sagepub.com Police Quarterly DOI: 10.1177/109861102129198183 2002; 5; 334 Police Quarterly David E. Barlow and Melissa Hickman Barlow Racial Profiling: A Survey of African American Police Officers http://pqx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/3/334 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Police Executive Research Forum Police Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences can be found at: Police Quarterly Additional services and information for http://pqx.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Email Alerts: http://pqx.sagepub.com/subscriptions Subscriptions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Permissions: © 2002 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at SAGE Publications on March 22, 2007 http://pqx.sagepub.com Downloaded from POLICE QUARTERLY (Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2002) Barlow, Barlow / RACIAL PROFILING: A SURVEY R ACIAL P ROFILING :AS URVEY OF A FRICAN A MERICAN P OLICE O FFICERS DAVbD E. B AfLOW MELbSSA HbCKMAN BAfLOW bniversity of Wisconsin–Milwaukee This article is an effort to provide data on racial profiling that are not as eas – ily dismissed as anecdotal accounts of individual motorists. The authors con – ducted a survey of African American police officers in the Milwaukee Police Department in Wisconsin regarding their personal experiences of having been racially profiled, defining racial profilingas any situation in which race is used by a police officer or agency to determine the potential criminality of an individual. This study was not an investigation of the Milwaukee Police Department or of racial profiling within the department but rather of the extent to which Black police officers perceive they have been subjected to racial profiling by any police officer or agency. Police officers understand the intricacies, strategies, and techniques of lawenforcement. Therefore, the observations of Black police officers on the reasonableness of situations in which they have been stopped by police have exceptional validity. After being arrested for a crime he witnessed someone else commit, a POLICE QbARTERLf Vol. 5 No. 3, September 2002 334–358 © 2002 Sage P What is racial profiling? Definitions var Using s The real q Barlow, Barlow / RACIAL PROFILING: A SURVEY 335 © 2002 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at SAGE Publications on March 22, 2007 http://pqx.sagepub.com Downloaded from Ne bnited States , 1996;Wyoming v. Houghton , 1999). With theWhrendeci- sion, the S This standard req This techniq Avery , 1997; bnited States v. Travis , 1995). Kenned Maryland State Police , 1992). Administrative directives s Another contrib For example, one Each officer who telephoned emphaticall Beca The Milwa According to the Fire and Police Commission, the Milwa Table 1 demonstrates that more than two thirds (69%) of the officers who responded to the s Fort Barlow, Barlow / RACIAL PROFILING: A SURVEY 345 TABLE 1. Police Officers Who Have Experienced facial Profiling fes (%) No (%) n Stopped 69 31 166 Q M Nearl SKIN TONE Georges-Abe Tat DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIFIC CASES The final item on the s Finall The responses of the African American police officers in this s Tho Barlow, Barlow / RACIAL PROFILING: A SURVEY 351 © 2002 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at SAGE Publications on March 22, 2007 http://pqx.sagepub.com Downloaded from Definition:For the p Demographic Information 1. What is Under 25 25-35 36-45 Over 45 2. Are Stopped Ye s No Q Stopped Ye s No Q In the state of Wisconsin Ye s No In the co Stopped Ye s No Q In the state of Wisconsin Ye s No In the co _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Barlow, Barlow / RACIAL PROFILING: A SURVEY 353 © 2002 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at SAGE Publications on March 22, 2007 http://pqx.sagepub.com Downloaded from APPENDIX B Freq Less Than More Than 1 fear 1-5 fears 6-10 fears 11-20 fears 20 fears n 1% 25% 32% 26% 15% 167 4. Wo Dark- Light- Skinned Skinned Other n 41% 31% 28% 165 Racial Profiling Information 5. In Bain, B. (2000, April 26–Ma Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland. Bast, C. M. (1997). Driving while Black: Stopping motorists on a s Chambliss, W. J. (1994). Policing the ghetto Chambliss, W. J. (2001). Power, politics and crime. Bo Cole, D. (1999). No equal justice: Race and class in the American criminal justice system . New York: New Press. Georges-Abe Social Justice ,16 (4), 35-54. Hall, R. (1996). Impact of skin color Harris, D. A. (1997). “Driving while Black” and all other traffic offenses: The S Harris, D. A. (1999). Driving while Black: Racial profiling on o Kenned K Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. (2001). J 356 POLICE QUARTERLY (Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2002) © 2002 SAGE Publications. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at SAGE Publications on March 22, 2007 http://pqx.sagepub.com Downloaded from Ma McConaha Miller, J. G. (1996). Search and destroy: African-American males in the criminal justice sys – tem . New York: Cambridge Universit New York v. Belton, 453 U.S. 454 (1981). Ohio v. Robinette, 519 U.S. 33 (1996). Penns R R Sears, D. (1988). S Strandberg, K. W. (1999). Racial profiling. LawEnforcement Technology,26 (6), 62-66. S Tat Exploring the connections between race, crime, and justice (pp. 31-46). Westport, CT: Praeger. United States v. Aver United States v. Ross, 456 U.S. 798 (1982). United States v. Travis, 62 F.3D 170 (6th Cir. 1995). U.S. Department of J U.S. General Acco Verniero, P., & Zo Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2000). The color of justice(2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996). Wilkins v. Mar W Zingraff, M. T., Smith, W. R., & Tomaskovic-Deve Melissa Hickman Barlowis an associate professor of criminal justice at the bniversity of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. She received her Ph.D. in criminology and criminal justice from Florida State bniversity in 1991. Professor Barlow teaches courses on theories of crime, race and criminal justice, and crime and justice in the media. She has published articles related to the race and class politics of crime control policy and is coauthor of Police in a M

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