Answer to discussion krensy

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please try to ensure use of reviewed journal articles, not references from websites. 160 words minimum APA format

Therapeutic Action of Clotrimazole

            Clotrimazole is a medication that is used in the treatment and management of different integumentary and other fungal infections. The drug is approved by the Federal Drug Association to effectively manage different conditions. The mode of action of clotrimazole is that it exerts its action mainly by destroying the permeability of the barrier present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungi. The drug inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol in a concentration-dependent way to inhibit the demethylation of alpha lanosterol (Zhao et al., 2020). The drug falls under the class of antifungal imidazole.

 Uses and Side Effects of Antifungals

            Clotrimazole is used to treat diseases such as oral and vaginal candidiasis, athletes’ foot, and dermatophytes. In addition, clotrimazole is used to manage tinea corporis and other skin infections that result in a red scaly rash that can occur on any body part. The fungal infection can occur at the groin or buttocks, skin, and feet. Clotrimazole comes in with dosages of topical cream, topical solution, powder, lotion, vaginal cream, tablet, and kit. According to Nicola et al., (2019). the polyenes such as nystatin and amphotericin B are used to manage infections in the mouth, invasive aspergillosis, and cryptococcal meningitis. The Allylamines inhibits the enzyme that the membrane requires to function properly. An example is a terbinafine. Echinocandins alter the enzyme used in creating the fungal wall. Examples are anidulafungin for treating esophageal candida and caspofungin.

            Some of the main dermatologic side effects of clotrimazole include burning sensation, swelling, stinging, irritation, erythema, skin tenderness, blistering, peeling, and pimple-like bump. In addition, clotrimazole may result in allergic reactions such as difficulties in breathing, and swelling of lips, face, tongue, and throat. In the genitourinary system, the intravaginal use results in a burning sensation, cramping, itching, bleeding, and pain may occur. Vulvar lesions and rash may also occur (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Excessive use of clotrimazole may result in an increased risk of developing problems in the adrenal gland. The risk is higher among pediatric patients and those who have used the drug for a long time.

Teaching Plan and Age-Appropriate Considerations

            Planning for the teaching of Ms. Jones starts by creating awareness of the signs of fungal infection in baby Sam. Symptoms of a yeast infection depend on the location. The common signs that occur at the navel include a clear fluid oozing patch and a bright red rash with a thick white coating on the tongue. Diaper yeast infection symptoms include red skin with pimples like dots and a rash that do not respond to normal creams (Carr et al., 2020) The main areas where it occurs include the genitals, legs, and buttock area. Yeast infection in babies is caused by the moist environment of an unhygienic diaper especially if there is an existing untreated rash.

            The goal of teaching includes treating the infection, reducing exposure to further infection, and promoting skin healing.  Teaching for Ms. Jones includes keeping the area clean. The mother should clean the diaper area once you change the diaper as this helps to remove preexisting yeast and minimize the risk for other infections. The mother should also wash her hands and anything the baby laid on at the time of diaper change (Arcangelo et al., 2017). The diaper area should be kept dry because yeast thrives well in damp areas. Diaper change allows the area to air dry. The baby should have diaper-free time to dry the area. The mother should avoid irritant use such as soap and bubble baths and should minimize on use of wipes. Ms. Jones should see improvement after three days.

References

Arcangelo, P.V., Peterson, M. A., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, A. J. (2017) Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice: A Practical Approach (4th Ed.) http://library.lol/main/ADF462249FA0FB800AE6978ECAC7B473

Carr, A. N., DeWitt, T., Cork, M. J., Eichenfield, L. F., Fölster-Holst, R., Hohl, D., Lane, A. T., Paller, A., Pickering, L., Taieb, A., Cui, T. Y., Xu, Z. G., Wang, X., Brink, S., Niu, Y., Ogle, J., Odio, M., & Gibb, R. D. (2020). Diaper dermatitis prevalence and severity: Global perspective on the impact of caregiver behavior. Pediatric dermatology, 37(1), 130–136.https://doi.org/10.1111/pde.14047

Nicola, A. M., Albuquerque, P., Paes, H. C., Fernandes, L., Costa, F. F., Kioshima, E. S., Abadio, A., Bocca, A. L., & Felipe, M. S. (2019). Antifungal drugs: new insights in research & development. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 195, 21–38.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.10.008

Zhao, D., Chen, B., Wang, Y. T., & Jiao, C. H. (2020). Topical clotrimazole cream for the treatment of tinea cruris: A retrospective study. Medicine, 99(47), e23189. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023189

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