According to your text, “racism and bias often develop from a ‘closed system’ perspective, an ‘us against them’ attitude.” Use one of the recent (within the last five years) high profile

If you are looking for affordable, custom-written, high-quality, and non-plagiarized papers, your student life just became easier with us. We are the ideal place for all your writing needs.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

According to your text, “racism and bias often develop from a ‘closed system’ perspective, an ‘us against them’ attitude.” Use one of the recent (within the last five years) high profile cases involving police use of lethal force, and closely analyze how a closed system perspective may have been a factor in the case. Be sure to provide an analysis from a “closed system” perspective of the police officer and a “closed system” perspective of the citizen who was killed in the police encounter.

 According to your text, “racism and bias often develop from a ‘closed system’ perspective, an ‘us against them’ attitude.” Use one of the recent (within the last five years) high profile
Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration of Contemporary Criminal Justice Agencies Introduction The Organization Functions concepts form the base from which today’s criminal justice administration gains its support. The human body could not function without a skeleton to support the many other body components. So it is with criminal justice administration, which cannot be successful without the Organiza- tion Functions providing support for all the other themes. Organization Functions involve the managing of an organization, in comparison to leadership, which relates more to E mployee Relations concepts.The key historic Organization Functions concepts to remember are: POSDCORB 1937, “Notes on the Organization,” Luther GulickPrinciples of bureaucratic organizations 1922, “Bureaucracy,” Max WeberScientifically find the best way to do the job 1912, “Principles of Scientific Management,” Frederick TaylorPublic administration is a profession that responds to elected officials who represent the public 1887, “The Study of Administration,” Woodrow Wilson Using organizational concepts as a starting point, this chapter will exp lore their application to today’s criminal justice agencies as well as introducing some more cu rrent concepts in the category of Organization Functions. Organization Functions became important when pub lic administration began to be considered as a profession and to be compared to business administ ration. This occurred in 1887 when Woodrow Wilson wrote in “The Study of Administration” that pu blic administration should be separated from politics and that public administrators should carry out the directions of elected officials with little involvement in the political arena (Wilson 1887). 7 CHAPTER 134 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 134 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 134 2/3/12 11:02:57 PM 2/3/12 11:02:57 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Even though Wilson tied public administrators to their elected official, the civil service laws cre- ated during that period served to protect the executive officers of publ ic agencies from political hiring and firing, thereby somewhat insulating them from political influence. I n recent times, there has been a growing concern that some public agencies have become too removed from t he influence of the elected representatives of the people. To some extent, this has promoted a retur n to political involvement in the hiring and firing of criminal justice administrators. The long-term civil service protection is being replaced with short-term contracts that hold criminal justice department heads more accountable to elected officials. Evolutionary Modifications to the Original Organization Functions Concep ts Wilson’s “closed systems” view certainly has been modified duri ng and subsequent to the Open Systems era. In 1966, Katz and Kahn asserted that all social systems are open sy stems, in that they gain their in- put of energies from the outside environment, convert these energies int o outputs through a process of internal functions, and return the energies to the environment, where th ey energize additional inputs (Katz and Kahn 1966). Figure 7.1 Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes for “Mentally” Retrie ving Historic Key Concepts and Terms Relating to Organization Functions Client-Oriented Eclectic Perspective Employee Relations Open Systems Social Equity Organization Functions Evolutionary Modifications to the Original Organization Functions Concep ts 135 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 135 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 135 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 In the Social Equity era, H. George Frederickson wrote that the “new public administration seeks not only to carry out legislative mandates as efficiently and economical ly as possible, but to both influ- ence and execute policies which more generally improve the quality of li fe for all.” Frederickson foresaw a political system in which “elected officials would speak for the ma jority, and the courts and public administrators would be protective of the interest of the disadvantaged minorities” (1971, 75). During this same period, Vincent Ostrom proposed a theory of “democratic adm inistration,” stating that public administrators must serve the individual consumer of public goods and th at services must not be strictly guided by elected officials (Ostrom 1974). During the transition into the Client-Oriented era, George P. Barbour co nverted the In Search of Excel- lence work of Peters and Waterman regarding “Closeness to the Citizenry” (Peters and Waterman, 1982) to the public sector by writing that this criterion included public agen cies establishing and maintaining a variety of close links with citizens and being sensitive and responsive to public input (Barbour 1984). Additionally, old concepts have been integrated into current approaches. For example, Frederick Taylor’s “Scientific Management” concept that there is a best w ay to perform any given task and the job of the administrator is to scientifically find the one best way still pr evails today. Taylor’s recommenda- tions are found today in time and motion studies, approaches to maximizi ng skills of employees and replacing traditional methods of assessing work accomplishments with sys tematic and more scientific methods of measuring and managing. Basic Concepts for Today’s Application We begin the discussion of the application process with the acronym POSDCORB (planning, organiz- ing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, budgeting), suggeste d by Gulick and Urwick (Gulick and Hyde 1937, 1–45). Planning is the first administrative activity that must be accomplished before any of the other activities are put into motion. There must be some thinking ah ead when designing an agency, or in deciding the future direction of an existing agency, by executive officers. Even when becoming an administrator, one must plan for promotion. POSDCORB is a classic model that describes the major functions of an org anization and how they should be applied. More recently, it has been expanded to POSTBECPIRD ( planning, organizing, staff- ing, training, budgeting, equipment, coordination, public information, r eporting, directing) for policing (Holcomb 1961, 77). The original terms will be discussed here, however . Planning involves preparing for the future, both short and long range. Planning ranges from the first-line supervisor, who plans the daily activities of her personnel, to the top executive, who plans the long-range goals involved in accomplishing the organization’s mission . Plans can be reactive (immediate reactions to a crisis that just occurred), contingent (prepared in advance for unusual situations), opera- tional (for routine activities such as daily allocation of personnel), or strategic (long-range plans that lead to the accomplishment of the overall mission). Organizing is the arrangement of tasks into subsystems to achieve the goals and obj ectives. It involves the division of labor, which will be discussed later in this chapter. It deals with creating a formal structure to facilitate the work of the enterprise. The desired end result is to h ave a structure that facilitates the coordination of all activity toward the accomplishment of the agency’ s mission, in the most efficient and effective manner. The “principles” of bureaucracy established by M ax Weber are all part of establishing an organization. Staffing involves the selecting, hiring, and training of employees, and it is co nsidered part of the Employee Relations theme. Directing is communicating orders in writing and orally to channel the efforts of the employees to- ward the achievement of goals and objectives. It involves establishing policies, procedures, and rules that guide employees in performing their tasks. Plans cannot result in succes s unless they are communicated to those given the responsibilities of carrying them out. From the top e xecutive, who communicates the strategic plans throughout the agencies, to the supervisors, who tell th eir employees what to do and how to do it, directions are necessary at every level of the organization. 136 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 136 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 136 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 COordination includes overseeing the work of all employees for which an administrato r is responsible so that work efforts complement one another, friction between activities is eliminated, and a synergistic combination of activities results. In also includes coordination of inte rnal efforts with outside entities that have an “open systems” impact on the achievement of the organ izational goals. Reporting involves keeping essential information flowing throughout the organizat ion both orally and in writing. It certainly involves directing but also must include fe edback that allows information to go up and across, as well as down, in an organization. It also involves the communication of important information to those outside the organization with whom coordination and support are important. Budgeting entails financial planning that ensures the funds necessary to carry ou t organizational activities and, once a budget is approved, making sure that operational activities are conducted within the approved plan. Progressing into the 21st century, economic downturn continues to make budgeting approaches of prime concern. Today, financial planning consists of: Line-item budgets include all those items that are needed yearly to operate the agency. T hey include everything from employee salaries to basic stationery. This is the most common type of budgeting and includes a line for every item of cost needed to function for a fisc al year. Normally, each item can be taken from the previous year’s budget and adjusted to cover the co st for the current year. Capital budgets involve large items, such as a new building, for which financing commit ments are required for more than one year. Often contractors must be hired and req uire continuing financing during the years that it takes to complete the project. This means that the funding authority must allocate funding for several years in the future. Since public funds dep end on fiscal year revenues, the commitment must be made based on predictions of future revenue. Recent e conomic woes make funding authorities more cautious when committing future funding. Planned program budgeting systems (PPBS) are a type of budgeting that Allen Schick proposed during the Open Systems era (Schick 1966). His approach is a reminder of how administrators must refocus on basic Organization Functions during economic decline, which was the c ase in the mid-1960s and is currently the case. Schick spotlighted three developments that influence budgeting in public agencies: 1. Economic analysis—macro and micro—has an increasing part in the sh aping of fiscal and budgetary policy. 2. The development of new informational and decisional technologies has enl arged the ap- plicability of objective analysis to policy making. 3. There has been a gradual convergence of planning and budgetary processes (Schick 1966). PPBS basically forces the entities within an organization to set and be accountable for measurable objec- tives and to provide information as to how these objectives converge to achieve the overall goals of the agency. In many cases, the documentation required in this approach made it unworkable. However, the basic idea of integrated financial accountability is interwoven into today’s budgeting. Often, some form of PPBS is required when agencies request funds for a new program o r to enlarge the size of the agency. PPBS requires that program objectives and methods of measuring a chievements be defined. Zero-based budgeting , first introduced by Peter Pyhrr in 1977, is yet another reminder of ho w administrators must turn their attention to basics during periods of dec reasing financial support (Pyhrr 1977). The mid-1970s saw a nationwide tax revolt that resulted in a dynamic decrease in public financing. Pyhrr’s approach required agencies to create and justify a new budget each year. The line-item budget was eliminated, and every item required to run an agenc y had to be justified anew. This type of budgeting also “died of its own weight,” especially a s the economy improved; however, zero-based budgeting has resurfaced during the current economic downturn . During these periods, agencies are often directed to prepare “what if” budgets detailing what they would do if their budgets were reduced by 5%, 10%, or 20%, and how essential programs would contin ue to function under such reductions. Additionally, sunset clause requirements were ushered i n during this period. These clauses require a set time by which the requesting agency must prove the worth of the funding or the financing will be discontinued. Basic Concepts for Today’s Application 137 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 137 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 137 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 “Principles” of Bureaucracy Max Weber is known as the “father of the bureaucratic model.” His “Bureaucracy” (first published in German in 1922 and translated into English in 1946) still provides a ba sic understanding of today’s hierarchical organizational structures. Although his concepts and theori es are sometimes criticized, they remain, through updating and enhancing, a solid platform from which crim inal justice administration functions today.Bureaucratic organizations vary substantially from rigid (such as milit ary departments) to more flexible agencies (such as citizen’s committees and community groups ). Even Warren Bennis, who in 1967 proclaimed an end to bureaucracy in 25 years, has more recently sta ted that certain forms of it are necessary (Bennis 1967). In 1988, Chandler and Plano wrote that “de spite the possibility of abuse, the hierarchical principle remains a key to governmental operations in the U nited States on all levels and provides the means by which a democratic society can keep its bureaucrat s accountable” (Chandler and Plano 1988, 155). It also should be remembered that Herbert Simon cautioned that what Webe r called principles should be regarded as “proverbs” or guides because in applying the m over time, room for variations and enhancement must be allowed (Simon 1946). It is with these histori cal thoughts in mind that the applications of the basic concepts are discussed. In 1929, Henri Fayol d ocumented Weber’s concepts of bureaucracy in Industrial and General Management (Fayol 1929). Fayol’s Principles of Management 1. Division of work. Work specialization can increase efficiency with the same amount of effo rt. However, there is a limit to how much work should be specialized. 2. Authority and responsibility. Authority includes both the right to command the power and to require obedience; one cannot have authority without responsibility. 3. Discipline. Discipline is necessary for an organization to function effectively; how ever, the state of the disciplinary process depends on the quality of its leaders. 4. Unity of command. An employee should receive orders from one superior only. 5. Unity of direction. There should be one manager and one plan for a group of activities that have the same objective. 6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest. The interests of one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over those of the organization a s a whole. 7. Remuneration of personnel. Compensation should be fair to both the employee and the employer. 8. Centralization. The proper amount of centralization or decentralization depends on the s ituation. The objective is to pursue the optimum utilization of the capabilities o f personnel. 9. Scalar chain. The scalar chain, or hierarchy of authority, is the order of rank from t he highest to the lowest levels in the organization; it defines the path of communicat ion. Besides this vertical communication, horizontal communication should also be encouraged, as lo ng as the managers in the chain are kept informed. 10. Order. Materials and human resources should be in the right place at the right time; individuals should be in jobs or positions most suited for them. 11. Equity. Employees should be treated with kindness and justice. 12. Stability of personnel tenure. An employee needs time to adjust to a new job and reach a point of satisfactory performance; high turnover should be avoided. 13. Initiative. The ability to conceive and execute a plan (through initiative and free dom) should be encouraged and developed throughout all levels of the organization. 14. Esprit de corps. Since “union [unity] is strength,” harmony and teamwork are essent ial to effective organizations. Source: Adapted from Fayol, H. 1929. Industrial and General Management. Trans. by C. Storrs. London: Pitman & Sons. 138 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 138 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 138 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Authority and Responsibility Authority and responsibility are the first concepts to be discussed. The top executive officers of c riminal justice agencies must have received authority and responsibility from so me higher power if they are to carry out the mission of their agencies. The chief of police or sheriff, for example, will take an oath of office upon being appointed to his or her position. The United States is a republic form of government wherein the majority rule by vote or through their elected officials. Wh en the heads of criminal justice agencies take the oath, they are given “police power” from the peo ple to carry out the will of the majority regarding the services of their agencies. This is a critical issue for administrators to understand. The chief exe cutive, on taking the oath of office, is responsible for the conduct and efforts of everyone in his or her agency. For example, after the New York terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, during the U.S. Sen ate hearings regarding the government’s response to the attack, there was a motion to fire the d irector of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) because the FBI failed to prevent the disaster. Fo rtunately, the Senate did not follow through on the motion because the director at the time had only held tha t office for several weeks. In 2006, the head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was f orced to resign because of failures of that agency to properly handle the hurricane disaster in the New Orleans area. Every year, police chiefs and corrections wardens lose their jobs because of the fai lure of their employees to prop- erly carry out the public missions of their agencies. It was O. W. Wilso n who further defined police executive accountability: Although he may free himself of the actual performance of the tasks invo lved, a superior officer cannot rid himself of an iota of responsibility for their accomplishment. He delega tes to subordinates the authority to perform the tasks, and he may tell those subordinates that they are r esponsible for a successful conclu- sion of the assignment; but he remains accountable for its final accompl ishment. (Wilson 1963, 35) Once chief executives have received the overall authority and responsibi lity for their agencies, they may delegate certain tasks to lower-level personnel. However, they alway s retain the overall accountability for the agencies. As delegation occurs down the chain, each lower-level administrator must be given the appropriate power to command. They must be able to apply both positive a nd negative discipline, as needed, so that they can accomplish the tasks for which they are being h eld responsible. They, in turn, are held accountable to their higher-level administrators. As shown in Figure 7.2, there is an increase in responsibility, power, and salary for individuals as they advance up the administrative hierarchy. Figure 7.2 Organization Pyramid of Hierarchical Levels Increase in N umb e r of Emplo yees Increa se in Aut hority Executive administrators Middle-level administrators First-level supervisors Line employees “Principles” of Bureaucracy 139 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 139 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 139 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Conversely, there are larger numbers of personnel at the lower levels of the pyramid, where the mission of the organization is actually carried out. Unity of Command and Unity of Direction Unity of command and unity of direction are related to authority and responsibility. Basically, these concepts mean that employees should receive direction from and be respon sible to just one person. These concepts (as with other principles) have been altered over time, but t he basic approach remains. For example, an employee who is officially assigned to one supervisor might work on a special task force for another supervisor. However, when it comes to the overall responsibility and evaluation of the employee, the assigned superior officer is responsible. (Comments of the task for ce supervisor should be included in the employee’s evaluation.) Control is another concept that comes into play in holding employees res ponsible. Gulick and Hyde defined “control” in The Science of Administration, and their definition was described by O. W. Wilson as an important component of police administration: Control consists in seeing that everything is carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the organization which has been set up, and the orders which ha ve been given … Control is in a sense the consequence of command in action. Authority cannot be del egated safely without this check and hence the rule: Every delegation of authority should be accomp anied by a commensurate placing of responsibility. (Wilson 1963, 109–110) Inspection and Control Inspection and control are often used together because in order for admi nistrators to have control over what their employees are doing, they must have some way of assessing the activities of the employees. To inspect or to have firsthand observation of employee activities is the m ost common method of control. At every level of an organization, administrators have employees reporti ng directly to them. The chief executive has the administrators at the next level of the organization r eporting to him or her as well as support personnel. This extends down to the first-line supervisor, who d irects the daily activity of the line employees. Each level of administrators must inspect and evaluate the pe rformances of their employees. This is referred to as line inspection, meaning the inspection of those directly in the line of supervision of (directly reporting to) every administrator. In larger departments, there often exist “inspection and control” entities that inspect the activities of employees who do not directly report to those doing the inspecting. Thes e are special units or divisions that report directly to the chief executive or another high-level admini strator. These types of inspections are called staff inspections, and the observations of the inspectors are reported to the high-level admin- istrators to whom they are assigned. The author (as a captain of police) served in such a capacity for the then chief of police in what was called a “duty chief” position. The assignment was for the duty ch ief to be in the field during the hours when the chief of police was not officially available and to observe fir sthand how field personnel were performing. Except in emergencies, observations made when in this positi on were only reported back to the chief of police, who would discuss them with the next level in comma nd. Any need for corrections would be communicated down through the chain of command for appropriate action. In this manner, the chief of police could assess how directions that he was providing we re actually being carried out. The experience of being present when the chief gave directions, then hearing the interpretation of these direc- tions at precinct roll call the following day, was quite revealing. The weakness of directives being altered and misinterpreted as they progress down through the chain of command ca used the chief to implement a televised broadcast of him giving important directives for viewing at roll call by line officers. Span of Control Span of control is still another concept connected with control. It refe rs to the number of subordinates who report to any one administrator. This concept recognizes that there is a limit to the number of 140 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 140 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 140 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 employees that a supervisor can be assigned and expected to properly man age. In 1937, Gulick and Hyde wrote, “No superior can supervise directly the work of more than five or, at the most, six subordinates whose work interlocks” (52–53).For years, the military listed seven employees as the appropriate number . Over time, however, it has been recognized that there is no set number. The number of employees dep ends on the complexities of the jobs each employee is assigned and their work location in relation t o the supervisor. For example, a supervisor may be assigned a larger number of employees if the employees are all doing the same type of work (say, filing documents) and are all located in one room with the supervisor. However, if each em- ployee is responding to a variety of work tasks and the employees are sp read out in different geographical areas (patrol officers, for example), then fewer employees may be assi gned to a supervisor. Additionally, a lesser number of employees should be assigned to a supervisor if the e mployees are new to the job or have been involved in some type of misconduct, in which case closer s upervision is needed. It is the responsibility of administrators to determine the appropriate span of co ntrol for their employees. Division of Work Division of work is important to any administrator who supervises two or more persons, which includes all administrators except those in a “one-person” agency. This con cept acknowledges that there is a limit to the work that any one person can do efficiently and that some type of delegation is often required. This requires administrators to determine a proper balance between too m uch work and not enough. Remember, the basic responsibility of an administrator is to ensure the effective and efficient accomplish- ment of the mission and to provide a work environment that satisfies the needs of the employee. The division of work can be divided into two categories: vertical divisi on and horizontal division. Vertical Division of Labor Vertical division of labor is the separation of functions into hierarchical levels based on author ity and responsibility. It is sometimes referred to as division by rank and supp orts the scalar chain and unity of command concepts. The three general levels of administration are: Executive administrators, who are responsible for setting the mission and overall goals of the ag encies (e.g., chiefs of police, wardens, chief probation officers, and their n ext levels of command). Middle administrators, who are responsible for establishing objectives that support directions from above and coordinating their execution (e.g., police captain and lieute nants and prison division commanders). First-line supervisors, who are responsible for overseeing the day-to-day activities of line em ployees and carrying out the directions of those at a higher level (e.g., police se rgeants and parole supervisors). Horizontal Division of Labor Horizontal division of labor is the assignment of work to individuals or units that have the same ra nk and authority and are on the same level in the hierarchy. At the top of the organization, the first order of horizontal division is to divide work into three general categories: operations, support/auxiliary, and administration/staff functions (Figure 7.3). Figure 7.3 Horizontal Division of Labor Executive Administrator Operations (80%) Administrative/staff (5%) Support/auxiliary (15%) “Principles” of Bureaucracy 141 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 141 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 141 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Operations personnel perform the major tasks that accomplish the mission of the ag ency, usually on a 24-hour-a-day basis. This is the largest part of an agency and usua lly is comprised of approximately 80% of the personnel (e.g., police patrol officers/detectives, parole/p robation officers, bailiffs, and cus- todial officers). Support/auxiliary personnel are responsible for supporting the day-to-day activities of t he operations personnel and usually comprise approximately 15% of the department. Wher eas most operations person- nel are “sworn” (have powers of arrest), the support or auxiliar y personnel are often “civilians” and are not given “peace officer” status. Examples of functions that come under this category are recordkeeping, communication, and property, and vehicle maintenance. Administrative or staff are personnel removed from the line functions with the responsibility t o prepare for the future and assist the executive officers with their resp onsibilities. They usually comprise 5% of the employees and are involved in such functions as planning; budg eting; the recruitment, selec- tion, and training of personnel; inspections; and administration of disc ipline (e.g., human resources and financial planning personnel). It might help to understand the reason for this type of division of labo r by comparing the responsibili- ties of the executive officer with a military general’s responsibilit ies in fighting a war. The general would deploy most of his or her personnel to fighting the battle (operations personnel). However, to win the war, the general must have support or auxiliary personnel manufacturing the ammunition, maintaining the equipment, and feeding the battlefield solders. Additionally, the ge neral must have administrative or staff personnel assisting in the planning of battle strategies, recru iting, and training solders to replace casualties and the wounded, and obtaining the financial support necessar y to win the war. So it is with the criminal justice administrator. Additional guides for division of labor are listed here to assist in further refinement o f work assignments. Task assignments involves grouping related activities into division or units. For exampl e, police op- erations can be divided into patrol and detective work. Detective work m ay be divided into “crimes against person” and “crimes against property.” Clientele division of labor relates to the “customers” or types of categori es of persons for which employees are responsible. For example, local jailers or probation/parol e officers may be separated into divisions that deal with felonies and others with misdemeanors. The police often have separate units that deal with juveniles and vice/narcotic offenders, for example. Area means separating work into territories such as patrol precincts and paro le or probation state or county districts. Time is the division of labor by time of day and day of the week. Any functi on that requires 24-hour- a-day deployment will need to be divided into weekly and monthly assignm ents that provide for daily divisions of work often called day, night, and morning watches. Specialization is a consideration in which there is a real need to fix responsibility for a particular func- tion or a need for specially trained personnel who are capable of handli ng a unique task. For example, some personnel may be removed from the patrol function to concentrate on traffic violations and accidents. In a detective division, certain personnel may be deployed to sex or narcotic crimes. When dividing work by specialties, some disadvantages must be considered . A major consideration is that those not assigned to the specialized task will decrease their effo rts in that activity. For example, if a special traffic unit is implemented, the regular patrol officers may c ease to look for traffic violations and even resist the taking of traffic reports. Another consideration is that specialization will fragment employee effo rts to achieve the overall mis- sion of the agency. The author, while an investigative division commandi ng officer, found detectives protecting prostitutes from arrest by vice officers because the prostitu tes were acting as informants for the detectives. When the author developed a special crime prevention unit, patrol officers were 142 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 142 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 142 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 noted to lose interest in the prevention aspects of their job, often ref erring interested citizens to the “crime prevention unit.” The concepts of bureaucracy are important in holding chief administrativ e personnel accountable to their governing power. In the private sector, a chief administrator is h eld accountable to the sharehold- ers for the success of the organization through the organization’s bo ard of officers. In the public sector, chief administrative officers are held accountable to the public for the success of their agency’s mission through the elected officials to which they report. Contemporary Modifications to Organization Functions Organization charts are useful in showing formal organization structures. Figure 7.4 A, B, and C are examples of contemporary organization charts. They display both the hori zontal and vertical division of labor as well as the scalar chain of command. As previously mentioned , the formal bureaucratic or- ganization structure often has been criticized for its inflexibility and mechanistic characteristics. Called the “paramilitary model,” it is questionable whether it is applica ble to criminal justice agencies, as their employees are not soldiers but are given a wide range of discretion. For example, patrol officers seldom work in groups; rather, most of their work is done individually or in pa irs. Only in extreme emergencies such as riots or other unusual occurrences do they respond as a paramili tary unit. Criticism of the bureaucratic models has been documented in a study by F ranz and Jones. In this study, which compared police employees working in a paramilitary structu re with other government employees working in a more flexible, organic organization, they found t hat police employees perceived (1) greater problems with communications, (2) lower levels of morale and organizational performance, and (3) greater amounts of distrust of management (Franz and Jones 19 87, 161). Mechanistic versus organic organization structures should be compared; the older bureaucratic structure (mechanistic) has become less popular with the more flexible bureaucratic structure (organic) becoming today’s preferred model (Table 7.1) . Figure 7.4 A Small Police Department Organization Chart Chief of Police Detectives Juvenile officer Patrol officers Patrol officers Patrol officers DARE officer Dispatcher Records staff Matron (part time) Captain Lieutenant (patrol) Lieutenant (detective) Sergeant (detective) Sergeant (patrol) Sergeant (patrol) Sergeant (patrol) Relief Sergeant (patrol) Source: http://www.yonkerspd.com Contemporary Modifications to Organization Functions 143 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 143 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 143 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Figure 7.4 Source: http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us B A Medium to Large Police Department Organization Chart Administrative services division Accreditation unit Mayor Fiscal servicesFleet services Medical control unit Property and evidence unit Community affairs division Anti-crime unit Courts division Emergency services unit administration Training division Special operations division Youth services division Detention services division Housing unit Office of emergency management 2nd precinct 1st precinct 3rd precinct 4th precinct Communications division Detective division Police commissioner Special projects Field services bureau Support services bureau Inspection services bureau C A State-Level Correctional Agency Organization Chart Laundry, food service, and supply Classification and records CI Division Office of Ombudsman Texas Board of Criminal Justice Mail system coordinators panelDisciplinary coordinationCounsel substitute Offender transportation Private facility contract oversight and monitoring Correctional training and staff development Plans and operations Safe prisons program Community Liaison Security systems Tracking canine coordinator Security threat group Region II Region I Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Executive Director Deputy Executive Director Correctional Institutions Division Director Deputy Director Prison and Jail Operations Deputy Director Management Operations Deputy Director Support Operations 144 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 144 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 144 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM 2/3/12 11:02:58 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Mechanistic structures exemplify the old bureaucratic organization, whic h is characterized by a rigid design with many rules and regulations, centralized control and decision making, and strict hierarchical channels of communication. Directions and interaction are vertical, and terms such as “superior” and “subordinate personnel” are used. Is there a need for such a struc ture today? If the following situations exist, the answer is yes: 1. Employees are relatively inexperienced and unskilled. 2. Employees have strong needs for security and stability. 3. The technology is relatively stable and involves standardized materials and a programmable task. 4. The environment is fairly calm and relatively simple. (Porter, Lawler, and Hackman 1975, 272) Additionally, the mechanistic type of structure may be appropriate if th ere is a need for strong control and close supervision, as when misconduct and corruption have to be elim inated from an organization entity. The modes of policing have evolved from the watchman to the prof essional/legalistic to the client- oriented style of today. It should, however, be acknowledged that some l aw enforcement agencies are still operating in the watchman or professional/legalistic mode. The cla ssical mechanistic system was the model of preference during the professional/legalistic era, and there ar e situations that require a return to the more rigid form of administration. Organic systems, however, are better able to facilitate today’s crimi nal justice administration. Organic systems work best in the following situations: 1. Employees have relatively high skills that are widely distributed. 2. Employees have high self-esteem and strong needs for achievement, autono my, and self- actualization. 3. The technology is rapidly changing, nonroutine, and involves many nonpro grammable tasks. 4. The environment is relatively dynamic and complex. (Porter et al., 1975 , 272) 7.1 Characteristics of Mechanistic and Organic Systems Organizational Characteristics Mechanistic Organic Division of work Narrow, specialized tasks General tasks Performance of tasks Specific, unless changed by managersAdjustable, although there is interaction with others involved in the task Communication Mainly verticalVertical and horizontal Communication content Instructions and decisions issued by superiorsInformation and advice Decision making Mainly centralized Mainly decentralized Span of control NarrowWide Levels of authority ManyFew Quantity of formal rules ManyFew Position-based authority HighLow Source: Adapted from T. Burns & G. M. Stalker (1961). The Management of Innovation, pp. 119–122. London: Tavistock. R. M. Howser & J. W. Lorsch (1967). J.A. Seiler (1 976). Systems Analysis in Organi- zational Behavior. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contemporary Modifications to Organization Functions 145 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 145 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 145 2/8/12 9:59:15 AM 2/8/12 9:59:15 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Today’s communities certainly fit the situation in number 4, as they are “relatively dynamic and complex.” This is why today’s criminal administration involves the delegation of more discretion to employees and the recruitment of educated and motivated employees who ar e better able to cope with changing cultural and technological situations. Tall and flat hierarchical structures, shown in Figure 7.5, relate to mechanistic and organic organi- zation designs. Tall structures are associated with many hierarchical levels, long chain s of command, and small spans of control, allowing closer supervision and control. This structur e is associated with the mechani- cal organization and embodies the classic principles of bureaucracy. Flat structures broaden the span of control, reduce hierarchical levels, and allow for more discretion and less supervision. They also shorten the scalar chain, therefore spee ding communications and decision making. This form is most often associated with the organic system. Realistically, many departments today are both organic and mechanistic i n nature. An agency that may be considered organic may have the need for some subdivisions to ope rate more mechanically if one of the four situations previously listed calls for such an approach. For example, if corruption is discovered within an agency’s entity, a more mechanistic approach may be needed to ensure tighter supervision and control. Matrix structures are becoming more prevalent. In the latter part of the 1980s, the author, as chief of police of the Santa Ana Police Department, was involved in a reorgani zation that resulted in a “three- dimensional” organizational structure. This reorganization, called “ Matrix Community-Oriented Polic- ing (MiCOP) ,” arranged the department into specialized forces capable of confron ting problems from different perspectives (see Figure 7.6). MiCOP represents a three-dimensional organizational structure approach in which many functions interact to share responsibilities in r esolving neighborhood problems (Swanson, Territo, and Taylor 1993, 154–155). With the development of the Employee Relations, Open Systems, Social Equ ity, and Client-Oriented themes, the basic bureaucratic structure remained but experienced many e nhancements and customiza- tions. Developing an Eclectic Perspective provides insight into these ev olutionary changes and enables administrators to apply the most appropriate concepts to a given situati on. Figure 7.5 Tall and Flat Organizational Structures Tall organizations More mechanistic More Theory X More control Small span of control Longer chain of command Tall structure Flat structure Flat organizations More organic More Theory Y More delegation Larger span of control Shorter chain of command 146 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 146 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 146 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Examples of Contemporary Applications Law enforcement will serve here as the prime example of the application of the Organization Functions theme concepts. Today, police number more than 850,000 in the United Sta tes and make up the largest segment of the criminal justice system. Additionally, most police admini stration applications are similar to applications in the administration of the courts and corrections.At the executive level, tasks must be divided among a number of entities in all but the smallest of agencies. Using the three major divisions of labor, most police agencies are divided as discussed in the following sections. Operations Operations make up 70 to 80% of the department. In law enforcement agenc ies, patrol normally com- prises 60 to 70% of the department and detectives about 10 to 20% of the department. The division of these two functions relates to the task that each performs. In smaller d epartments, all personnel below the rank of captain are devoted to operations functions. In a slightly l arger department, these functions are called “field services.” In correctional institutions, this di vision of labor is often called “prison and jail operations.” Patrol This function involves the personnel who carry out the general mission o f the agency. Patrol may be divided by: Time. Patrol officers are assigned to various times of the day, often called w atches or shifts. Tradition- ally, officers are assigned to eight-hour shifts, commonly called day, n ight, and morning watches. More recently, a number of agencies have done 10–12 hour shifts, with officers having more days off each deployment period. Figure 7.6 Matrix Community-Oriented Policing Organization Structure (Santa Ana P. D. Reorganization; Refer to the Relevant Publication in Chapter 11) Attack teams Team officers ABCD ABCD Sergeant Sergeant Team officers Team officers Team officers Sergeant Sergeant Team officers Team officers Team officers Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant Watch I (AM) commander Watch II (PM) commander Watch III (PM) commander SergeantTeam officers Team officers Team officers Traffic enforcement Crime prevention Investigations Sergeant Sergeant Team officers Team officers Foot patrol Community center Attack teams Foot patrol Community center Attack teams Foot patrol Community center Area commanders Attackteams Foot patrol Community center COP Coordination Chief of Police and Division Commanders coordinate with COP president and area chairpersons. Watch commanders coordinate with COP area boards. Area commanders coordinate with COP area boards. Support Functions Crime prevention specialists assigned by area. Traffic enforcement assigned by area. Property crimes assigned by area. Contemporary Modifications to Organization Functions 147 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 147 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 147 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Areas. Depending on the size of the agencies, patrol officers may be divided in to geographic divisions, often called precincts or stations, which are decentralized from the mai n headquarters. The follow- ing is a typical deployment formula for assigning personnel to various p recincts. The percentage of officers assigned to each precinct equates to the percentage of the fact ors in the formula as calculated from census track statistics. Patrol Deployment Formula Calls for service Crime Traffic accidents Property loss Population Street miles Population density Specialization. Depending on local needs, some patrol officers may be designated as Traf fic Officers to concentrate on traffic enforcement, direction, and accidents. Task force s are sometimes required for special needs such as drunk driving enforcement (DUI) and special weap ons and tactics (SWAT). Detective or Investigator These assignments usually occur in agencies of 25 or more. Small departm ents may designate an officer to work part-time on investigative activities. Detectives are responsibl e for follow-up investigations of the more serious crimes (most preliminary investigations are conducted by patrol officers) and preparing cases for court often based on arrests made by patrol officers. Time. Detectives are most often assigned during regular business hours when th e court is open, but they sometimes have night watches. Many precincts often have some detect ives on call during non- business hours. Area. As with patrol, if the jurisdiction is large enough, precinct stations a re developed and detectives are assigned usually according to workload studies. Table 7.2 shows a typical detective deployment formula that is developed from time and motion studies. Often, however, specialized detective work, such as homicide investigations, remains centralized in one division at headquarters. Specialization. As a detective division expands, further division of labor will be requi red. The first separation usually occurs by dividing crime investigation into (1) cri mes against persons (murder, robbery, assault) and (2) crimes against property (burglaries and th efts). Clientele. Assigning detectives to specialize in cases involving juveniles would fa ll into this category of division of labor. Forming special vice, narcotic, or gang details mi ght fall within this category, as well as specialization. Auxiliary or Staff These positions refer to those functions that support the op- erations personnel but are not considered to be directly carry- ing out the mission of the agency. These functions comprise ap- proximately 15% of an agency, and in law enforcement, they are generally performed by civilian employees as opposed to those 7.2 Detective Deployment Formula Crime Only Arrest Only Complaints Homicide 38.1 12.0 67.9 Robbery 3.3 5.6 10.9 Burglary 1.9 3.5 8.3 Auto theft 0.8 2.9 6.6 148 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 148 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 148 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 “sworn” and trained to enforce the law (such as most operations p ersonnel). Division of labor generally is by task. Communications. This is the entity that receives calls from the public and dispatches po lice person- nel. Often called the “9 1 1” function after the number to call for emergency service in the Uni ted States, it functions as the first contact most people have with the poli ce department. Current efforts to reduce the workload for police personnel have caused the creation of innovative ways to handle public needs without sending a patrol car, such as taking minor crime re ports over the telephone. Consequently, for a growing number of callers, communication personnel a re the only contact they have with the police department. The public often forms their opinion of law enforcement from their first contact, so it is important for administrators to realize that com munication personnel have a significant impact on the reputation of their agency. With the continual advancements in command and control technology, administrators must keep abreast of current tech nological trends. Recordkeeping. This entity is responsible for classifying, filing, and indexing crimina l records that must be considered confidential and protected from misuse. Today, many o f these records are auto- mated and many of the employees must be technologically trained. In addi tion to supporting criminal justice personnel with information, the Freedom of Information Act (197 4) allows citizens to access their own records and places certain restrictions on the recordkeeping o f personal information by which the Records Division must abide. Jail. Most police departments have some type of arrestee-holding facilities. L arger departments have jail divisions for the temporary custody of unarraigned misdemeanor and felony prisoners. Police departments have many of the administrative challenges that are traditio nally in the correction system. Jail employees also must be concerned with the feeding and medical atten tion of prisoners as well as ensuring their custody. Property control. This is the entity that has custody of evidence as well as recovered los t property. Court proceedings require that evidence be inventoried and protected fro m contamination. Addition- ally, some property is of high value and must be protected from theft. A lso, provisions must be made for perishable property to be preserved, and often property must be main tained for many years. Vehicle maintenance. Because operational personnel must be highly mobile, the purchasing and maintenance of vehicles is an important function. Personnel in this func tion need to be specially trained in the skills necessary for these assignments. Crime laboratory. With the development of DNA and other forensic technology, the crime lab oratory has become an increasingly important part of police work. Placing it out side the chain-of-command of an operation’s administrators is important, so that there is no su spicion that laboratory personnel are pressured to falsify their findings by those responsible for the sol ving of crime. Employees in these functions most often have special education in the various fields of sci ence and are not law enforcement officers. Because of the cost of these personnel and the scientific equi pment, crime laboratories often are consolidated at a district, state, or federal level by local law enf orcement agencies. This function also may be considered a specialization. Building maintenance. Police stations must be clean and maintained. Some agencies have their o wn custodial personnel and building repair personnel. Generally, however, f or most police agencies, these tasks are handled by other governmental (or private) agencies th at provide these services for a number of public facilities. Administrative or Staff Functions These are the functions that rely on planning ahead and involve approxim ately 5% of the department. They involve those activities that are generally thought of as being the direct responsibility of the chief of police and other top executive administrators. In fact, in smaller agenc ies, these activities are performed by the top executives. Again, these functions are divided by task and sp ecialization. Contemporary Modifications to Organization Functions 149 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 149 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 149 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Budgeting. Ensuring financial support for the future of the agency ultimately is th e responsibility of the chief of police. In larger departments, however, personnel are desig nated to support the chief in planning, implementing, and controlling the budget. Planning and research. Larger departments have personnel assigned to these functions full-time. They develop both long- and short-range plans as directed and often are respo nsible for the department manual and the writing of department policies, procedures, and rules. Inspection and control. This is another function for which all administrators are responsible, b ut in larger agencies, certain personnel are assigned to conduct staff inspect ions for the chief of police to provide for proper control. Internal affairs. This is another function that is a responsibility of all administrators (ensuring proper employee conduct). Special entities may be established to assist the chief in overseeing the overall conduct of department personnel, including the investigation of major accusations of misconduct. Human resources. This involves the recruitment, selection, and training of future employe es. Personnel are “the lifeblood” of the organization. Frederick Taylo r (1916), in “Principles of Scientific Management,” stressed the importance of choosing the right person for each job. The subdividing of labor within this function is usually made on the basis of the tasks of recrui tment/selection and training. Trends in Organization Functions In 2006, Garth Morgan wrote, We are shifting from a world dominated by bureaucratic-mechanistic princ iples into an electronic universe where new organizational logics are required. The intense theor etical and practical innovation is part of the transition and, given the fluid, self-organizing nature o f a world dominated by electronic media, is likely to remain so. (27)He goes on to describe the task of today’s administrators: This poses enormous challenges for any person wishing to stay abreast of new developments and cope with the flux in a positive way. Managers have to get beneath the surfac e and understand what is hap- pening at a deeper level. Instead of being buffeted by the latest theori es and trends, they need to be able to develop and take their own position. (Morgan 2006, 364) Taking “their own position” required the ability to “mix and ma tch” concepts from the five themes of the Contextual Themes Model and develop approaches that are customize d for current situations. Some of the criminal justice Eclectic Perspective approaches that should be considered include: enhance bureaucracy to allow for more flexibility promote (client) community involvement emphasize methods of preventing crime and disorder provide consultative supervision that gains employment input in making p olicies and final decisions make use of modern budget and accounting systems consider the art of administration as much as, if not more than, the sci ence thereof In a police futurist international and futures working group, futurist B ernard Levin, EdD, said of the typical police hierarchy, Policing is an industrial-age, linear, hierarchical, centralized, specia lized, and tradition-bound en- terprise. It is paramilitary, having adopted the least functional charac teristics of the military (e.g., command, hierarchy, tradition and rigid structure) while abandoning the most vital characteristics of the military (e.g., quality training, research, team orientation, leade rship development, and mission/ values consciousness. (Bernard 2007, 2) 150 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 150 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 150 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 He went on to state that social networking is increasingly important in a global community where jurisdictions and crime are morphing and as crime increasingly crosses c ountries’ borders, such as with child pornography. Different networks have developed to give officers ac cess to other officers around the world. Some of these networks are formal, sanctioned functions of de partments or governments, and others are informal networks through which thousands of officers fro m around the world share information and link with officers dealing with similar problems” (B ernard 2007). In a 2010 article titled “Efficiency-Led Management,” Pinellas Cou nty Sheriff Captain Gary Schobel (2010) writes that considering the country’s current financial cris is, “the Efficiency-Led Management (ELM) system provides a guide for exploring current operational functi ons and serves as a foundation for developing new ideas leading to efficient operations (note that eff iciency was a founding goal of Or- ganization Functions)” (27). ELM has three phases: audit, strategy development and implementation, and assessment. In a 2010 interview, Sarah Miller Caldicott, great-grandniece of Thomas Edison and coauthor of Innovate Like Edison , proclaimed that the primary reason for recent change is the transition from the Industrial Age to the Information Age. She further stated, “Informati on is not yet knowledge. Organiza- tions will be charged with taking information sets, looking for patterns , and creating products or services through innovation.” She named the following additional factors (Swi tzer 2010): increasing complexity in the world, which is shrinking the decision-maki ng horizon to three years or fewer social networking, which allows individuals to find real expertise faste r the Gen X and Gen Y mind-sets have been acculturated with technology, so cial networking, and a high level of visual stimulation, which gives them access to real- time information and enables faster decision making a deeper culture that emphasizes learning and flexibility in light of th e developing supercom- puting capacity that allows organizations to get information faster, eve n from the field. Regarding traditional police organizations, Caldicott said, “When you have complex decisions, you have to go higher up the organization. You lose a lot when you have to g o to the top of the pyramid to get a decision. Information, knowledge, and passion is lost along the way” (Switzer 2010, 100). She recom- mended that organizations need to be flatter to make faster decisions an d speedy innovations (102). Current Status of Applying Organization Functions to Contemporary Criminal Justice Agencies With such headlines as “Cutbacks Force Police to Curtail Calls of Som e Crimes” (USA TODAY, August 25, 2010), “Police Chiefs Feel Pinch of Budget Cuts” (Washington Post, October 2, 2010), and “Dwin- dling Budgets Have Police Departments Worried” (National Public Radi o, October 6, 2010), criminal justice agencies are once again being forced to revisit basic Organizati on Functions concepts. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources,” the Relevant Publication for this chapter, describes how police agencies revisited and enhanced Organization Functions key concep ts in the 1970s and 1980s when faced with an economical decline and tax-reducing legislation. Such approaches as revamping patrol and detective deployment, leasing vs. buying equipment, and prior ity management of radio calls are discussed in this publication. Current financial woes are resulting in the revisiting of budgeting appr oaches introduced during prior economical setbacks. For example, Los Angeles Police Department Chief William Bratton used a planned program budgeting system approach to gain city council approva l for an additional 1,000 officers from 2006 to 2010, when Los Angeles was millions of dollars in debt. An article titled “Doing More with Less: Policing the City of Los Angeles During a Recession” describes how Bratton got approval of a trash disposal tax increase to cover the hiring of additional offic ers. He offered a program with the measurable objective of crime reduction, which would result in additiona l city revenue by increasing new businesses, new residents, and tourism because of a safer city (Gas ior 2010). Additionally, many Current Status of Applying Organization Functions to Contemporary Crimi nal Justice Agencies 151 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 151 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 151 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 criminal justice agencies are being asked to include which reductions t hey would propose if they were to have their budgets reduced by a set percentage. These are examples of Pl anned Program and Zero-Based Budgeting systems being applied to today’s economical conditions.A 2010 article by Paul LaCommare, West Covina (California) Police Depa rtment Commander, titled “Generating New Revenue Streams” offers some ways to raise revenue to compensate for shrinking budgets. His recommendations include: fees for sex offenders registering in a given jurisdiction pay-per-calls policing vacation house check fees state and court fees for all convicted felons returning to the community allowing agency names to be used for advertisement and branding tax or fee on all alcohol and ammunition sold in a city selling ride-alongs to the public police department–run firearm safety classes and charging the public for use of police firing range LaCommare cautions that these fees, of course, must be “weighed again st the feasibility of imple- mentation, profit potential, and appropriateness for law enforcement inv olvement” (23). He goes on to state that regarding the future, To be successful and meet law enforcement’s responsibility to the pub lic, several factors must be achieved. Police executives must be willing to adapt to the demands of the externa l environment in their respective cities, which likely are navigating their own financial crises. Law enfo rcement has a clear responsibil- ity to meet financial challenges to provide for the safety and security of communities. Executives must be knowledgeable about the rapidly changing environment and adapt their organizations to meet the challenges. The alternative of generating new revenue streams is a viabl e, responsible option that will allow law enforcement to continue to provide excellent service to the pu blic. (LaCommare 2010, 24) Even though Warren Bennis in 1967 predicted the demise of bureaucracy in 25–50 years, today it still exists. In speaking about his latest book, Bennis said, “Early on, I felt that bureaucracy was doomed and that is something flattering” (Bennis 2009), but he goes on to acknowledge that it is still a mainstay of organizations today, even though it survives with many modifications. Today’s criminal justice ad- ministrators still abide by many of the early Organization Functions pri nciples but now treat them as “guides” rather than rules. Today’s hieratical bureaucracy is much more organic and flat and must be flexible to the ever-changing environment. This chapter discussed POSDCORB as a reminder of the Organization Functi ons “guides” that are still followed today. The P stands as a reminder that planning precedes most everything in administ ration. Besides the regular planning, emergency plans have always been a functio n of administration. These are plans that must be in place for disasters that may never occur. Howe ver, when they do occur (major earthquakes, floods, fires, and riots are a few examples), agency mobil ization plans must be in place. In the past decade, plans for terrorist attacks have become a requirement. In 2009, the world was reminded of yet another threat—the threat of an influenza pandemic (a virus t hat spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of human populations)—with the spread of the H1N1 “swine” flu. Today’s criminal justice administrators would be well advised to have plans for such a public health emergency. According to Police Executive Research Forum report (PERF, 2 010), “A pandemic flu has the potential to cause more death, illness, and social and economic disr uption than most other threats faced by law enforcement.” The Critical Issues in Policing Report (PERF 2010) provides the following guides for developing plans for an influenza pandemic: 1. Identify the department planning team 2. Gather information and resources 3. Develop plan components that ensure continuity of operations 152 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 152 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 152 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 4. Communications prior to and during an influenza pandemic 5. Planning for activation 6. Planning for recovery 7. Exercise and update plan It should be noted that this planning process is much the same as planni ng for a terrorist attack. The Organization Functions concepts discussed here have involved many la w enforcement examples. Most of these evolving concepts apply to court and corrections administr ation as well. Key Concepts and Terms POSDCORB Line-item, capital, PPBS, and zero-based budgeting “Principles” of Organization Authority and responsibility Unity of command and unity of direction Client-Oriented Eclectic Perspective Employee Relations Open Systems Social Equity Organization Functions Figure 7.7 Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes for “Mentally” Filing Additional Contemporary Key Concepts and Terms Relating to the Organization Function Theme Key Concepts and Terms 153 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 153 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 153 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 References Barbour, G. P. 1984. Excellence in Local Government . Washington, DC: IMCA Training Institute Publication. Bennis, W. 1967. The Functions of the Executive . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ———. 2009. The Essential Bennis. New York: Jossey-Bass Press. Chandler, R., and J. Plano. 1988. The Public Administration Dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Fayol, H. 1929. Industrial and General Management. Trans. by C. Storrs. London: Pitman & Sons. Franz, V., and D. M. Jones. 1987. “Perceptions of Organizational Performance in Suburban Police Departments: A Critique of the Military Model.” Journal of Police Science and Admin- istration 15: 23–29. Frederickson, H. G. 1971. Toward a New Public Administration: The Minnowbrook Perspective. Scranton, PA: Chandler. Gasior, R. 2010. www.eleadershipguide.com/…/Doing-More-with- Less—Policing-the. Gulick, L., and A. Hyde. 1937. Papers on the Science of Admin- istration. New York: Russell & Russell. Holcomb, R. L., ed. 1961. Municipal Police Administration . Chicago: International City Management Association. Katz, D., and R. Kahn. 1966. “Organizations and the System Con- cept.” In The Social Psychology of Organizations by D. Katz and R. Kahn, pp. 14–29. New York: John Wiley & Sons. LaCommare, P. 2010. “Generating New Revenue Streams.” The Police Chief (June): 22–30. Levin, B. H. 2007. “Human Capital in Policing: What Works, What Doesn’t Work, What’s Promising?” Policing 2010: Ex- ploring the Future of Crime, Communities, and Policing , ed. Joseph A. Schafer. Police Futurist International and Futures Working Group (October): 417. Morgan, G. 2006. Images of Organization . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Scalar chain Span of control Division of work Vertical Horizontal Additional guides Task assignments Time Clientele Specialization Area Mechanistic (tall) versus organic (flat) structures Matrix Community-Oriented Policing (MiCOP) organization structure Emergency planning Chapter Activity Select the website of a criminal justice agency in which you are interes ted. Review the organization chart and related functions. Compare what has been discussed in this chapter t o the criminal justice agency you have selected. Review Questions 1. How did the Open Systems, Social Equity, and Client-Oriented themes alte r the view that public “representatives of the people are the proper ultimate authority in a ll matters of government and ad- ministration is merely the clerical part of government,” as put forth by Woodrow Wilson in 1887? 2. Give some examples of how the concepts of Max Weber, Frederick Taylor, a nd Luther Gulick can be applied today. 3. Planned program budgeting systems (PPBS) and zero-based budgeting were products of the Open Systems era. Why did the importance of budgeting become a critical issue during this period? 4. The example of the duties of a military general was discussed for compar ison in this chapter. How do these duties relate to the Organization Functions responsibilitie s of a criminal justice administrator? 5. Imagine you are a criminal justice administrator and have been assigned to develop and implement a criminal justice entity of your choice (for example, a new correctional institution). What Organization Functions would you consider in fulfilling this assignment? 154 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 154 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 154 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Relevant Publication This Relevant Publication resulted from a period of economic decline. Th e reduction in public financ- ing caused by the economic decline and tax-reducing legislation caused c riminal justice administrators to resort to cutbacks and “doing-more-with-less” management approa ches. This included a refocusing on Organization Functions concepts that could make the most efficient use of existing resources. When economic declines occur, administrators have to refocus on efficiency. Approaches in this article should provide the Eclectic Perspective administrator with concepts to be appli ed in these situations. (Cronkhite, C. 1990. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources.” In Police Personnel by S. D. Gladis, pp. 3–14. Amherst, MA: Human Resources Development Press). “FACING INCREASING CRIME WITH DECREASING RESOURCES” BY CLYDE CRONKHITE Combating increasing crime with static or decreasing resources is a chal lenge for today’s police ad- ministrators. This challenge requires us not only to work harder but als o to work smarter to reach our mutual goal of providing a safe and comparatively crime-free environment for the public we serve. We can more effectively meet this challenge by sharing our experience—by sharing information about what works and what does not. In California, we have experienced a substantial reduction in tax revenu e due to Proposition 13, which was approved by our voters in 1978. This proposition limits proper ty tax to 1 percent of market value. The result for the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) has bee n the loss of approximately 1,000 civilian and sworn personnel, a 10 percent reduction in our department’ s personnel strength. Because of this, we have been forced to manage with less, to experiment, and to research what other agencies have found successful. Police Resources In the broadest terms, our resources as police managers are personnel, e quipment, and information. Personnel is, of course, our largest and most important resource in meet ing the crime threat. Be- cause personnel constitutes 80–95 percent of our budgets, when budget cuts occur, they usually result Ostrom, V. 1974. The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration. Mobile: University of Alabama Press. PERF. 2010. “Police Executive Research Forum “Law Enforcement Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies.” An Executive Summary of the Resources Series (September): 1. Peters, T. J., and R. H. Waterman Jr. 1982. In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner Books. Porter, L. W., E. E. Lawler, and J. R. Hackman. 1975. Behavior in Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pyhrr, P. 1977. “The Zero-Base Approach to Government Bud- geting.” Public Administration Review (January/February): 1–8. Schick, A. 1966. “The Road to PPB: The Stages of Budget Reform.” Public Administration Review (December): 243–258. Schobel, G. 2010. “Efficiency-Led Management.” The Police Chief (March): 64–66. Simon, H. 1946. “The Proverbs of Public Administration.” Public Administration Review 6(1): 53–67. Swanson, C. R., L. Territo, and R. W. Taylor. 1993. Police Administration: Structures, Processes, and Behavior. New York: Macmillan. Switzer, Merlin. 2010 “The Role of Organization Design in Twenty-First Century Policing Organizations.” The Police Chief (August): 100–104. Taylor, F. W. 1916. “Principles of Scientific Management.” Bulletin of the Taylor Society . New York: Society for Advance- ment of Management. Weber, M. 1922. “Bureaucracy.” In Essays in Sociology, trans. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. New York: Oxford University Press. Wilson, O. W. 1963. Police Administration. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Wilson, W. 1887. “The Study of Administration.” In Classics of Public Administration , by J. M. Shafritz and A. C. Hyde, pp. 197–222. Chicago: Dorsey Press. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources” by Clyde Cronk hite 155 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 155 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 155 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM 2/3/12 11:02:59 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 in personnel reductions. However, there are methods by which remaining p ersonnel resources can be stretched to take up the gap. Team Policing In the 1970s, LAPD, as well as many other police agencies, adopted team policing, which was effective in reducing crime. While crime was rising nationwide, LAPD was able to stab ilize and reduce major crime from 1971 through 1977, the years the department was organized around te am policing.However, with the loss of over 10 percent of our personnel in the last 5 years, it has been determined that the department can no longer afford this concept. Combining patrol, detective, and traffic functions into geographical teams resulted in administrative overhead and inflexib ility of personnel assignments. Additionally, many of the community meetings that are fundamental to tea m policing were being con- ducted on an overtime basis and were paid from overtime funds that no lo nger exist. Even so, a minimum number of basic field units assigned to set geographic areas are still m aintained. Neighborhood watch meetings are held on an “as needed” basis with citizen volunteers so that of- ficers are removed from field patrol for only a short period of time. Th e remainder of the field force is assigned where the workload determines they are needed. Uniform Deployment Formula To make the maximum use of available field officers, departments experie ncing cutbacks are having to rely more on formulas that usually include calls for service, crime, tra ffic accidents, property loss, popu- lation, street miles, and population density. In the LAPD, a number of p atrol officers are “reshuffled” every deployment period (28 days) according to this formula. Each geog raphic area is evaluated on the above factors and manpower deployed where the formula shows they are mos t needed. Priority Management of Radio Calls Several contemporary studies (particularly those of Kansas City, MO, an d Syracuse, NY) indicated im- mediate response to all requests for service is not cost-effective. Cons equently, a number of police agencies are now providing immediate response only to requests involving serious crimes in progress or where there is a present threat of death or serious injury. Other responses to calls for service are delayed and scheduled when sufficient radio units are available. In some cases, low priority requests are made on an appointment basis during nonpeak work hours. In Los Angeles, under a program called System to Optimize Radio Car Manp ower (STORM), a specifically deployed small percentage of radio units handle, on a sched uled basis, a large percentage of noncritical, low priority calls for service, e.g., barking dogs, loud ra dios, etc. Other radio units, there- fore, remain available for immediate response to critical calls. Additio nally, on all calls where a delay in dispatching occurs, a call back is made to determine if the citizen still requests a police unit wh en one becomes available. This has reduced dispatching radio units when they ar e no longer needed. STORM provides the LAPD with the equivalent of approximately 56 officers in ad ditional field time. Some agencies, including the San Diego, Calif., Police Department (SDPD ), have worked with their city council to establish a prioritized list of activities performed by radio units. By forming an agreement between the city council and the police department as to the desired act ivities to be performed, appro- priate response times, how long each activity should take, and how much available patrol time should exist, they have established the basis for manpower requirements. If req uests for service from the public increase, then the city council must provide funding for additional pers onnel or recognize that response time will increase and lower priority activities will not be handled. By this method, the council directly shares in the responsibility for proper service to the community. Some agencies have strict control over the number of units responding to a dispatched call. Units other than those assigned are not allowed to respond. Additionally, unit s may not go “out to the sta- tion” unless approval is received from the dispatcher. To facilitate this procedure, field sergeants must announce their location by radio periodically so nearby units can meet t hem for crime report approval in the field. Also, approval for booking is often given by telephone whe n jail facilities are located some distance from the approving watch commander. 156 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 156 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 156 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Directed Patrol Creation of additional patrol time alone does not ensure more police pro ductivity. The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment called into question two widely accepted hy potheses about patrol: (1) that visible police presence prevents crime by deterring potential offenders, and (2) that the public fear of crime is diminished by such police presence. Many police departments, su ch as South Central, Conn., Kansas City, Mo., and Wilmington, Del., have found that to be productive , use of “free patrol time” must be directed rather than used reactively. They provide directed patrol by : 1. Identifying through crime analysis the places and times crimes are occur ring and are likely to occur in the future; 2. Preparing written directions describing in detail the way problem areas are to be patrolled; and 3. Activating these patrol directions through watch commanders and field su pervisors and assuring concentrated effort toward specific crime problems. Expanded Use of One-Officer Radio Units The San Diego Police Department conducted a comparative study of 22 one- officer and 22 two-officer units to determine the difference in terms of performance, efficiency, s afety, and officer attitudes. Al- though the two-officer units cost 83 percent more to field than one-offi cer units, the study found that one-officer units performed as well and were substantially more effectiv e. Additionally, the study reported that one-officer units had better safety records. Motorcycle Response for Congested Areas Response time to priority calls in congested areas can be enhanced by as signing motorcycle units to respond to nontraffic as well as traffic calls for service in congested areas during peak traffic hours. Because of their maneuverability in heavy traffic, they can respond faster than radio cars. “Call a Cop First” Program Studies have shown that many people call someone else (a friend, employ er, spouse) before they notify the police of a crime. James Elliot, in his book Interception Patrol, found that in 70 percent of crime-related service calls, citizens waited 10 or more minutes before notifying the p olice. Other studies (such as those conducted by the National Advisory Commiss ion on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals) have determined the success of solving a crime is greatly increased if the police arrive within several minutes after the event, or better yet, while it’ s occurring. In response to these find- ings, a campaign to remind the public of the importance of “calling a cop first” can be productive. Radio, television, and billboard advertisements (sponsored by local businesses and the media), wherein the chief of police, mayor, or entertainment personalities make the appeal, can be instrumental in spreading the word. More productive use of officers’ radio time can result. Eliminate “Property Damage Only” Traffic Accident Investigations Some police agencies have found it necessary to cease taking most “pr operty damage only” traffic accident reports. This practice has saved the Los Angeles Police Department the e quivalent of approximately 20 officers in field time. Units are only dispatched to the scene of such a ccidents to eliminate traffic haz- ards and verify that a correct exchange of information has been made bet ween involved parties, but no reports are taken. Increased Use of Search Dogs and Mounted Crowd Control Besides using specially trained dogs for bomb and narcotics searches, th ese animals can be a great man- power saver when searching for suspects in large areas such as warehouse s, department stores, and outdoor field searches. In a 2-month study of LAPD’s program, a team of dogs engaged in 165 searches, apprehended 54 suspects, and saved time equivalent to that of 11 officer s per month. Likewise, a few officers on horseback can provide crowd control equivale nt to that of many officers on foot. LAPD has recently returned to the use of horses—something we learned from our Canadian colleagues many years ago. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources” by Clyde Cronk hite 157 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 157 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 157 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Minimizing Report-Taking Time Many agencies are being forced to reevaluate their telephonic reporting procedure. It may be found that some agencies must limit their on-scene investigation to those incidents where the suspect is still at the scene or very recently left, where recoverable evidence may be present, or where the nature of the crime or incident requires immediate response, e.g., violent or potentially vi olent crimes against persons and major traffic accidents. The San Diego Police Department now handles a m onthly average of 45 percent of its calls for service telephonically with no adverse community feedba ck.With cutbacks confronting many agencies, an evaluation of reporting requ irements could be in order. Information required on reports that is “nice to know” may no longer be affordable and could be eliminated. Arrest, crime, evidence, and booking reports may have to be combined. The Los Angeles Police Department and Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department use a c onsolidated booking form packet which contains eight other reports, including a standardized fron t sheet for the arrest report. The information from the booking form is transferred by carbon paper to the other report forms. Also, some agencies are using “incident reports” to record only statistical i nformation for minor crimes where little or no information is available that may lead to the apprehension of the suspect. Follow-up time can be saved by allowing victims of theft-related crimes to list additional property taken (which was not included on the original crime report) on a separ ate report which is mailed to the police station. Use of this form eliminated the necessity of detecti ves having to complete follow-up investigation reports to list the additional items stolen. Interagency Crime Task Force Criminals do not often confine their activities to one jurisdiction. Com bining investigative efforts with surrounding police agencies can often reduce duplication in investigatio ns involving multi-occurrence crime trends. Detective Case Assignments Many police departments, including Rochester, NY, Long Beach, Calif., an d Los Angeles, Calif., are having detective supervisors classify cases to allow detectives to focus their immediate efforts on the more serious, solvable cases. The procedure of the Los Angeles Police Department includes detective supervi- sors classifying and assigning cases as follows: Category 1: Require Follow-Up Investigations Cases that have significant investigative leads and/or circumstances whi ch require a follow-up inves- tigation. A follow-up investigative report is generally due within 10 wo rking days. Category 2: Additional Investigation Required Cases that do not have significant leads initially but which, with addit ional investigation, may provide significant leads. A follow-up report is required within 30 days. If sig nificant leads are discovered, the case is reclassified to category 1. Category 3: No Citizen Contact Required In cases that do not contain apparent leads in the initial report, detec tives are expected to investigate when category 1 and 2 cases have been handled. These cases are reviewed by detectives and their supervisors to ensure knowledge of crime trends in their areas of respon sibility. Detectives are not required to routinely contact category 3 victims. Cases that involved in-custody arrestees are, of course, given top prior ity. The positive impact of classifying cases is further complemented through the use of a form given victims by uniformed officers when crime reports are made. This form inf orms victims that a detective will not contact them unless additional information is required. This st rategy thus tends to reduce the number of phone calls to detectives from curious victims only wishing to know how things are going on their case. 158 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 158 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 158 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Detective Deployment Formula A number of agencies have developed “work units” for the time it t akes a detective to handle a crime, arrest, complaint, or petition filing. The average time to complete thes e work units varies and is estab- lished by periodic surveys. Detective staffing can be determined by calc ulating this information with the number of crimes in each geographic area and applying the percentage of work load in each area. Los Angeles, for example, uses this system to redeploy detectives semiannual ly. Detective Complaint Officer Significant time-saving may be achieved by having only one detective fil e cases with the prosecuting agency. This practice can eliminate wasted hours spent by detective pers onnel traveling to, and waiting for, available filing deputies. Other agencies have been fortunate enoug h to have district attorney and/ or city attorney staff assigned to their police stations.Another aid in the area of filing cases is to construct a filing manual that details what is required for successful prosecution for various types of cases. This can save investi gative time often used to obtain additional information which the prosecutor found missing in police repo rts. On-Call Court System Significant officer time is expended in court waiting for cases to be he ard. Many agencies have made arrangements with their local courts to have officers placed on call. Th is provides for more officers in the field and reduces overtime which often has to be paid back in the fo rm of days off. Police personnel usually have to be assigned at court to coordinate notifying officers wh en they are needed. The return in man-hours saved, however, is usually worth more than the manpower expend ed. LAPD, for example, estimates that their on-call system saves the equivalent of over 100 off icers in field time annually. Civilian Personnel Most departments are expanding the replacement of sworn personnel with c ivilians, particularly in the areas of records, laboratory, traffic direction, jail, communications, p roperty, supply, front desk, detec- tive aide, and traffic reports. Persons trained to perform these auxilia ry and support functions require less salary (and usually less pension benefits), and therefore, can pr ovide savings that should be used to provide more field officers. Manpower Supplements Use of citizen volunteers, student workers, explorer scouts, and the lik e is even more important as personnel cutbacks occur. LAPD has created a reserve officer program that involves three types of reservists. First, there are the traditional reserve line officers who receive extensive tr aining and are qualified to work in radio cars. There are also technical reserve officers who require less t raining and work the desk, commu- nity relations, investigative follow-up, and other such jobs. Specialist reserve officers are volunteers who have special talents useful to the department, such as chemists, technic al writers, and computer system analysts, and are only required to receive several days of training. Many departments are using volunteers to file reports, fill out telephon ic crime reports (after officers determine what type of report should be taken), and conduct crime preve ntion training. LAPD has found that advertising in local newspapers is a successful method of recruitin g volunteers. As manpower continues to be reduced, some agencies are exploring the pos sibility of store security and campus police handling more police functions in their jurisdictions. This includes preliminary in- vestigations, completion of appropriate reports, and the transportation of arrestees. Increased Crime Prevention Efforts A common tendency of police organizations in contending with budget cuts is to regard crime prevention personnel as nonessential. Thus, the reduction or elimination of a crime prevention staff is considered an appropriate economy measure. A more productive approach, however, may be to use these individuals as leverage in making the best use of available manpower. A few crime pr evention personnel involved in an effective program can prevent crimes that would require the work of m any officers. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources” by Clyde Cronk hite 159 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 159 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 159 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 In meeting today’s management challenge, many police administrators a re finding that economical crime prevention efforts are most effectively applied through programs i nvolving volunteers. Under the direction and supervision of crime prevention officers, volunteers can: 1. Conduct crime prevention meetings in the selected target areas; 2. Conduct security surveys of residences in the target areas; 3. Distribute crime prevention literature in the target areas; and 4. Conduct an identification program that assists residents in marking thei r property for later identi- fication if stolen and recovered. Through these programs, a few officers can use the assistance of volunte ers to amplify crime pre- vention efforts. Even a large crime prevention staff can contact only a small percentage of the public. Television, radio, and the printed media, however, communicate daily with a very large segm ent of the population. By using the news media, a department can capitalize on the concept of manpower l everage (obtaining a compara- tively large result through a process that amplifies the efforts of a sm all amount of manpower). A recent U.S. Department of Justice National Crime Survey found that ove r half of the burglaries nationwide were committed against unlocked dwellings. If the public coul d be reminded of this fact through the news media, many crimes could be prevented. The chief of the Los Angeles Police Depart- ment, for example, recently made a number of 30-second videotaped messag es on crime prevention. The videotapes show various crimes in progress. The chief is “chroma keyed” (superimposed) over the crime scene activity as he tells how these crimes can be prevented. Thes e messages have been aired by many television stations in Los Angeles County. Another idea is to obtain the services of motion picture, television, an d sports celebrities in making television and radio crime prevention messages. Many well-known personal ities are willing to volunteer their services. The idea is to make these public service messages “gr ab” the interest of the viewer or listener long enough to get the crime prevention message across. The victim of a crime is likely to be more receptive to crime prevention suggestions than other per- sons. His or her experience as the victim causes the realization that “ it can happen to me.” The uniform police officer taking the crime report is usually the first law enforcem ent representative to contact the victim. This officer is in an ideal position to provide the victim with suggestions on how to prevent a recurrence of the crime. Field officers should be given special crime pr evention training and handout material for these victim/officer contacts. Crime prevention efforts can be greatly enhanced by the enactment of loc al ordinances that require “target hardening” construction in residential and business struct ures. It should be part of a police ad- ministrator’s crime prevention program to encourage the enactment of this type of legislation. Arrangements should be made for building permits to be reviewed by crime prevention personnel to ensure proper construction that will prevent crime. Another idea is t o encourage insurance companies to give reduced rates on structures that have built-in crime prevention- type construction. Task Force Organizations As personnel reductions occur, there is a tendency to reduce planning an d staff personnel in order to maximize the number of officers assigned to field duties. The resulting reduction of planning and admin- istrative functions can cause great harm to the future of law enforcemen t. One approach to this dilemma is to form a planning committee composed of all top managers. The planni ng entities are reduced to a minimum number of experts. As the planning committee determines needs for planning and other administrative research, task forces are appointed. The task force members are selected from areas of the agency that have t he experience needed for the particular task. They are assigned to the experts from the planning enti ties and return to their regular du- ties when the task is completed. This type of organization reduces the n umber of personnel permanently assigned to staff functions, yet provides for planning activities on an “as needed” basis. 160 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 160 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 160 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Equipment Reduced finances also cause a cutback in equipment, requiring judicious use of existing equipment. Additionally, the purchase of certain manpower-saving equipment may be c ost-effective in coping with reduced personnel. Nonlethal Weapons There is a growing need for effective nonlethal weapons because of the i ncrease in violent mentally disturbed individuals and violent drug users. These persons do not respo nd usually to normal police restraints. Nonlethal weapons are needed to reduce the manpower required for incarceration of these persons. Additionally, they are needed to prevent officer injury which o ften reduces available manpower. Prime examples are the tazer gun and chemical irritants.The tazer gun is now carried by all LAPD field supervisors. It shoots tw o barbs on electrical lines 15 feet, uses a low amperage, high voltage (50,000 volts at 7 amps) that pulsates at 28–30 pulses a minute and immediately totally incapacitates 80 percent of suspects. It causes no lasting effects, even on persons with pacemakers, and is usually effective on PCP suspects. Chemical irritants are also carried by all LAPD field officers. They can be used up to 15 feet and cause vertigo, disorientation, and inability to act in 70 percent of cases. Th ey have no lasting adverse effects, but may not be effective against persons under the influence of PCP. Vehicle Deployment Formulas Cost-effective deployment of automobiles, like the appropriate deploymen t of personnel, can be an effec- tive “economizer” of existing equipment. The following vehicle for mulas are based solely on personnel deployed and their vehicle requirements. The use of these formulas requi res an honest look by management into vehicle needs vs. vehicle wants. For example, the factors in the fo rmulas reflect different requirements for different assignments, ranging from officers who do not require a ve hicle to officers requiring a vehicle 100 percent of the time. These types of formulas can ensure that personn el have vehicles readily available, thereby reducing down time or idle time waiting for transportation. (Se e figs. 1 and 2.) Leasing vs. Buying Equipment Some agencies are finding that funds are no longer available for the out right purchase of equipment and the building of police facilities. Leasing is often a way of avoiding th e initial cash outlay and a means of surviving temporary cutbacks. Hand held Radios Many police agencies, including Los Angeles, Calif., Seattle, Wash., and Chicago, Ill., have equipped their officers with out-of-car radios so that they are in constant contact. Th e cost of the radios has been more than compensated for by the added ability to call officers from nonprior ity calls (such as report taking) to priority calls (such as robbery). As an alternative, some departmen ts do not show their units “off the air” until they arrive at the scene rather than when the call is broa dcast. This is accomplished by officers notifying the dispatcher when they have arrived and are exiting their ve hicles. Information Alvin Toffler states in his newest book, The Third Wave, that we are moving from an industrial society to a global society, which uses data to compensate for dwindling resourc es. Police administrators must capitalize on this trend and make use of information, particularly autom ated information, in meeting the challenge of the crime threat with less resources. We in law enforce ment can make good use of auto- mation in helping us to become more effective. Automated information can provide more rapid police response to citizen calls and faster access to information that assists uniformed officers to perform their jobs more effectively. “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources” by Clyde Cronk hite 161 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 161 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 161 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Figure 1 This formula is used by the LAPD to assign black-and-white radio cars to its 18 stations. V = .5 (n)(m)(d)(r)(a) + .5L. V = Number of vehicles required in the patrol fleet. m = Maintenance factor (1.10) based on repair statistics. d = Deployment factor (1.25) for variations in day-of-week deployment. Thi s factor considers a 25 percent variation between weekends (heavy deployment) and weekdays (light deployment). r = Standard relief factor (1.6). a = Watch deployment factor (.45) for variations in number of personnel as signed to the heavy watch and light watch. n = Total uniformed field forces including sergeants minus nonfield position s (desk, bail auditor, etc.). L = Sergeants’ cars on heavy watch. Figure 2 This formula is used by LAPD to distribute plain vehicles. V = (N + .2F + .5G + 5T + .75P + R) – B M V = Total vehicles recommended for each entity by formula. N = Personnel who do not need a vehicle, such as detective desk personne l. F = Nonfield fixed-post personnel, such as staff workers. They receive o ne vehicle to five personnel. G = Field fixed-post personnel, such as noncaseload-carrying detective super visors. They receive one vehicle for every two personnel. T = Personnel working two-man units on a full-time basis, such as narcotics and personnel investigators. One vehicle is provided for every two personnel. P = Personnel carrying a full caseload, such as field detectives. The ratio is three vehicles to four personnel. R = Personnel working one-man units and require a vehicle 100 percent of the time, such as narcotics investigators, supervisors. B = Average number of pool vehicles used per day. M = Maintenance factor of 1.05 as established by repair statistics. The Automated Want and Warrant System In the past, officers have had to detain persons in “field situations ” as long as 20 to 30 minutes while clerical personnel searched manual warrant files at the station house. Now it tak es only seconds to determine if a person is wanted or a vehicle or other property is stolen. This rapid re sponse comes through automated access to local, state, and national law enforcement files. This reduces inconvenience to innocent citizens and saves valuable field time for officers. The Emergency Command Control Communications System These computerized communications systems provide “instant cops” b y: 1. Remote out-of-vehicle radios for every field officer that make officers available for response to citizen needs at all times; 2. Mobile digital terminals in patrol cars that provide field officers dire ct access to computerized information; and 3. Computer-aided dispatching of police units that provide faster police re sponse to citizen calls for service. 162 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 162 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 162 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 The Electronic Sherlock Holmes Two law enforcement systems are examples of how automation is used to co mmunicate essential infor- mation and to reduce the time it takes detectives to conduct criminal in vestigations: 1. Automated Field Interview Systems—These systems link the thousands of daily observations made by field officers with crimes investigated by detectives. The computer c onnects suspects by location, description, vehicle, and activity to reported crimes. 2. Modus Operandi (MO) Correlation Systems—These computer programs pro cess large volumes of data from crime and arrest reports and correlate incidents that may have been committed by the same suspect. By linking these reports through MO patterns, a conglomera te of information can often be compiled that provides valuable assistance in identifying crime perpetrators. The Automated Police Manager There are systems that assist police managers to use police personnel mo re effectively. 1. Automated Deployment of Available Manpower Programs—By computerizing information on calls-for-services from citizens, activity initiated by officers on patr ol, and crime trends, these sys- tems predict how many police cars should be assigned each area of the ci ty by day-of-the-week and hour-of-the-day. They also give police managers information on the timel iness and effectiveness of patrol services in each neighborhood. 2. Computerized Traffic System—This system compares when and where traff ic accidents are occur- ring and the causes with when and where officers are issuing traffic cit ations and for what violations. The comparisons are used to deploy traffic officers and evaluate their e ffectiveness. 3. Crime Statistics Systems—Through computer analyses of all crime and a rrest reports, crime trends are reported weekly, monthly, quarterly, and yearly. 4. Training Management Systems—Officers’ personal data, such as langu age skills, special occupa- tional experiences, hobbies, physical fitness, training examinations, sh ooting proficiency scores, etc., are maintained in computer files so that training needs can be ass essed and personnel talents and abilities can be properly used. Additionally, video communication is being extensively used in academy training and at daily training sessions. Computerized shooting s imulators are also assisting in training officers when and where not to use firearms. Microcomputer and Electronic Word Processors Computers are following the trend of many mechanical and electronic devi ces that have proved to be helpful to mankind. Mass production is increasing their availability whi le decreasing their cost. Already the cost of minicomputers is within the financial reach of most police a gencies. Today’s minicomputers have the capabilities of larger computer systems of a decade ago. Small law enforcement departments should consider purchasing minicompute rs to supply most of their automation needs, and large police agencies should be evaluating m inicomputers as replacements for their precinct station filing systems. In the near future, each comm anding officer may be able to have a small computer for his use and the use of his personnel. Word processing computer terminals should replace typewriters in most po lice agencies in the fu- ture as they are now doing in private industry. Crime reports should be “typed” on terminals. Computer systems can strip off information and send teletype messages, plus extra ct and transmit appropriate information for detectives, prosecutors, and the courts. Additionally, i nformation for statistical and management purposes can automatically be transmitted to appropriate file s. Much of the duplication that now occurs can be eliminated. After the information is once entered into the computer, the computer can take care of the manipulation of information that now is often done by many persons. These types of systems have already been put to use in some police agencies, but it will be some time before they are a common police tool. Much of the processing time now consumed in the pyramid organization str uctures of police de- partments for correspondence, research projects, budget requests, and ac tivity reports can be reduced “Facing Increasing Crime with Decreasing Resources” by Clyde Cronk hite 163 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 163 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 163 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 by word processing systems. Currently, these documents are sent up the c hain of command and returned for retyping when corrections or changes are desired by persons higher u p in the organization. Often, they are completely retyped a number of times before they reach the chie f of police. With a computerized word processing system, they can be entered on a terminal once and store d. When changes are necessary, the text is recalled on a terminal screen and only that portion to be ch anged is redone. When finally ap- proved, the computer prints out a final report. Likewise, the text of ro utine correspondence can be kept in computer storage. When required, it can be called up on a terminal sc reen and appropriate names and text changes made to “personalize” the letter before being pri nted for signature. The Future of Law Enforcement—Something to Look Forward To When we talk about cutbacks, reduced resources, and managing with less, we often do so with a pessimistic air. We are going to have to deal with reduced resources for some years to come, but in the overall history of our societies, this will be but a short period. As we look back 10 to 15 years from now, we will probably reflect on this period as a period of reevaluation and refinement—ref inements to meet economic and cultural changes. Review of our histories discloses many periods of redu ction—a time for cleansing the systems, removing excess fat, firming up our objectives, and assuring th at they meet the expectations of the public we serve. It is indeed a time of challenge, a challenge th at we should look forward to with optimism, for the future holds for us an exciting opportunity to make co nstructive changes through leg- islation that can strengthen the judicial system through innovative uses of our shrinking police resources. As professional law enforcement officers, we can help provide a safe env ironment where our citizens can exercise their individual freedoms with a minimum of disruption. And tog ether, we can stem the rising crime with decreasing resources. 164 CHAPTER 7 Applying Organization Functions Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 164 41344_CH07_FINAL.indd 1642/3/12 11:03:00 PM 2/3/12 11:03:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration of Contemporary Criminal Justice Agencies Introduction While Organization Functions can be compared to the human skeleton, Empl oyee Relations can be compared to the internal organs of the body. As the skeleton supports th e operation of the internal organs of the body, and one component by itself does not support life, so it is with the themes of Organization Functions and Employee Relations within an organization.The employees are often referred to as the “lifeblood” of an organ ization. They are the most impor- tant part of any agency, and more than 90% of budgets goes to support pe rsonnel. Employees, however, must have an efficient environment in which to work, and that is why Org anization Functions are so important. The following summary points are brought forward as starting points for applying key con- cepts of the Employee Relations theme: Pygmalion Effect or self-fulfilling prophecy 1966, Pygmalion in the Classroom, Robert Rosenthal Maintenance versus satisfaction factors 1957, Motivation to Work, Frederick Herzberg Organizations need to be altered to fit individual needs 1957, “The Individual & Organization,” Chris Argyris Theory X and Theory Y 1957, “The Human Side of Enterprise,” Douglas McGregorHierarchy of human needs applied to organizations 1943, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” A. H. MaslowOrganizational guides, not principles 1941, “The Proverbs of Public Administration,” Herbert Simon 165 8 CHAPTERCHAPTER 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 165 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 165 2/8/12 10:04:24 AM 2/8/12 10:04:24 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Motivated employees increase productivity 1941, “The Hawthorne Experiments,” Elton Mayo First, it is important to reflect on Herbert Simon’s admonition that what is often referred to as “prin- ciples” with regard to administration should be considered proverbs o r guides; this is because the main ingredients of an organization are people, and people widely vary in the ir makeup. Although physical sciences are well defined, psychology and the scientific research regard ing dealing with people are much less exacting. Therefore, Eclectic Perspective administrators must be kn owledgeable of the principles and must use them as guides rather than absolute rules. Mayo’s Hawthorne experiments remind us of the evolving concepts of ad ministration. Mayo started his experiments to test the validity of some of the Organization Functio ns principles. What he found was that the manner of interacting with employees has much to do with produc tivity. Employees were considered an important part of organizations long before the Employee Relations era. However, it was not until Mayo’s experiments that the administra tive milestones began to focus on employee motivation as a means of increasing productivity. During the Operation Functions era, Organization Functions Client-Oriented Eclectic Perspective Employee Relations Open Systems Social Equity Figure 8.1 Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes for “Mentally” Retrie ving Historic Key Concepts and Terms Relating to Employee Relations Theme 166 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 166 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 166 2/8/12 10:04:25 AM 2/8/12 10:04:25 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Frederick Taylor emphasized the need to find the right person for each j ob. Fayol described esprit de corps as harmony and teamwork that are essential to effective organizati ons.The Organization Functions concepts regarding employees relate more to t he management of per- sonnel rather than to employee motivation. In this chapter, we bring tog ether these Employee Relations concepts as a means of integrating them into the “building block” model. The purpose of this text is to bring the many administrative concepts and theories together into a stru cture that makes them more understandable and more available for application. Today’s administra tor should think of a given con- textual theme (e.g., Employee Relations) and be able to recall a list of related key terms that bring the appropriate concepts and theories to mind so that they may be applied to a given situation. This is the Eclectic Perspective approach to administration, which brings us to a fu nction for which all administra- tors are responsible, that of supervision. Supervision Every administrator from the top executive to the first-line supervisor who has one or more employees reporting to her or him must supervise. Supervision is getting the assig ned tasks accomplished through one’s immediate employees, and it involves both management and leader ship skills. Supervision includes the following functions: Ensuring that employees are properly prepared to do the job. This includes recruiting and selecting the right people to do the job and ensuring that they are prop erly trained. Ensuring that employees are motivated . Employees must be motivated to accomplish the as- signed task. One of the two overall responsibilities of all administrato rs is to satisfy the needs of the employees. This does not necessarily mean to make employees happy al l the time, because happy employees are not necessarily productive employees. Making sure th at employees gain satisfaction from their assigned tasks is the essence of motivation. Providing employees with proper direction . Proper direction allows employees to understand what they are to do and feel confident that they have the support of the ir employer. This is accomplished through good oral and written communications and through a relationship that instills trust. Providing inspection and control . Periodic inspection allows the supervisor to see that the tasks that have been delegated to employees are properly achieved. This does not mean standing over the employees at all times and watching their activities. It does m ean assessing each employee and keeping them motivated to accomplish the desired tasks whil e applying the proper amount of inspection and control. Providing proper discipline . Providing appropriate discipline is a delicate part of a supervi- sor’s job. This involves both positive activities (rewards such as o ral/written commendations, desirable assignments, and promotions) and negative actions (punishmen t such as oral/written reprimands and termination). Evaluating employee performance . Employees need feedback as to how they are performing. This should be done orally as a matter of routine and periodically (usu ally at 6- to 12-month intervals) in writing. Written evaluations should always be discussed w ith the employee and should lead to a two-way discussion between the supervisor and the emplo yee. Employee Hiring and Training This chapter continues with two major elements from the Employee Relatio ns period, including more recent enhancements: (1) employee hiring and training and (2) employ ee motivation. Hiring In the 1800s, during what is sometimes called the “political era,” many criminal justice employees were selected because of who they knew politically and what support they or t heir families had given to certain elected officials. This process was commonly known as the “spoils sys tem.” With the reforms that followed Employee Hiring and Training 167 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 167 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 167 2/8/12 10:04:25 AM 2/8/12 10:04:25 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 the 1883 Pendleton Act and the advent of the Organization Functions era, the professionalism/legalis- tic approach to hiring became common practice. This “civil service” approach entailed defining what abilities and attributes an employee had to have for a given job, establ ishing relative testing methods, hiring qualified candidates, and then ensuring that they had the proper training to do the job. Today, these practices are still followed but have been enhanced with affirmati ve action and equal employment opportunity legislation that grew out of the Social Equity era. Hiring c an be divided into the processes of recruiting and selecting. Recruiting Process Recruiting qualified candidates is an important part of the hiring proce ss. Hiring a fair representation of the community that a criminal justice agency serves is certainly a re quirement for today’s criminal justice administrator. Having a ratio of employees at parity with the cu ltural mix of the community is a desirable goal. Having employees who can truly understand the needs of t he community because they are, in race and culture, a fair representation of the people they serve is a n important element in providing more community-oriented services. For example, while women account for a bout 51% of the general population, they comprise less than 15% of police personnel.In 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court provided standards in Griggs v. Duke Power Company governing when hiring practices legally could be considered as having a negative i mpact on minority hiring. At the time, a number of public agencies were not heeding the affirmative actio n guidelines and the federal government, backed by court action, was imposing minority hiring quotas that, when not met, would restrict federal funding. Fortunately, today most departments comply wit h equal employment opportunity standards and, hopefully, quota requirements are a thing of the past. Affirmative action guidelines are not meant to force the hiring of unqua lified employees just because they are of a protected class (minorities and females). Affirmative ac tion is meant to guide agencies in making amends for the discriminating practices that were prevalent in ou r country from its inception. A basic concept of affirmative action is that if two candidates equally qualify for a job, the one from the protected class is to be hired. The quota systems of the past were criti cized for providing restrictions that could result in the hiring of persons not qualified for the job. This wa s unfair to communities, includ- ing those most populated by minorities, in that the practice could resul t in poor public service. Today’s criminal justice administrators have an obligation to provide the best p ublic service possible and to hire employees that fairly represent the communities they serve. This ca n be accomplished by targeting recruiting efforts toward prospective candidates that are needed to meet this obligation. The author, when chief of police, approached the need to hire more femal es by targeting prospective candidates. After serving several years as a security director for a lar ge private corporation and recalling the many qualified women who worked as clerical personnel in that privat e sector, he was provided with motivation regarding recruiting. In these private corporations, many of the female clerical employees, although receiving comparatively low salaries, were compelled to buy cos tly apparel that was common in the corporate environment. A program was implemented that established re cruitment booths near loca- tions where the clerical personnel went for lunch. Signs stating “How would you like a salary of $38,000 [the yearly salary for that police department at the time] and not have to be concerned with what you wear to work—we will supply you a uniform” were displayed as part of the approach. This approach also could apply to any other uniformed job, such as corrections employe es. College and university campuses offer ideal locations for recruiting, as many provide periodic job fairs. If the local candidate pool is not adequate, recruitment personne l may have to be sent to other geographical areas. Having a competitive salary and benefits package is important in attracting the best candidates. Checking websites of comparable agencies can help. For examp le, The Blue Line website (www.theblueline.com) provides an analysis of the “top 150” hiri ng police departments by comparing salaries, benefits, and local cost-of-living information. Presenting candidates with information about career benefits, including salaries, is also important. As chair of a university criminal justice department, the author was som etimes confronted by parents of prospective criminal justice students who said they would prefer that their sons or daughters pursued 168 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 168 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 168 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 careers that offered better salary opportunities. In response, they were shown websites of agencies such as the Los Angeles Police Department that post salaries for each rank. Such websites show that the starting salaries are competitive with salaries in other professions and that mid dle and upper managers can make salaries that range in the $100,000 to $300,000 range. The author, becau se of his experience in both the public and private sectors, could provide examples of how criminal justi ce employment could provide an exciting and personally satisfying career that many private sector jo bs could not. Selection Process Selection is the next step in the hiring process. Our form of government provides checks and balances over the actions of the executive branch (law enforcement and correctio ns) by the judicial and legislative branches in protecting the rights of the public. The following landmark legislative acts must be considered by criminal justice administrators in the selection and supervision of e mployees.The Civil Rights Act (Title VII, 1964) and its subsequent amendments ( 42 U.S.C. 2000e) establish federal policy requiring fair employment standards in both the public an d private sectors. It prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and natio nal origin and has been extended to protect against “hostile work environment” claims based on sexu al, racial, or religious harassment. The Fair Labor Standards Act (U.S.C. 203 et seq.) provides minimum pay and overtime provisions. It contains special provisions for public safety employees in agencies t hat operate 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. For them, overtime must be paid for work in excess of 43 hours in a 7-day period or 171 hours in a 28-day cycle. Public safety employees may accrue a maximu m of 480 hours of compensa- tory time, which is not used as leave time and must be paid on terminati on at the employee’s final rate of pay or an average pay for the last three years, whichever is highest. The Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 12112) is aimed at prov iding hiring practices that ensure that otherwise qualified candidates with disabilities are tested as employees without disabilities. Therefore, job applications and questions during job interviews cannot r efer to disabilities. However, if the candidate has a disability that causes him not to be able to perform well on a job-related test (such as a physical agility test), he can be excluded from the hiring pool. Judicial rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court concerning employee selection with which administra- tors must be familiar are as follows: Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody (1975) held that agencies can require hiring standards that re- strict more minorities and females from hiring if it can be proven that the hiring requirements are job-related. This has caused criminal justice agencies to become much mo re involved in researching exactly what the job requires of an employee and setting appropriate tes ting procedures to show that the candidate has the ability to acquire, with proper training, the abil ity to perform the job. Davis v. City of Dallas (1985) ruled that the Dallas Police Department did not discriminate i n requiring candidates to have a certain level of college education. The court ruled that a college education was a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ), paving the way for poli ce departments to require a college degree. Unfortunately, most departments still do not have this r equirement. The selection process steps are discussed later in this chapter (and su mmarized in Figure 8.2). For economic reasons, the least expensive process is first. The steps then p rogress with the most expensive last so that as the expense of the various procedures increases, the number o f candidates to be tested decreases. The purpose should be to identify the most desirable candidates in the m ost economical manner. Application form. This should identify candidates who have the basic requirements for the job. Generally, only about 50 to 60% of those who apply will meet the require ments, so it is important to create an application form that asks the proper questions. Some of th e questions that can be asked on an application include: Age. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (U.S.C. 623) generally prohibits unequal treat- ment of applicants based on their age, and the courts have ruled that yo uth is not a BFOQ. However, most police and correction agencies restrict the hiring age to between 21 and 38 years of age. Although “youth” cannot be used in applications, age can be used as a BFOQ as Employee Hiring and Training 169 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 169 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 169 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 it relates to laws concerning carrying firearms and entering businesses where alcohol is sold. Also, if an agency can show that hiring after a certain age will result in only a limited number of physically active years of service, then a maximum age may be used. Height and weight. As with age requirements, height and weight standards have changed over the years. Minimum height requirements have been challenged successfully as discriminating against females and minorities. In Vanguard Justice Society v. Hughes (1979), for example, the court ruled that a 5’7″ height requirement excluded 95% of the female po pulation but only 32% of the male population and was, therefore, evidence of sex discrimin ation. This and other rulings have caused most agencies to use a standard of weight in proport ion to height and rely upon the physical agility test to determine if the candidate can physica lly perform job-related tasks. Education. In the case of Davis v. City of Dallas (1985), the court ruled that police departments can require a college education. Even though the need for educated emplo yees can be traced back to August Vollmer, most agencies still do not have this as a hiring requirement. However, a growing number of agencies do require college education for promotions . Empirical research has shown that college-educated employees are less authoritative and hav e more acceptance of minorities (Weiner 1976, 450–457), receive fewer citizen complai nts (Cascio 1977, 89–96), are less likely to expose their agencies to civil liability suits (Cart er and Sapp 1989, 157–166), and are less likely to use excessive force (Worden 1994, 31–60). Th e August 2006 issue of Police Chief magazine features a number of research articles on why police chiefs ag ree with these ear- lier findings (Police Chief 2006). Residency. Even though the courts have ruled that agencies can require employees to live within their jurisdiction (McCarthy v. Philadelphia Civil Service Commission, 1976), many de- partments do not have such a requirement. However, in the spirit of a co mmunity-oriented service, this requirement may need to be considered. Written examination. This is not to test what the candidates know about the job, but rather t o deter- mine their general intelligence (reading, vocabulary, mathematical, rea soning, and logic skills). The written examination is the prime means of determining these skills and i s usually an objective type of test that can be scored by a computer. Because most criminal justice agencies do not require a col- lege education, the written examinations are designed to test for a high school–level education. If the hiring agency does require a college degree, there is nothing to restric t the written examination from being raised to a higher level. This written examination generally focus es on the following areas: Reading comprehension. This is often done by providing several sentences or a paragraph to read, then presenting candidates with objective questions to determine i f they understand what Figure 8.2 Hiring Process Flow Chart Application is filed Written examAgility testOral exam Polygraph exam Psychological exam Character investigation Medical/drug screening Recruit academyProbationary status Career status 170 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 170 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 170 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 they have read. Some agencies send out reading material before the exami nation and then ask questions about this material during the examination. Observation and memory. Candidates are often shown a picture that involves several people doing various things, as well as a number of surrounding items. The cand idate is asked to observe and memorize what is in the picture, which is then removed. The question s help determine what the candidate remembers. Computing skills. General mathematical and analytical skills are tested with objective qu estions that are usually found on a high school–level examination. Judgment and decision-making abilities. Although candidates are not required to possess detailed information about the job (only to have the ability to be trai ned), questions that test for an acceptable level of intellectual maturity are permissible. Oral interview. The oral interview is to determine communications skills, interpersonal styles, decision-making ability, ability to control emotions, appearance, and ab ility to think under pressure. The interview board may be composed of members of the community as well as personnel from the hiring agency. Some agencies have a subsequent interview between the chi ef executive officer and the candidate, just before hiring. All candidates must be asked the same questions, but individualized questions that relate to the candidates’ statements or responses are permissible. Candidates are usu- ally given an opportunity to make an opening and closing statement and t hen respond to questions from the board to determine the sought-after skills. A growing number of agencies have a candidate handwrite a one-page response to a question before the interview so that their ability to communicate in writing can be evaluated. One of Sir Robert Peel’s Organizational Principles state that “good ap- pearance commands respect,” and appearance and demeanor can be evalua ted during this process. Physical agility examination. This examination is becoming increasingly important for law enforce- ment personnel as affirmative action restrictions are applied to selecti on practices. Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody held that agencies can require hiring standards that restrict more mino rities and females from hiring if it can be empirically proven that the hiring requ irements are job-related. Agencies must be prepared to prove that all items tested for are BFOQs. If candid ates are required to run a certain distance, do a required number of push-ups, and jump a certain height, t hese requirements must be bona fide tests of on-the-job tasks that employees will be required to do. For example, the author, when captain of a police training division, had to reduce the height of the barrier that candidates had to climb over from 6 feet to 5 feet because a lawsuit determined tha t the city had an ordinance prohibiting any fence over 5 feet. Many agencies are moving from “power tests” to actual field-relate d exercises that can more easily be justified as job-related. For example, pushing a vehicle is something a police officer must be able to do if necessary for public safety. A male candidate might use his upp er-body strength to move the vehicle by placing his hands on the bumper and pushing. A female candida te, with less upper-body strength, might accomplish the same task by sitting on the bumper and us ing her legs to push the vehicle. Both would accomplish the task, thereby passing the examination , but they would do so using different strength approaches. Psychological examination. This exam is often an objective type that can be computer-graded. In- terviews by a trained psychologist are preferred but are often cost-proh ibitive. The purpose of this phase is to ensure that candidates are not suffering from some personali ty disorder and are emotion- ally stable. Two forms that have been found to be reliable are the Minne sota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Personality Inventory (CPI). Cri minal justice employees should have high moral character and be incorruptible, well adjusted, able to c arry out stressful and hazard- ous tasks, and logical but not impulsive or overly aggressive. This exam ination can “raise flags” that background investigators can explore during that phase of the selection process. Character or background investigation. The background investigation is probably the most important phase of the selection process. It can be costly; therefore, it is bette r left for candidates who have passed most of the other phases. This phase should be conducted by trained inve stigators and be more than Employee Hiring and Training 171 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 171 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 171 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 a record search and telephone calls to references. References given by c andidates should only be starting points that lead to interviews with persons who have been closely associ ated with the candidates and reach back as far as 10 years. For example, college roommates, fellow wo rkers, and neighbors should be interviewed. All persons interviewed must be guaranteed that what the y state will be confidential and not available to candidates. Often a “critic” of the candidate may surface, but a single person’s opinion should always be corroborated. Any “flags” coming from the psychological phase should be investigated. Additionally, many of the same qualities that are desirabl e in the psychological phase should be sought in this phase, such as incorruptibility, honesty, not o verly aggressive but able to aggressively respond when required, and no alcohol or other drug problem s. Medical examination. The medical exam should include drug testing. As with tests for required abilities and skills, the medical examination can exclude candidates onl y for job-related problems. Good general health can be proven to be job-related, especially for thos e jobs that involve shift work, hours of inactivity with sudden demands for physical strength, and expos ure to periodic high-stress situations. Being overweight and having certain ailments at the hiring s tage can be proven to lead to later inability to do the job and early retirement. Polygraph examination. The polygraph test is still used by a majority of large police agencies as part of the selection process even though its use has been ruled unacceptable in criminal trials. Most can- didates have “a conscience” and react to a polygraph examination i n a more reliable manner than a “hardened criminal.” Departments that use polygraphs often use the m to check on possible drug use and in response to questionable areas discovered during other phases, su ch as during background investigations. To date, there has been no court action that prohibits t he use of this device in the selection process. Assessment center testing. This is a selection process that certainly is not new (it began in Worl d War II), but it has become more popular in recent years. It involves jo b-like situations that candidates have to simulate while being evaluated by specially trained assessors. C andidates are involved in a number of situations ranging from structured interviews, simulated situa tional testing, leaderless group discussions with other candidates, and individual psychological in terviews. There are a grow- ing number of private companies that provide this service for both priva te and public institutions. A companion growing service is companies that supply “industrial actors ”: professional actors that act the part of irate citizens, city council members, and other roles that a re used in simulating job-related situations. Currently, this type of process is more prevalent in the sel ection of chief executives and not for entry-level hiring because of the cost involved. Professor Frank Hughes makes a case for why the benefits outweigh the cost for selecting personnel, particularly man agers. He points out that one of the “greatest challenges facing law enforcement administrators in the 21st century is to identify qualified individuals for entry-level positions and for promotion,” a nd assessment centers can greatly help in meeting this challenge (Hughes 2006, 106–111). Lateral transfers hiring. This is another growing trend that has both positive and negative aspec ts. First, for agencies that want to reduce training costs, hiring an employee alre ady trained by another agency can certainly do this. Some training should be required to customize the employee’s performance to the requirements of the hiring agency. The negative aspects come into pl ay due to the agency losing the employee after having invested in his training (the average cost fo r training entry-level employees is more than $50,000). Consequently, many agencies now require new empl oyees to sign four- to five-year contracts that require them to reimburse the hiring agency for the cost of training if they leave before the contracted number of years. Training After candidates have been screened and the most qualified have been hir ed, the training phase begins. Training can be defined as instructing an employee on how to do a job. Education, in contrast, is the process of providing a general body of knowledge on which an employee ca n create the best way to ac- complish the job. In the first chapter of this text, the science of admi nistration was likened to studying 172 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 172 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 172 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 the facts. Here we can equate training to studying or learning the facts . The art of administration is described as converting the facts into practice and actually applying th em to job-related tasks. Here we can equate education to the conceptualizing of a body of knowledge so th at knowledge can be practiced in a productive manner.Employees who have jobs of a limited nature can be trained simply to per form the specific job. Employees who perform complicated tasks of a varied nature and are given wide discretion must be educated in the body of knowledge related to the tasks they are required to perform. With client-oriented service, most criminal justice tasks are complicate d and require a wide range of discretion. It follows that those who perform these tasks should be educ ated. Unfortunately, as previously discussed, most law enforcement and corrections agencies do not require a college degree. Therefore, most criminal justice employees can be required to perform at only a hig h school level of knowledge. In reality, training (instruction on how to do the job) is all that mo st criminal justice agencies have the time and funds to provide. Enlightened criminal justice administrators m ust make up for this deficiency by encouraging and promoting “off-duty” education among their empl oyees. This can be done through increased pay for acquiring education, rewarding through assignments and promoting those who obtain college-level education, and by making a college degree a hiring require ment whenever possible. With the realization that training is still the main method of preparing employees to perform their jobs, administrators must make the best of the situation. Law enforcement leads the way in required training; all U.S. states except Hawaii have state law enforcement training and st andards boards. Figure 8.3 provides an example of the basic training requirements for police officers. These boards set the requirements for basic police training in their respective states, and some states set st andards for all police ranks. Addi- tionally, a number of states provide standards for specialized tasks, su ch as criminal investigation, and for promotion to the various ranks. Corrections agencies follow the practice of law enforcement, with most s tates having state corrections boards and a growing number establishing training standards for correcti onal employees. Corrections administrators in states without boards that set training standards woul d do well to consult with those states that do. The study of administration only began to materialize as an important subject many years Figure 8.3 California Police Officer Standards and Training (POST) Requirements Domain Number Domain Description Minimum Hours 01 Leadership, professionalism, and ethics 8 hours 02 Criminal justice system 4 hours 03 Policing in the community 12 hours 04 Victimology/crisis intervention 6 hours 05 Introduction to criminal law 6 hours 06 Property crimes 10 hours 07 Crimes against persons 10 hours 08 General criminal statutes 4 hours 09 Crimes against children 6 hours 10 Sex crimes 6 hours 11 Juvenile law and procedure 6 hours 12 Controlled substances 12 hours 13 ABC law 4 hours 15 Laws of arrest 12 hours 16 Search and seizure 12 hours 17 Presentation of evidence 8 hours 18 Investigative report writing 40 hours 19 Vehicle operations 24 hours 20 Use of force 12 hours 21 Patrol techniques 12 hours 22 Vehicle pullovers 14 hours 23 Crimes in progress 16 hours Domain Number Domain Description Minimum Hours 24 Handling disputes/crowd control 12 hours 25 Domestic violence 8 hours 26 Unusual occurrences 4 hours 27 Missing persons 4 hours 28 Traffic enforcement 22 hours 29 Traffic accident investigation 12 hours 30 Preliminary investigation 42 hours 31 Custody 4 hours 32 Lifetime fitness 40 hours 33 Arrest methods/defensive tactics 60 hours 34 First aid and CPR 21 hours 35 Firearms/chemical agents 72 hours 36 Information systems 4 hours 37 People with disabilities 6 hours 38 Gang awareness 8 hours 39 Crimes against the justice system 4 hours 40 Weapons violations 4 hours 41 Hazardous materials awareness 4 hours 42 Cultural diversity/discrimination 24 hours Minimum instructional hours 599 hours Minimum content and hourly requirements Regular Basic Course (RBC)— standard format Source: http://www.post.ca.gov/training/workbooks-current.asp Employee Hiring and Training 173 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 173 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 173 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 after it was established in the police and corrections fields. Because m any judges do not care to perform administrative tasks, the position of court administrator is a growing p rofession. Most court administra- tors are hired to oversee the business end of the courts because of thei r administrative education. Most have business or public administration degrees, and some universities ar e now offering specific degrees in court administration.One of the duties of court administrators is to provide training for cou rt employees as well as some introductory training for new judges. Some judges who do perform adminis trative duties as well as their legal duties have some business training from law schools providin g related classes. Most judicial officers, however, do not have this education and obtained their positio n because of their legal accom- plishments. Of the three criminal justice branches, law enforcement has the most dev eloped training standards. Most states require police officers to have from 400 to 600 hours of bas ic training, with some agencies requiring up to nearly 1,000 hours ( Table 8.1). Additionally, a growing trend is to provide more situ- ational training wherein recruits learn through simulated exercises. There are two schools of thinking when it comes to how to train: the behavioral and the Gestalt approaches. Behavioral theorists believe that learning is a function of stimulus and response (S R), often referred to as “trial and error.” What works is what we continue t o do; what doesn’t is what we cease to do. The Gestalt theorists, by contrast, do not subscribe to the stimulus –response approach but rather maintain that learning is more cognitive. Here we can relate the behavio ral approach more to training and the Gestalt theory to education. Both should be involved in preparin g criminal justice employees to perform their required duties but, as previously stated, training or the behavioral approach is most commonly used. Recruit Training Academies Recruit training academies usually provide police training. Many states now provide centralized police training academies for officers hired by agencies without their own trai ning facilities. Larger agencies typically have their own academies. A review of the requirements in most states reveals that, generally, just the minimum task training for the essential basic tasks is being pr ovided. Consequently, Eclectic 8.1 Training Requirements for New Recruits in State and Local Police Departm ents Duration of basic recruit training, by type of operating agency Primary Operating Agency Class Field Training Average Length (hrs.) Percentage Requiring Average Length (hrs.) All types 761 33 453 State POST* 604 8 1,678 State police 881 57 443 Sheriff’s office 719 37 365 County police 965 79 446 Municipal police 883 64 575 College/university 690 13 225 Multi-agency 751 31 312 Other types 657 36 335 *Peace Officer Standards and Training 174 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 174 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 174 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Topics included in basic training of state and local law enforcement tra ining academies TopicsPercentage of Acad- emies with TrainingMedian Number of Hours of Instruction Operations Report writing 100 20 Patrol 99 40 Investigations 99 40 Basic first aid/CPR 99 24 Emergency vehicle operations 97 40 Computers/information systems 58 8 Weapons/self-defense Self-defense 99 51 Firearms skills 98 60 Non-lethal weapons 98 12 Legal Criminal law 100 36 Constitutional law 98 12 History of law enforcement 84 4 Self-improvement Ethics and integrity 100 8 Health and fitness 96 46 Stress prevention/management 87 5 Basic foreign language 36 16 Community policing Cultural diversity/human relations 98 11 Basic strategies 92 8 Mediation skills/conflict management 88 8 Special topics Domestic violence 99 14 Juveniles 99 8 Domestic preparedness 88 8 Hate crimes/bias crimes 87 4 Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice, Special Report, State and Local Enforcement Training Academies, 2006, NCJ 222987 (Washington DC; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009), p. 6, Ta ble 10 and Table 11. Employee Hiring and Training 175 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 175 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 175 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Perspective administrators would do well to provide additional training and education (beyond the basic requirements) to meet their agencies’ requirements.It is now common practice to not “swear in” the new employees unti l they have successfully com- pleted their recruit training. This practice is to avoid having to provi de the injury and disability retirement benefits provided to “sworn” law enforcement officers. Recruit training has often been called a cross between “boot camp” and “law school.” It is the “boot camp” aspect that has drawn criticism as efforts are made to make law enforcement more community- oriented and less military. The question is asked as to why recruits hav e to undergo “stress training.” They are not military solders performing as squads but, rather, most oft en work alone and are given considerable discretion in how they perform their duties. The author, ha ving been a commanding officer of a police training academy, recommends some military and stress traini ng. Although it is a small part of their duty, police officers must be prepared to become part of a semi military unit in times of unusual occurrences (riots, terrorists attacks, earthquakes, and fires, for exa mple) and respond to centralized commands. Additionally, stress training allows instructors to know the s trengths and weaknesses of the recruits—and allows recruits to learn about their own strengths and w eaknesses—which is crucial in evaluating whether they are capable of performing their duties. The recruit training curriculum, however, must rely most on training (a nd hopefully, some edu- cation) that will prepare law enforcement personnel to perform their du ties with discretion and in a community-oriented manner. What is called the andragogy approach of learning (as contrasted with pedagogy, or the one-way transfer of information) is recommended, as it stresse s analytical and conceptual skills and promotes mutual involvement of instructor and student (Knowl es 1970, 38–39). Again, encouraging recruits to pursue college education is extremely imp ortant, especially because it is not an employment requirement for most agencies. Arrangement with local colleges and universi- ties to give credit toward a degree for recruit training can provide som e incentive. Additionally, general education proficiency tests are given in some academies, and recruits ar e required to take college remedial courses if they have deficiencies. This causes recruits to become involv ed in taking college courses. Because of the cost of recruit training and the time involved, a growing number of law enforcement agencies are requiring candidates to obtain the required basic training at local colleges that provide this type of program, or at state academies. Those interested in becoming pol ice officers must pay for the training and obtain basic training certification before being considered as a candidate for hiring. If new hires are trained at agencies other than the hiring agency (including a state academy), criminal justice administrators would do well to provide additional training at their own facilities. This training should introduce the new employees to those concepts and tasks unique to the hi ring agency (mission statement, special rules and procedures, and local cultural information, for exampl e). Recently created, the National Law Enforcement Academy Resource Network (NLEARN) shares academy operational knowledge programs, materials, and lessons to police academies in 49 states. It operates under the auspices of the International Association of Director s of Law Enforcement Standards and Training (IADLEST) and brings together information on training fro m online and printed criminal justice resources as well as business sources (Franklin, 2010). Probationary Training Probationary training is an essential part of the hiring process. Rememb er that one of the founding principles of policing was Sir Robert Peel’s proclamation that police officers should serve a probationary period. Today, most agencies require a one-year probationary period afte r recruit training. The difference between being “on probation” and “having completed probation” is the requirement for termination. During the probation period, the hiring authority can terminate the empl oyee without presenting her with a great deal of documentation as to why she is not being retained. (If the terminated employee takes civil action to regain her job, the firing agency must be prepared to provide documented evidence as to why she could not adequately perform required duties.) However, after the emplo yee completes probation, the ter- minating agency must provide evidence that the employee cannot perform required tasks before termination takes place. The probationary period only provides administrators more latitude in terminating employees. 176 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 176 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 176 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 The probation period is the phase in which the actual performance of the employee can be evaluated. It is one thing to pass examinations in the academy and another to apply what one has been taught to actual performance. Two components of this phase require mentioning. If criminal justice administra- tors are to require quality work, they need to assign probationary emplo yees to a training officer. Those agencies that do not have such a position run the risk of civil liabilit y for not providing adequate training in situations where employees cause civil damage. Agencies with these po sitions select well-seasoned employees, give them special training as to their duties, and usually pr ovide additional pay. The author, as a police administrator, was involved in analyzing the required tasks of a police officer. More than 200 tasks (called terminal performance objectives, or TPO) were establishe d and incorporated into recruit training. Training officers were then required to ensure that each proba tionary officer could actually perform these tasks (TPO) before the completion of the probation perio d. The second essential component of this phase is the probation evaluation form. It is important that the training officer discuss his or her evaluation with the probationer and that the probationer sign that the probation evaluation form has been discussed. This documentation is not only important in prepar- ing the probationer for permanent employment but also as documentation i n case civil action results from termination. Ongoing Employee Training Ongoing employee training is necessary, as the criminal justice field is ever changing. Remember that it is a responsibility of every supervisor to ensure that employees are properly prepared to do the job. This is a continuing responsibility. This sometimes requires supervisors to personally provide individ- ual or group training to their assigned employees. Many state law enforc ement training and standards boards provide advance training courses and require police officers to periodically attend these classes. These training courses are intended to provide employees with the latest information pertaining to their assigned duties. If such training is not available or there are training needs that are u nique to an individual agency, criminal justice administrators must provide such training. Additionally , they must set up training sched- ules to ensure that required periodic training is provided for each empl oyee. Training for special types of tasks also must be provided for duties such as special weapons teams, K 9 duty, horse patrol, handling of handicapped prisoners, protection in court from violent defendants, a nd specialized probation and parole approaches. Additionally, when personnel are promoted, training t hat prepares them for their new role is essential. A number of state boards prescribe, and some prov ide, promotional training for ranks up through police chief. Employee Evaluation Employee evaluation is a training tool as well as an evaluation process. Evaluation is an i mportant task of every supervisor. This applies to first-line supervisors all the way up to the top executive. Every person who has employees reporting to them must periodically conduct evaluation s. There are various types of forms that are used, including force choice, scales, and narrative. R egardless of the form used, the following items need to be covered: 1. Appraisals must focus on performance standards as identified by a job an alysis. 2. Performance standards must have been communicated to and understood by t he employees. 3. Ratings should be based on specific, clearly defined dimensions. 4. The rating dimensions should be behaviorally anchored and these ratings should be supported by objective, observable behaviors. 5. Abstract dimensions such as loyalty or honesty should be avoided unless they can be defined in actual observable behavior. 6. Rating scale anchor statements should be logical and brief. 7. The appraisal systems and the ratings of the individual raters must be r eliable and valid. 8. Any system should contain an appeal mechanism for employees who disagree with their ratings. (Cascio and Bernardin 1981, 211–212) Employee Hiring and Training 177 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 177 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 177 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 The following items need to be avoided: 1. Halo effect, in which the employees are judged on one factor that the rater deems i mportant, and this one factor affects all the other evaluation categories. 2. Central tendency, in which the supervisors are too hesitant to rate either high or low, resulting in all employees receiving average evaluations. Evaluations for regular employees are usually given every 6 or 12 months . Probationary employees are usually evaluated monthly. It is important for the evaluation form t o be reviewed and discussed with the employee. It is an opportunity for the supervisor to orally dis cuss his or her observations of the employee’s performance. The periodic evaluations should be no surpris e to the employee, because the supervisor should have been having periodic guiding sessions with the em ployee. A good practice is to make and discuss an evaluation form midway through the rating period, th en destroy it after informing the employee that this is how he or she would be evaluated at that time. This gives the employee an op- portunity to make improvements, if needed, before the formal evaluation report is made. A 2010 The Police Chief article titled “Choosing the Best People for Promotion and Special A ssign- ments” (Kasper 2010) emphasizes the value of performance evaluation s. The article added the Dilbert Principle to the Peter Principle (which is the tendency to promote peop le to their highest level of in- competence) as a misguided way of promoting employees if ongoing employ ee evaluations are not institutionalized. The Dilbert Principle (first identified by Dilbert cartoonist Scott Adams) suggests that employees who fail to thrive, who are inept, and may negatively affect t he overall performance of an organization are sometimes promoted to positions where they will do less harm to the organization as a whole. The article goes on to quote Dee Hock, founding CEO of Visa Int ernational, as stating, “Hire and promote first on the basis of integrity; second, motivation; third, capacity; fourth, understanding; fifth, knowledge, and last and least, experience” (71). In summary, the article emphasizes that today’s employee evaluations must track self-initiated activities, creation of n ew programs, interpersonal and communication skills, and integrity over seniority. Employee Motivation Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs has become a standard manne r of understanding human motivation (Maslow 1943). Even though Maslow admitted that his theory was never scientifically proven, it is such a compelling visual presentation of human nature that it has passed the test of time. Maslow’s list has been converted into the needs of employees in the workplace. He described how humans can be at one level (self-esteem or self-actualization) and an event outsi de of the job, such as a divorce, can cause them to refocus on lower levels (physiological or security). It is a task of supervision to continually understand the motivational status of employees to ensure that they perf orm positively in the workplace. Chris Argyris put forth the idea that organizations need to be altered t o fit individual needs (Argyris 1957). McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (Table 8.2) has become a standard as to the two extremes of getting the job done (McGregor 1957). Theory X relates to traditional, hierarc hical management as established during the Organization Functions era. It is based on management control and, in the extreme, theorizes that the average person is passive and lacks ambition. The old saying th at “the flogging will continue until morale improves” exemplifies this approach in a somewhat humorous man ner. Theory Y describes the approach of the Employee Relations era and advocates inspiring employees to accomplish organizational objectives. It supports Maslow’s theory of determining the human need s status of employees and provid- ing a work environment that encourages satisfaction through achievement of objectives. In the extreme, it envisions employees as willing and capable of high job performance if only given the chance. It is important to view these two theories as extremes and consider that the Eclectic Perspective administrators should be able to “mix and match” as called for in a given situation. In today’s Client- Oriented service environment, Theory Y is certainly most desirable. Howe ver, if taken to its extreme, a “country club” management style can develop that is ineffective in preventing misconduct. 178 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 178 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 178 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM 2/8/12 10:04:26 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 It must be remembered that a basic responsibility of administrators is t o implement controls to make sure that things are being performed as planned. The administrator must be aware of employee shifts in the needs within Maslow’s Human Needs concept. Maslow’s concept does not support the idea that a person will always perform at his best if given the chance. The author, as an administrator, can recall times when employees who wer e motivated and self- actualized suddenly became less interested in the job because of the emo tional impact of a non-job-related event. One incident comes to mind in which a highly dedicated patrol off icer suddenly abandoned his patrol area to check on his wife, who he thought was having an affair ( and she was—with another police officer). This situation, if not detected, could have resulted in a fai lure of the officer to be available to perform required duties. The practice of inspection and control brought this situation to light. Checking on even the best of employees is a sound practice and should not be cons idered as negative. It provides the opportunity to evaluate performances and commend for jobs well done. The author, therefore, advocates a “ big Y, little x” approach. This means supporting employees toward a self-actualized state where maximum discretion is encouraged, b ut also having “checks and balance” controls that ensure the continual desired level of producti vity. 8.2 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X (Tradition, Hierarchical Management) Theory Y (Humanist, Participatory Management) 1. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise— money, materials, equipment, and people—in the interests of economic ends. 1. Management is responsible for organizing elements of productive enterprise—money, materials, equipment, and people—in the interests of economic ends. 2. With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. 2. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience and organization. 3. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive, even resistant, to organizational needs. They must therefore be persuaded, rewarded, punished, and controlled. Their activities must be directed. Management consists of getting things done through other people. 3. The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, and the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people. Management does not put them there. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves. 4. The average person is by nature indolent—he works as little as possible. He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, and prefers to be led. He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs. He is by nature resistant to change. He is gullible, not very bright, and the ready dupe of the charlatan and the demagogue. 4. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. This is a process of opportunities, releasing potential, removing obstacles, encouraging growth, and providing guidance. 5. Management is by control. 5. Management is by objectives. Source: Adapted from McGregor, D. M. 1957. The Human Side of Enterprise, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Employee Motivation 179 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 179 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 179 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Frederick Herzberg’s Hygiene/Motivators approach to job satisfaction adds another level to the conce pts of mo tivation (Herzberg 1 975). Herzberg consi dered the lower levels of Maslow ’s Human N eeds not as motivating factors but, rather, as “hygiene” or maintenance factors. These are levels of need that must be satisfied before employees are motivated, but satisfaction of these levels does not necessarily result in motivation. Job security, working conditions, and good salaries are benefits that employee unions usually pursue. They are certainly conditions that administrators should ensure, but administration also involves ensuring job motivation. Herzberg pointed out that job motivation comes from fostering the higher levels of Maslow’s hierarchy by providing opportunities for occupational growth and advance- ment, performance recognition, and tasks that support a feeling of accomplishment. Figure 8.4 shows the Herzberg factors and how they affect job motivation. Table 8.3 compares Maslow, Herzberg’s, Maslow’s, and McGregor’s theories and shows how they interrelate. A point to be made is that in times when unemployment is high, agencies can often get away with Theory X approaches and only provide “hygiene factors” benefits. Under these economic conditions, employees are often “just happy to have a job” that provides them with the lower levels of Maslow’s Human Needs. However, when employment is high and agencies seek the best and most qualified employees, Theory Y and motivating factors must be provided to keep workers from seeking employment elsewhere. Figure 8.4 Herzberg’s Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An Exhibit from “O ne More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees,” By Frederick Herzberg (January/February 1986). Co pyright © by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation; all rights reserved. 180 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 180 2/8/12 10:49:14 PM Content removed due to copyright restrictions H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 The Greatest Management Principle (GMP), developed by Dr. Michael LeBoeuf, is a concept that should be considered by criminal justice administrators (LeBoeuf 1986) . “What gets rewarded is what gets done,” is what LeBoeuf says motivates employees. His concept is that if administrators want employees to perform in a manner that supports the mission and goals, employees mu st be rewarded for such efforts. For example, a police chief may put forth a mission statement t hat calls for a community-oriented approach. However, if employees are rewarded solely for the number of ar rests and traffic citations they make, then they will not support the mission. As a consultant, the autho r has found the GMP to be an important point in changing the direction of criminal justice agencies. Motivation is defined as a “force within an individual that initiates , directs, and sustains a particular behavior” (Roberg, Kuykendall, and Novah 2002, 86). Motivation is a personal quality. Administrators must determine what motivates each of their employees, find ways of brin ging together the desired per- formance with what motivates each employee, and reward accordingly. It m ust be realized that some tasks are “boring” and that these tasks do not normally result in job satisfaction. If these tasks cannot be eliminated or automated, then motivating rewards must be found for “j ust doing them.” Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory provides insight into what constitutes a reward. His theory rests on two assumptions (Vroom 1964): 1. Individuals have cognitive expectations about what outcomes are likely t o result from their behavior. 2. Individuals have preferences among these outcomes. (10) Figure 8.5 shows how Vroom’s Expectancy Theory and Leboeuf’s GMP interrelate . Rewards may range from praise and salary to feelings of accomplishment or acceptance . One form of reward that all supervisors have access to is praise. Praise, where justified, is reward ing to most employees. For one employee, having a job that provides more time with his or her family mi ght be rewarding, while for others, the possibility of promotion and/or a salary increase may be a s tronger motivating factor. The author, when responsible for the auxiliary/services functions of a polic e department, found that many of the civilian employees had children and were often late in reporting to work because of their child care responsibilities. By providing “flextime” (in which the eight-hou r shift started whenever employees ar- rived within an hour of their official reporting time), the negative as pects of being “tardy” were reduced and employee retention and production were increased. This approach, of course, cannot apply to jobs where definite reporting times are required, such as with 9 1 1 communications personnel. 8.3 Herzberg, Maslow, and McGregor Comparison Herzberg Two-Factor Theory Maslow Needs Hierarchy McGregor Theories X and Y Motivators Self-actualization, ego, status, esteem, social Theory Y Maintenance factors Safety and security, physiological Theory X Figure 8.5 Expectancy (Vroom) and Reward (Leboeuf) Concepts Interrelated Motivation Expectancy Perceived outcome Performance Amount of Effort Will it result in desired rewards? Outcome Desired Rewards Praise, salary, promotion, social status, more time with family, accomplishment GMP “what gets rewarded, gets done.” Employee Motivation 181 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 181 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 181 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1977) provided the concept of a Sit uational Approach to moti- vation, which supports the Eclectic Perspective emphasized throughout th is text ( Figure 8.6). With a new employee, an instructions style (1.) is required. This is somewhat lik e McGregor’s Theory X approach, in that the employee needs close supervision and instruction as to how t o do the job. After the employee becomes familiar with the job, a coaching approach (2.) is more approp riate. The supervisor needs to Figure 8.6 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Compared with Mas low’s Hierarchy of Needs B Esteem (recognition) Self- actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Social (affiliation) Safety (security) Physiological (food, shelter) Style 2 Style 4 Leadership style to use Styles 2 and 3Styles 1 and 3 Styles 1 and 2 A 3. Share ideas and facilitate in making decisions. 2. Explain your decisions and provide opportunity for clarification. 4. Turn over responsibilty for decisions and implementation. 1. Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance.3. Share ideas and facilitate in making decisions. 2. Explain your decisions and provide opportunity for clarification. 4. Turn over responsibilty for decisions and implementation. 1. Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance. Task behavior (Guidance) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Style of Leader (High) (Support) Relationship behavior (High) (Low) Source: (top): Adapted from Hershey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1977). Managing Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. (bottom): Maslow, Abraham. (1941). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50. 182 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 182 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 182 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 “sell” the employee on why the job is important and demonstrate th at good performance will result in job satisfaction. As the employee becomes more “mature” in the job , a more supportive approach (3.) is called for. In this mode, the supervisor is there to support and enco urage the employee when needed. An employee who is “self-actualized,” according to Maslow’s hie rarchy, will react best to a delegation style (4.) of supervision—one in which the employee can be left to function on her own. This style might be likened to McGregor’s Theory Y; however, a “big Y and a little x” combination is the most produc- tive approach in most cases. Some inspection and control is appropriate even with the best performing employees, as administrators have ultimate responsibility for the perfor mance of their employees.William Ouchi’s Theory Z received much interest in the 1980s. Theory Z provided a model that combined many of the concepts of the period. It emphasized employee job security, participatory deci- sion making, group responsibility and teamwork, increased product and se rvice quality, broader career paths, and a greater concern for the employee’s work and family welfa re (Ouchi 1981). Ouchi developed his model from what several of his contemporaries, such as Joseph Juran and W. Edward Deming, were implementing in Japan. Japanese industries have followed this model for decades as a successful method of motivating employees. The ideas of Ouchi, Juran, and Deming have been synthesized into a manage- ment model called Total Quality Management (TQM). Discipline Discipline is discussed here as a separate element of the Employee Relations concep ts. Discipline is both negative and positive. The definition of discipline is a state in which an organization’s members behave in ways that best serve its goals and purposes. A “well-disciplined” organization is a desirable state. Positive discipline involves those activities discussed thus far in this chapter relating t o motivation. They are those administrative activities that encourage and inspire employees to achiev e organizational goals. Negative discipline, conversely, relates to punishment and might be considered what is nece ssary when positive discipline fails. Unfortunately, there is a small percenta ge of personnel who become in- volved in misconduct. The misconduct of a few tarnishes the reputation o f all criminal justice employees, and it must be prevented through positive means when at all possible. Ho wever, when misconduct does occur, fair and proper negative discipline must be applied. Thus, crimin al justice administrators must be familiar with the concepts related to negative discipline. When should a personnel complaint of misconduct be investigated? The gui ding rule is that it should be investigated if the allegation, if true, would constitute misconduct. Misconduct is usually defined in the written policies, procedures, and rules of an agency. Figure 8.7 shows the various categories of police misconduct as a “slippery slope,” starting with the lower levels o f misconduct, which more employees are likely to confront, and progressing to the worst type, which very fe w employees even consider. Serious misconduct involving committing crimes and denying civil rights are seldom disputed as wrongful acts. It is the lesser “evils” that are more often diffic ult to establish as wrongdoings. The act of taking a free meal or a free cup of coffee should be considered a gratui ty and therefore prohibited by the oath that most police officers swear to upon employment. The officers’ Code of Ethics states, “Officers will refuse to accept any gifts, presents, subscriptions, favors, gratui ties, or promises that could be in- terpreted as seeking to cause the officer to refrain from performing off icial responsibilities honestly and within the law” (International Association of Chiefs of Police 1989) . To eliminate any doubt, criminal justice administrators should prohibit such conduct in their internal po licies. The taking of free “any- thing” detracts from the professional aspects of the job and can lead to other misconduct further down the slippery slope. Who investigates misconduct? In most cases, it is investigated by the su pervisor of those accused of misconduct. Therefore, the investigation of misconduct complaints is a p art of every supervisor’s job. Large agencies will have Internal Affairs entities, but they usually inv estigate the most serious of the misconduct cases. Immediate supervisors must take part in the punishment of their employees even if another entity investigates the incident. Of course, the chief executive s should have the “final word” in all disciplinary matters, as they are ultimately held responsible. Discipline 183 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 183 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 183 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Investigation of allegations of misconduct should support one of the fol lowing dispositions:Sustained: the allegation is true Exonerated: the allegation is not true Not sustained: the allegation cannot be proven as sustained or exonerate d Justified: the allegation did occur but with justification If the allocation is sustained, one (or more) of the following forms o f punishment should follow: Warning (oral reprimand) Written reprimand Relinquishment of accumulated overtime Suspension without pay Termination Criminal prosecution Some agencies include demotion as a form of punishment, but the author d oes not recommend this as appropriate. Demoting employees can result in conflicts and “feste ring” employee–supervisor situa- tions that are counterproductive to administrative goals. If the miscond uct is serious enough to consider demotion, termination is a better disposition. An area of conflict that sometime arises between administration and labo r involves “not sustained” complaints. This disposition is to be avoided if at all possible but oft en occurs because the only evidence Figure 8.7 Slippery Slope of Misconduct Low level of corruption High level of corruption Low number of officers involved High number of officers involved Gratuities Acceptance of small favors such as free coffee and meals Playing favorites Selective enforcement of the law such as in not ticketing friends Minor bribes Acceptance of minor sums of money in return for favors such as fixing tickets Being above “inconvenient laws” Violation of minor laws such as speeding, smoking marijuana, and drinking Role malfeasance Destruction of evidence, biased testimony, and protection of “crooked cops” Major bribes Acceptance of large sums of money in return for overlooking violations of law Property crimes Burglary and theft crimes committed by police Criminal enterprise Resale of confiscated drugs, stolen property, etc. Denial of civil rights Routinized schemes to circumvent constitutional guarantees of due process such as planting evidence Violent crimes Physical abuse of suspects such as torture and nonjustifiable homicide 184 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 184 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 184 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM 2/8/12 10:04:27 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 is one person’s word against another. Labor organizations usually sug gest that this disposition should be treated as a “not guilty” verdict, and no mention of the incide nt should be filed in the employee’s record. Administrators often take the position that because it was not p roven that the employee did not commit misconduct, a record should be kept in case a pattern of such com plaints develops. In the spirit of prevention, administrators should be able to provide preventive super vision at the point that any indication of undesirable conduct appears. A number of “not sustained ” allegations of misconduct can provide indications of the need for preventive supervision.An employee bill of rights exists in most states for police officers and must be considered in con – ducting personnel investigations. Criminal justice employees are protect ed under the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution, as are other citizens. However, labor organizatio ns have promoted the officers’ bills of rights. This bill exists because most criminal justice employee s perform within a hierarchical authoritarian structure that could result in employees giving up their r ights because of commands from their superiors. Police Officer’s Bill of Rights When any police officer is under investigation and subjected to interrog ations, which could lead to punitive action, the interrogation will be conducted under the following conditions. These rights do not apply to an interrogation in a normal course of duty, which might in volve counseling, instruction, or informal verbal admonishments. The police officer will only have to t ake a polygraph examination if the complainant agrees to do so and passes the examination. 1. The interrogation will be conducted at a reasonable hour, preferably whe n the police officer is on duty or during normal waking hours, unless the seriousness of the investigation requires otherwise. If the inter- rogation takes place during off-duty time, the officer will be compensat ed in accordance with regular department procedures. 2. The persons to be present at the interrogation must be identified in adv ance, and the officer will not be interrogated by more than two investigators at one time. 3. The police officer will be informed of the charges against him or her pr ior to any interrogation. 4. The interrogation will be for a reasonable period of time. 5. The police officer under interrogation will not be subjected to any offe nsive language or threats of punitive action, except that an officer refusing to respond to questions or submi t to interrogation will be informed that failure to answer questions that are directly related to the invest igation may result in punitive action. There will be no promise or reward offered as an inducement to answer an y question. 6. The interrogation may be recorded by the persons conducting the interrog ation and/or the officer under investigation. The officer in question is entitled to written or recorde d copies of the interrogation if additional action is contemplated by the department or if there is to be a continuing inve stigation. 7. If prior to or during the interrogation, it is decided he or she may be charged with a criminal offense, the officer will immediately be informed of his or her constitutional rights . 8. If a formal written statement of charges is filed against a police offic er by the department, the officer has a right to request that a representative of his or her choice be present during any interrogation. Source: Adapted from the California Government Code, Section 3303. Grievance Procedures Grievance procedures are commonplace in most agencies today. Administrat ors must be aware of these procedures and respond appropriately. They allow for any employee to ora lly complain about personnel matters to their immediate supervisor. If the employee feels the supervi sor does not satisfy his complaint, he can file the complaint with the supervisor in writing. Once done, the supervisor must respond in writing within a designated time period. If the employee still is not satisfied, he may follow the same procedure with the next level in the hierarchy, all the way up to the top executiv e officer if necessary. Grievance Procedures 185 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 185 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 185 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Employee Stress Employee stress is another area of Employee Relations for which administrators should h ave concern. First, it should be realized that stress can be good and bad. Most peopl e seek some activities that cause positive stress, which excites and often is needed to “win the game.” Indeed, there are a number of sport- ing activities that exists because people like “ good stress.” This, in fact, is one of the many benefits of criminal justice work—that of exciting and challenging activities. Ho wever, it is “ bad stress,” or distress, that can lead to avoidance of work or create a feeling of being overwhel med by events. It is true that shift work and constant exposure to emotional situations can cause negative st ress in some people. Most studies regarding police officers find that administrative policies and procedures cause more stress than “on-the-street” activities. Lack of communication or m iscommunication and lack of consis- tency by supervisors are often examples given by employees. Most officer s find the majority of their “street duties” exciting and most do not consider the possibility of danger a s stressful; those who do usually are terminated during the probation period (Niederhoffer 1974, Stratton 198 4). The author, as a criminal justice administrator and consultant, has found this to be true relating to employee stress and suicide. It is true that police officers commit suicide more often than those in most other professions. However, most suicides are committed with handguns, and all officers have ready a ccess to handguns because of their duties. The author has observed this to be more of a cause than th e duties that officers perform. Most officers who commit suicide do so because of emotional traumas that are not directly related to the job, such as domestic problems. As with many other occupations, administrative practices and personal do mestic problems are the main cause of negative stress. However, domestic problems can be caused by the on-the-job “police personality.” Police officers have to be able to separate themselves from the emotionality of many of the “on-the-street” problems they are called on to resolve. In doi ng so, they can develop an “emotional shield” that separates them from the people they have been called upo n to help. Some degree of this is necessary in order to take charge of emotional situations. However, they can become so emotionally calloused that they do not express feelings such as love and compassion toward their loved ones when off duty. Additionally, the impact of media criticism, political interference, and court actions may cause some officers to become cynical. Cynicism and emotional callousness are condi tions to which administrators should be sensitive. They should encourage employees to live a well-bala nced and healthy life, which should include many nonemployment interests and activities. Current Status of Applying Employee Relations to Contemporary Criminal Justice Agencies This chapter has added a number of contemporary concepts to the Employee Relations theme. Through- out the years of the development of this theme, employees have always be en valued as most important to the successful achievement of the missions of criminal justice agenci es. Currently, the economic crisis is having a dynamic impact on employee resources. A 2009 Police Executiv e Research Forum (PERF) nationwide survey of police chiefs found that 63% were planning for budg et cuts. The agencies respond- ing anticipated a reduction of 31% in sworn personnel and a 15% reductio n of civilian personnel (PERF 2009). A more recent Police Executive Research Forum national survey of police chiefs found that 51% reported an average of a 7% reduction in their budgets from 2009 to 2010 . Of the respondents, 43% had hiring freezes, 68% reported a reduction or discontinuation of train ing, and 66% reported a cut in overtime funds (PERF 2010). In response to the current economic crisis, agencies are looking for way s to save money and cut expenses. Approaches such as the use of volunteers, increasing reserve officers, a nd having private security handle more routine police functions (including taking reports and even transporting ar- restees), are again of interest today. Some police agencies are considering turning over the responding to domestic disturbance calls to social service agencies. 186 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 186 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 186 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 During the economic downturn of the 1970s, many duties formerly performed by sworn personnel were turned over to a new class of civilian police employees who could b e hired at less cost than police officers. A recent headline in USA Today indicates a return to this approach: “Tight Budgets Lead to More Civilians Used for Policing.” The article (USA Today 2010) states, “The positions—some paid and others volunteer—are transforming everyday citizens into crime-scene investi gators, evidence gatherers and photographers in what some analysts suggest is a striking new trend in A merican policing” (1). “‘It is all being driven by the economy and we should expect to see more of it,’ says University of Pittsburgh law professor David Harris, who analyzes law enforcement practices. In the n ear future, it is estimated that 40–50% of what used to be the responsibility of sworn officers will b e performed by civilian personnel.” Administrators are not only having to confront a shortage of personnel, but they are also having to learn about the differences in attitudes and expectations of the new and next generation of employees. Although categorizing people by their birth years could be called a type of stereotyping, general clas- sifications can help in understanding the differences between current an d future employees. There are three distinct generations currently employed by criminal justice agenci es: the Baby Boomers (born 1943–1960); the Generation Xers (born 1961–1981) and the Millen nials—also known as Generation Y, Nexers, the Net Generation, and Gamers (born 1982–2002; Henchey 2005 ). Currently, the greatest number of criminal justice employees are from G eneration X. Employees who are part of the Millennial Generation, however, will make up the majorit y of employees hired in the near future. In a 2009 article (Werth 2009), Millennials have been described as di fferent from Generation X people because they have “a more casual attitude toward employers, a propensity to challenge rules, an expectation of more instant gratification, and a desire for a fun and fl exible work environment. Millen- nials have also been characterized as team-oriented, cooperative, and te chnology-savvy individuals who want a job with good benefits, a competitive salary, the opportunity to grow, and diversity in assigned projects.” As far as recruiting, training, and motivating, the Millennials are inclined to be resistive of Theory X management, desire experiential and engaging activity, apprecia te teamwork, and respond to multiple sources. According to Werth (2009, 42), recommended training approaches are as follows: use active and engaging learning activities integrate everyday technology into the classroom minimize lecture time encourage nonlinear thinking use mentorship as a way to bridge the generation gaps use group discussions and collaborative groups show students the immediate application of skills use a variety of sources for building knowledge teach students how to reflect on their learning Because most supervisors and top executives will be coming from past gen erations for years to come, learning about the new generations becomes a challenging and necessary t ask for all criminal justice administrators. Key Concepts and Terms Supervision Employee hiring: recruiting and selecting Training vs. education Behavioral vs. Gestalt Andragogy approach vs. pedagogy approach Generation Xers, Millenials and Net Generation Employee evaluations Peter Principle Dilbert Principle Key Concepts and Terms 187 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 187 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 187 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Motivation “Big Y, little x” theory Greatest Management Principle (GMP) Expectancy theory Z theory Discipline Positive vs. negative Employee bill of rights Stress Good vs. bad Chapter Activity Interview a person currently employed in the criminal justice system. Fi nd out what motivates him or her to perform well and which Employee Relations approaches he or she de sires from administrators. Organization Functions Client-Oriented Eclectic Perspective Employee Relations Open Systems Social Equity Figure 8.8 Filing Cabinet of the Five Contextual Themes for “Mentally” Retrie ving Historic Key Concepts and Terms Relating to Employee Relations Theme 188 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 188 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 188 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Review Questions 1. The 1883 Pendleton Act was meant to do away with the “spoils system” in the hiring of public em-ployees. Do you think there is any favoritism in public hiring today? 2. What selections and hiring approaches do you think would be most useful today in attracting criminal justice employees? 3. What is the difference between negative and positive discipline? Give ex amples of each. 4. Do you think there is more stress in criminal justice jobs than in other professions? Give examples of both positive and negative stress. 5. Imagine that you are a criminal justice administrator and have been assi gned to develop and imple- ment a criminal justice entity of your choice (for example, a Special W eapons Assault Team). What Employee Relations concepts would you consider in fulfilling this assign ment? Relevant Publication A concluding Employee Relations issue in this chapter was stress. The Re levant Publication for this chapter is about stress but also includes a number of methods to help motivate p eople. It was written in response to an infamous police incident, the Rodney King case. The Eclectic Persp ective administrator should find a number of concepts that remain important today and that will continue to be so in the future (Barry, R. & Cronkhite, C. (1991). Managing Police Agencies Under Stress: Copi ng With the Aftermath of the Rodney G. King incident. Western City Magazine, www.westerncity.com, Jul y, pp. 21–24). References Argyris, C. 1957. “The Individual and Organization: Some Problems of Mutual Adjustment.” Administrative Science Quarterly (June): 1–24. Barry, R. J., and C. L. Cronkhite. 1991. “Managing Police Agencies Under Stress: Coping with the Aftermath of the Rodney G. King Incident.” Western City (July): 21–24. Carter, D. L., and A. D. Sapp. 1989. “The Effect of Higher Edu- cation on Police Liability Implications for Police Personnel Policy.” American Journal of Police, 8–10. Cascio, W. F. 1977. “Formal Education and Police Officer Performance.” Journal of Police Science and Administration, 21–25. Cascio, W. F., and J. Bernardin. 1981. “Implications of Perfor- mance Appraisal Litigation for Personnel Decisions.” Personnel Psychology, 9–11. Franklin, R. A. 2010. “NLEAR: The Nation’s First Police Academy Network.” The Police Chief (November): 40–41. Henchey, J. P. 2005. “Ready or Not, Here They Come: The Mil- lennial Generation Enters the Workforce.” The Police Chief (September): 108–118. Hersey, P., and K. H. Blanchard. 1977. Managing Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Herzberg, F. 1975. “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Em- ployees?” In Business Classics: Fifteen Key Concepts for Manage- rial Success. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Hughes, F. V. (2006). “Using Assessment Centers in Selecting Middle-Management Level Police Officers: Does the Benefit Outweigh the Cost?” Police Chief (August). Kasper, J. 2010. “Choosing the Best People for Promotion and Special Assignments.” The Police Chief (September): 70–71. Knowles, M. S. 1970. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy. New York: Associated Press. LeBoeuf, M. 1986. Greatest Management Principle in the World . Available from the Illinois Law Enforcement Media Re- source Center, LE87210V [videotape]. Maslow, A. 1943. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Psychology Review 50: 370–396. McGregor, D. M. 1957. “The Human Side of Enterprise.” Man- agement Review (November): 20–27. Niederhoffer, A. 1974. Behind the Shield. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Ouchi, W. 1981. How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. PERF. 2009. Critical Issues in Policing Series: Violent Crime and the Economic Crisis: Police Chiefs Face a New Challenge, Part II. Police Executive Research Forum (May): 3. PERF. 2010. “Police Executive Research Forum: Economic Crisis Has Hit Policing, PERF Survey Finds.” Subject to Debate 24 (8, September): 1. The Police Chief: The Professional Voice of Law Enforcement. 2006 (August). Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police, Inc. Roberg, R. R., J. Kuykendall, and K. Novah. 2002. Police Manage- ment. Los Angeles: Roxbury. Stratton, J. 1984. Police Passages. Sandusky, OH: Gellon. USA Today. 2010. “Tight Budgets Lead to More Civilians Used for Policing.” USA Today (October), 1. Vroom, V. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley. Weiner, N. L. 1976. “The Educated Policeman.” Journal of Police Science and Administration 4: 78–79. Werth, E. P. 2009. “Adult Learning: Similarities in Training Methods and Recruit Learning Characteristics.” The Police Chief (November): 42–45. Worden, R. E. 1994. “The ‘Causes’ of Police Brutality: Theory and Evidence on Police Use of Force.” And Justice for All , 175–179. Relevant Publication 189 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 189 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 189 2/8/12 11:24:00 PM 2/8/12 11:24:00 PM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 “MANAGING POLICE AGENCIES UNDER STRESS: COPING WITH THE AFTERMATH OF THE RODNEY G. KING INCIDENT” BY ROBERT J. BARRY AND CLYDE L. CRONKHITE The videotaped use of force by officers of the Los Angeles Police Depart ment in the now-infamous Rodney G. King case has brought intense scrutiny to police agencies ever ywhere. The resulting furor has had a psychological impact on law enforcement personnel and organiza tions, not just within the L.A.P.D., but throughout the country. Negative, and somewhat distorted, media coverage of this unfortunate eve nt has brought about a perception by administrators, supervisors and line officers of a lack of support on the part of a public that harbors negative attitudes toward law enforcement. This perception of the event by law enforcement personnel is causing increased stress upon individual officers and their organizations. In some cases this has created unhealthy working environments, including the erosion of phy sical and psychological well- being, hypertension, heart disease, alcohol and drug abuse, high rates o f absenteeism and low levels of trust, morale, productivity and depression. Such situations can be dysfu nctional to the organization, to the community it serves, and to individual officers. Our purpose with this article is to suggest some psychological strategie s and tactics for law enforce- ment personnel to use in coping with the added stress and some short- an d long-term strategies law enforcement managers can use to improve morale and maintain the quality of work in their organizations despite the added pressure of current events. Authorities conclude that law enforcement stressors fall into four disti nct categories. Law enforce- ment administrators should consider how these four categories of stresso rs impact their personnel. I. External Stressors to the Organization include frustrations with courts, prosecutors, public de- fenders, corrections, lack of public support, negative or distorted medi a coverage, interactions with outside administrative bodies, lack of resources, and more. II. Internal Stressors to the Organization include a hierarchical structure, lack of resources, strict policies and procedures, poor training and/or equipment, lack of recognition, poo r economic benefits and working conditions, excessive case loads and paperwork, favoritism, unfa ir discipline and so forth. III. Stressors in Law Enforcement Work Itself include rigors of shift work, role conflicts, exposure to the miseries of life, street brutality, boredom, panic, fear, responsibi lity for protecting other people, the fragmented nature of most law enforcement jobs, work overloads and t he pressure that comes from being the “conscience of society.” IV. Stressors Confronting the Individual Officer including the possibility of injury and death; fears regarding job competence, individual success and personal safety; the ne cessity to conform; the pos- sible need to take a second job to make ends meet; altered social status in the community because of the individual’s occupation; and family responsibilities. During this period of doubt and introspection all personnel should be aw are that regardless of the media myths about the glamour of a law enforcement career, police office rs routinely see the worst manifestations of human behavior. The sum total of these experiences can lead officers to depression, despair, discouragement and doubts about their mission and their own sel f-worth. The traditional method of dealing with job-related stress has been to he lp personnel increase their coping skills and introduce them to stress management techniques. Such s trategies include eating a good diet; getting adequate exercise and sleep; reduced use of alcohol, caffe ine, and nicotine; use of relaxation techniques; and avoiding self-medication. It also is wise to be sure to schedule personal and family time; to develop and maintain a social life away from law enforcement; to make time for friendship, recreation, and hobbies. Officers—and their managers—also are well-advised to exercise patience, to be gentle with themselves and to avoid taking things too seriously or too personally. L aw enforcement personnel must realize they do not have to become vicarious victims while policing our modern society. 190 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 190 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 190 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 When officers sense they are under attack, they may counterattack, compr omise, or withdraw, on a conscious level, but on an unconscious level they will employ one or m ore defense mechanisms to protect their self-esteem and their egos. Defense mechanisms are psychol ogical functions that protect the ego from internal and external threats, conflicts, doubts, impulses and all manner of hurts and bruises. Understanding how such “self-defense” mechanisms work can help managers recognize when their personnel are experiencing stress and develop strategies for limit ing the toll stress can take on an organization. The process by which defense mechanisms are integrated is based on the i ndividual’s perception of a stressor. For any event to be stressful, it first must be perceived as being stressful. First, an individual perceives a problem. Then he or she analyzes it and decides upon a solution. That first step, perception, is a very important variable and can be manipula ted to meet the individual’s needs. How each individual perceives a situation largely dictates his or her ps ychological response. If we do not perceive a situation to be stressful, it is not a problem. Defense mechanisms allow officers to change their perceptions of any sit uation. According to sev- eral authorities, including Dr. Lawrence Blum and Dr. Michael Mantell, t wo noted psychologists who are consultants to numerous law enforcement organizations in Orange and San Diego counties, those defense mechanisms utilized most frequently by officers include: Isolation of Affect—The individual divorces the situation or incident from its emotional connota- tion. This process protects the self from the violence of the street but may play havoc with family ties and cause emotional isolation. “Sick” Humor—Many professionals—doctors, lawyers, coroners, athletes—use “ gallows” humor to protect their self-images in stressful circumstances. In law enforcement , it is usually very controlled and expressed by senior patrol officers only within earshot of fellow of ficers who are directly involved, but not to non-law enforcement personnel. Speaking the unspeakable and b eing understood by fel- low officers releases guilty feelings and pain. The intent of this kind of humor is not to be funny but to allow the ventilation of frustrations. Engaging in “sick” humor acts as a safety valve. Displacement—The officer displaces or transfers an emotional feeling from an inte rnal object to a sub- stitute external object. He may blame the problem on another person or g o home and “kick the dog.” Repression—This is a primary self-defense mechanism. If a problem is causing stress , it may automati- cally, effortlessly, and involuntarily be relegated to the unconscious a rea of our mind. We “put it out of our minds.” Officers continually deal with vocational stress by repre ssion. They also are victimized by this defense mechanism when crime witnesses repress valuable information to protect their sanity. Rationalization—Officers may make an effort to justify, or attempt to modify, otherw ise unaccept- able situations, or incidents, into ones that are more tolerable, or acc eptable. Officers frequently use this strategy to convince themselves that a decision or behavior is acce ptable. Projection—This defense is in play when one blames others for one’s own faul ts. For example, an officer may blame others for her own lack of success in investigations r ather than face the fact that she, herself, conducted an incomplete investigation. Defense mechanisms are used on a daily basis by everyone to protect thei r fragile egos and self- image—that picture of ourselves, without which it is difficult to fun ction in a healthy, productive, manner. However, such defenses can become counterproductive if used to excess, i n a habitual manner, for the wrong reason, at the wrong time, and in the wrong place. They ca n also lead to additional stress and long-range psychological “burnout.” The challenge facing law enforcement administrators over the Rodney King incident is to realize the crucial nature of their roles in helping their subordinates develop copi ng strategies that enhance their ability to perform their duties in an appropriate manner. Administrators must attempt to improve the organizational environment as well as their management and leadership st yles to meet this challenge. Those law enforcement organizations with a strong sense of police–com munity cooperation will easily weather this storm of protest. Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective (1990), Robert “Managing Police Agencies Under Stress: Coping with the Aftermath of the Rodney G. King Incident” 191 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 191 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 191 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Trojanowicz and Bonnie Bucqueroux; and Community Policing: Issues and Practices around the World , National Institute of Justice, describe how administrators in Detroit, H ouston, Newport News, Newark, as well as Santa Ana and Oakland in California, have instituted the phil osophical concepts of community- oriented policing to cope with similar stressful problems. Law enforcement leaders committed to developing a healthy work environme nt should consider implementing several management strategies to cope with the fall-out of the King case. Determine the specific effect on the organization. Self examination of an agency includes select interviews with all levels of employees, organiza-tional inspections, surveys and audits, quality circles, active listenin g, exhibiting interest in the problem, then taking active steps to reduce the stress caused by the iss ue. Re-affirm a belief in the basic mission. An honest mission statement serves to define the purpose and intent of t he organization, allowing personnel to view their self-worth and understand their true va lue to the great majority of the community. In times of adversity it is essential for all personnel to re-affirm their commitment to the organization’s basic mission. Live the organizational values. Law enforcement organizations have been fashioned after the autocratic q uasi-paramilitaristic model. More recently progressive managers understand that personnel reac h higher levels of productivity and good mental health if pressed towards excellence by man agement through values. These organization values determine what both individuals and or ganizations consider to be appropriate and inappropriate conduct and behavior. Encourage communication and dialogue. Law enforcement organizations that encourage freedom of communications h ave a decided advantage in times of stress or crisis. Ideas, insights, thoughts and em otions may be openly exchanged, therefore, numerous problems can be resolved or avoided. Meth ods of encouraging open communications include advisory groups, open door sessions, retreat s, surveys, task forces, employee councils, administrators’ visits to roll calls, union meetin gs and an understanding of the concept of active listening. Demonstrate a caring about people. True caring includes trust, pride and a sense of community. Administrato rs should nurture these principles in an effort to improve the working environment where p ersonnel are trusted; have pride in themselves, their performance, their organizations and the ir communities; and enjoy working. Such a workplace climate should be relatively free of neg ative influences.Ventilate frustrations. Most psychotherapy includes the concept of ventilation, to verbalize emo tions and “get it off your chest” rather than to internalize the problem, brood, and le t it accumulate. Admin- istrators must actively support this notion of ventilating emotions and understanding the necessity of showing concern. Ensure fairness. Administrators have the responsibility for developing fairness in the or ganization. Unfair disci- plinary factors including favoritism, emphasis on negative discipline, e xternal pressure, undue length of time of process, lack of written criteria or guidelines, poor policies and procedures. Efforts must also be made to eliminate unfair performance ratings and pr omotional practices. A fair work place is a good place to work.Develop skills in “active listening.” People can listen faster than one can talk. Therefore, listening can bec ome boring. The ability of an administrator to actively listen is a skill that must be developed. A ctive listening improves ability to communicate effectively. Some techniques include preparing to listen, being patient, resisting distractions, paying strict attention, refraining from interru pting, controlling emotions and judging content as well as delivery. The last word is: list en. 192 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 192 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 192 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Keep personnel on the healthy end of the continuum. Administrators should constantly strive to develop programs which reduce organizational stress on personnel as well as support programs to assist all personnel in coping with indi- vidual stress. The overall objective is to make the organization a healt hy work place. Reinforce a supportive structure. Law enforcement managers must recognize the critical role they play in r educing stress. Caring about people includes providing adequate wages and benefits, job security, training, education, and opportunities for promotion, personal growth and career d evelopment. A caring organization is family-like and supportive by nature. Continue towards goals of excellence. Law enforcement organizations must not allow a single incident such as t he Rodney King affair to cause them to deviate from their long-range goals of excellenc e in law enforcement. Considering the community as customer will gain public support, increase citizen satisfaction, enhance police services and reduce citizen complaints. Get the issue out in the open. Verbalizing the issue will enable law enforcement personnel to open a li ne of dialogue and debate, which will lead to solutions, a healthy work place and higher mo rale. Dodging or avoiding the issue allows it to lie unattended and, like some insidious cancer, endanger the organization and its personnel. While the preceding strategies can help officers cope with stress in the short term, managers may want to view the stress resulting from the King affair as a challenge to review and improve the coping skills of their law enforcement personnel and organizations. Change most often is a product of dissatisfac- tion; people usually are not motivated to change unless their current st atus is uncomfortable. Employees become more supportive of change when they see it as a means of reducing their dissatisfaction and of improving their feelings of self-worth. So management should consider this situation as an opportunity to instig ate change where change is needed, an ideal time to enhance the values and mission of police age ncies. A renewed emphasis on ethics and a rekindling of the community-oriented policing philosophy sh ould be viewed as essentials in enhancing the morale and professional esteem of all personnel. The primary thrust of such a value-based management philosophy is not so much toward prohibi- tions which restrain officers but toward encouraging employees to weigh their actions constantly in light of the high ethical and constitutional values of their profession. All l aw enforcement officers are sworn to uphold state and federal constitutions as well as the traditional “ Law Enforcement Code of Ethics.” The value-based philosophy should be well defined in an employee-accepte d mission statement which emphasizes that: —Recognition of individual dignity is vital in the free system of law established by the Constitution. All persons have a right to be treated with as much respect as they will allow and officers have a duty to protect this right. —Ensuring the safety and security of all people by providing responsi ve and professional police service with compassion and concern is of prime importance in every public conta ct. The move in emphasis on quantity to quality action empowers officers to select an appropriate course of action from a range of options rather than a few prescribed responses . For example, by establishing that the measure of success for all employees is not the quantity of wor k (number of arrests, citations and such) but rather the positive impact they have on: —Preventing and reducing crime and traffic accidents (which can be m easured statistically); and —Community satisfaction and support (which can be measured by commun ity surveys and public commendations and complaints). The focus must be on innovation and problem solving rather than only on reactive responses to calls-for-service. “Managing Police Agencies Under Stress: Coping with the Aftermath of the Rodney G. King Incident” 193 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 193 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 193 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003 Equally valuable to police administrators who wish to improve morale is the philosophy of community-oriented policing. This philosophy provides that police office rs, and the public they serve, have an interdependent and shared responsibility in making their communi ties safe and desirable places to live and conduct business. Rather than playing out an “us versus t hem” attitude (which is exacerbated in times of negative media coverage), community-oriented policing focus es on building a partnership between the officers and the community. It provides opportunities for em ployees to come into contact with community members during “non-call-for-service” situations an d creates positive feedback that can overcome the effects of negative or distorted publicity. The philosophical commitment to community policing recognizes that good neighborhood quality of life is of paramount importance in reducing crime and can best be ach ieved through a partnership between the police and the community. This philosophy is demonstrated no t so much by programs as it is by the policies and practices that are designed and employed to ac complish: an increased accountability to local communities; reoriented patrol activities to emphasize service; community-based crime prevention; improved communication with the community; and decentralized police authority. This philosophy must become an integral part of the selection, recruit t raining, in-service training, evaluation, promotion and reward process. The philosophy must permeate t he entire organization and be accepted by every employee, not just by those in command. It can be i nstitutionalized by becoming the theme of the personnel selection, training, reward and reinforcement policies and practices. Making the community policing philosophy the central focus of police emp loyees will foster closer contact between the employees and the public, provide more situations fo r positive feedback and give officers a cause that can improve their morale and enhance their feeling s of self-worth. Making that com- mitment could turn the King incident into an opportunity to transcend to a higher level of professionalism, a quest for excellence in striving toward long-range individual and orga nizational goals and objectives. 194 CHAPTER 8 Applying Employee Relations Concepts to the Administration 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 194 41344_CH08_FINAL.indd 194 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM 2/8/12 10:04:28 AM H O L L I D A Y – B A I L E Y , K I M B E R L Y 9 2 3 T S 008B0003002D00520051004800560003000900030025004400550057004F0048005700570003002F0048004400550051004C0051004A000F0003

Are you stuck with another assignment? Use our paper writing service to score better grades and meet your deadlines. We are here to help!


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper
Writerbay.net