600 week 1

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A logic model or program theory is a description or model frequently pictorial of how a program is supposed to achieve its expected outcomes and solve the identified problem for which it was created. It creates a logical links between expected outcomes and the activities designed to achieve them and incorporates the evidence-based theoretical assumptions that explain how the activities will lead to outcomes. A program theory or logic model is NOT the theoretical framework on which your project is based although it may be related to a theoretical framework. A theoretical or conceptual framework is a general theory that explains why some things happen. A program theory or logic model is unique to your project and explains how it is supposed to work.

Assignment Prompt

  1. Develop a one-page diagram of theoretical foundation for your project/program, describing how and why your project should achieve the desired outcome. Add references on the second page. You may arrange items in the diagram in any way you choose, but the diagrams should include each of the following components and show the logical connections between them:
    1. The need or problem to be addressed by the project/program with supporting data
    2. The context for the project/program (attach a reference list with your diagram)
    3. The strategy (ies) proposed to address the need/problem
    4. The evidence base for the proposed strategies (attached a reference list with your diagram)
    5. Factors that will influence the use of strategy
    6. The expected outcomes of the project/program
    7. The resulting impact of the project/program if the outcomes are achieved.


  • Length: Two pages (1st page for diagram, 2nd page for references)
  • Format: APA Style (7th ed.), one-inch margins with double spacing, proper APA formatting
  • Research: Scholarly (peer-reviewed) contemporary  reference(s) within the last 5 years
  • Writing: Use correct grammar and sentence construction: Clear expression of ideas


1. Inadequate analgesia of
children in emergency
department a, b, c

2. Received analgesia:
48% on ages six months
to 24 months; 65% on
ages six years to 10 years

3. Factors affecting pain
assessment in children d

4. Documentation of pain
scale was 47% on < 4
years old; 34% on < 1
year old e

5. Pain assessment tool
specific to children ages
3mos-6yrs f, g, h

6. Pain education program
significantly increased
both pain score and pain
assessment practice i, j, k, l

7. ED Pain data will be
available once collected

Short Term

Improve documentation
of pain assessment

Long Term
Improve administration

of pain medication

pain control

Poor pain control
of children

ages 3mos to 6yrs old
seen in ED 1

ED Pain Data 7

pain management 2, 3

Pain education of
nurses 6

Pain assessment,
FLACC Scale 5

Lack of
triage protocol

Lack of assessment
tools -age specific 5

Barriers/myths to
treatment of pain 3

Fear of
drug addiction

Children not
feeling pain

Cultural and
sex differences

Personal beliefs
and values

Physical setting

Parental influence

Lack of knowledge
of providers 5


a.Alexander, J. & Manno, M. (2003). Underuse of analgesia in very young pediatric patients with isolated local painful
injuries, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 41, 617-622.
b.Brown, J., Klein, E., Lewis, C., Johnston, B., & Cummings, P. (2003). Emergency department analgesia for fracture pain,
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 42, 197-205.
c.Rupp, T., & Delaney, K. (2004). Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 43,
d.Bauman, B., & McManus, J. (2005). Pediatric pain management in the emergency department, Emergency Medicine
Clinical North America, 23, 394-414.
e.Drendel, A., Brousseau, D., & Gorelick, M. (2006). Pain assessment for pediatric patients in the emergency department,
Pediatrics, 117, 1511-1518.
f.Manworren, R.C., & Hynan, L.C. (2003). Clinical validation of FLACC: Preverbal patient pain scale, Pediatric Nursing,
29, 140-146.
g.Kaplan, C., Sison, C., & Platt, S. (2008). Does a pain scale improve pain assessment in the pediatric emergency
department? Pediatric Emergency Care, 24, 605-608.
h.Probst, B., Lyons, E., Leonard, D., & Esposito, T. (2005). Factors affecting emergency department assessment and
management of pain in children, Pediatric Emergency Care, 21, 298-305.
i.Twycross, A. (2010). Managing pain in children: Where to from here? Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 2090-2099.
j.Chiang, L., Chen, H., & Huang , L. (2006). Student nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and self efficacy of children’s pain
management: Evaluation of an education program in Taiwan, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 32(1), 82-89.
k.LeMay, S., Johnston, C., Choiniere, M., Fortin, C., Kudirka, D., Murray, L., & Chalut, D. (2009). Pain management
practices in a pediatric emergency room study: Intervention with nurses, Pediatric Emergency Care, 25, 498-503.
l.Rieman, M., Gordon, M., & Marvin, J. (2007). Pediatric nurses’ knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain: a
competency tool modification, Pediatric Nursing, 33, 303-306.

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