4MAT Review-Entwistle

Running head: 4MAT review-entwistle 1


4MAT Review-Entwistle

Eric Bell

Liberty University

4MAT Review-Entwistle


The book featured this essay review is titled” Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration.” (Entwistle, D.N., 2015) This summary will discuss the main ideas of the book. The author utilizes biblical scripture (theology) to make a point that we are God’s creation. “Each person is God’s creation and we were created to worship Him.” (Entwistle) “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of His hands.” (Psalms 19:1, Berean Study Bible) We are created beings. Our Creator, God also created the world and the heavens for His Glory. The main ideas mentioning biblical foundations or theology. This main idea can be divided into four parts. “The first part can be found in Genesis 1 where God has created the cosmic hosts, mankind and nature.” (Entwistle) The second part is where “God not only created mankind, but He gave humanity dominion over all of His creation.” (Entwistle) The theocratic significance states the there is a creative being, God. That God made the astrological heavens, which include the sun and moon. God created the world. God also created all of nature and the animals. The third and fourth parts speak about faith and revelations from God.” Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. “(Hebrews 11:1, King James Bible) It’s by faith that we can serve God and to acknowledge His power in our lives. The author makes a significant point in Christian worldview. Entwistle stated” the creative and mental attributes of men are divinely inherited and by moral conscious and utilized in praise to God.” The point speaks about the significance of faith. It also provides a stable argument that mankind can worship God in faith. The fourth part mentions revelations from God. “The craving to learn about and comprehend God’s world is divine in itself. “(Entwistle) We as created beings have a

godly desire to know and to have an understanding about the character of God. We are intrinsically drawn to Him. “God is capable of intervening in a person’s life.” (Entwistle) “God talks to man through His holy Scriptures, divine revelation and wonderful infrequent miracles.” (Entwistle) “Sin has a strong ability to influence our thinking about our relationship towards God and how we are to conduct our lives.” (Entwistle) The next main idea is the significance of secular philosophies.

There are several secular thought philosophies that will be mentioned. Philosophies also included are psychology and naturalists. These philosophies will each be defined and discussed as well. “Cosmology is the study of nature, foundation and the universal structures wholly.” (Entwistle) Entwistle also stated” the world consists of matter in motion.” The heavenly bodies or cosmos are also parts of ‘matter in motion.’” (Entwistle) “Metaphysics is the intellectual approach to reality and substance.” (Entwistle) Here the author speaks of the physical natural substance of matter. What’s tangible and visible to mankind. “Because matter always been, it’s futile to question its creation.” (Entwistle) These philosophies are secular in nature. “Naturalists or secularists acknowledge physical matter and substance.” (Entwistle) “Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in regard to understand why people behave how they behave.” (Castro H., 2004-2017) Here psychology is mental study, a science in essence. Entwistle mentioned” that the foundational fathers (Freud, Jung and Rogers) in modern counseling have mentioned psychology.” “Post-modern viewpoint mentions the need for psychologic evidence and structure.”(Entwistle, 2015). Psychology operates through the biopsychosocial model of human development and behavior.” (Rainer S., & Forney J., 2014) This model proposes the people develop and live through biological, psychological, and social

influences.” (Rainer S., & Forney J., 2014) “Sin has a strong ability to affect of our thinking about our relationship towards God and how we are to conduct our lives.” (Entwistle, 2015) The next main idea is integration.

“However, the Scriptures can be intertwined with psychology.” (Entwistle, 2015) “Integration can also be defined as the unification of secular and biblical worldview presuppositions that exist.” (Rainer S., & Forney J., 2014) The significance of integration is” assisting the client to access their spiritual convictions while challenging their psychological or emotional dysfunctions. “(Seattle Christian Counseling, 2013) “We are God’s creation and we are here to worship Him.” (Entwistle) Integration also has a significant role in uniting all of the main ideas.

Concrete Responses

The concrete responses section will highlight a personal life episode. This personal life episode is remembered in response to the content of this book. The personal life episode will be utilized as a counseling issue also. I had previously retired from the military in May 2015. I worked as a juvenile probation officer between my retirement in May 2015. I was transitioning back to civilian life. “Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.” (Deut. 31: 6, New International Version) I was excited about leaving the military and embarking on the next chapter of my life. I was out of my comfort zone. As a probation officer, I saw sinful behaviors. The secular world would call these acts criminal behavior. “People since man’s fall have often decided to sin. “(Entwistle) “People have chosen to live in rebellion to God, each other and God’s creation.” (Entwistle) I had to consistently choose between sin and obedience to God in my personal and professional life. I utilized theology to be a godly example to these juvenile

probationers. This reflects the first main idea of the essay review. To help the juvenile redeem themselves. For them to become productive, contributing citizens in society.

I often utilized psychology in my counseling with these precious juveniles. For example, I dealt with sex offenders. I would get internally disappointed because their actions desecrated the innocence of younger children. Young children who were innocent and more vulnerable. I learned that many of these wayward juveniles made bad choices or associated with bad social influences. These juveniles would learn deviant behaviors from their peers or older adults. The juvenile would then utilize what they learned to commit crimes. These acts tie in the biopsychosocial model of human development and behavior.” (Rainer S., & Forney J.) This ties in with the second main idea. As a Christian probation officer, I had to balance godly convictions with restorative criminal justice. Integration helped to keep me stay focused and grounded. Integration aided me to work with faith based and secular orientated families. Integration is the third main idea.


The reflection section will discuss assessments of the author’s core ideas. The pros and cons of the author’s main ideas will be highlighted as well. Pros- I agree the overall foundation of this book. I found the scriptural references to be strong, adequate and pertinent. I agree in addition that theology plays a very important role in counseling. As faith-based counselors, we also have to be rooted in our faith. Counseling also serves as a ministry. “Without counsel, plans go awry, but in the multitude of counselors they are established.” (Proverbs 15:22, New King James Version) We have to use scripture to deal with mental health issues. “We gradually learn to control our anger and mange it responsibly.” (Entwistle) Cons- This book could have

highlighted more content in regard to psychology and other social sciences. The author could have also extended his discussion on integration. Science is used to explain what our five senses ingest. We also live in a world where we also have to integrate science with theology or divine revelation. As a Christian probation officer, I utilized biblical points to advise parents to not enable their children’s destructive behaviors.

There are a couple of questions that arise as I read this book. First question, how does integration help me counsel secular minded people? This book discussed in detail godly precepts. These godly precepts consist of divine revelations and scriptural applications. This book also discussed a naturalist perspective on life and the acknowledgement of nature works. The book also discussed how naturalist view this world and the cosmos. The book discussed the social sciences in particular meta-physics and psychology. Integration was also featured and mentioned. However, integration needs to reflect its significance in uniting theology and the social sciences. The author could have divulged more information about how theology can be mixed with psychology. Second question, how does the information that I read about in this book tie in with the American Counseling Association’s American Code of Ethics? Very little reference if any was related to the American Code of Ethics. For example, “A.11.b. Competence Within Termination and Referral. “(American Counseling Association, 2015) “As counselors, we must refrain from referring clients (to other counselors or services) based on our personal convictions.” (American Counseling Association) This book sparsely mentions how we as Christian counselors are to counsel people who do not share our beliefs. “The American Code of Ethics serves as the legal and ethical foundation in which we conduct our counseling practices and case management. “(American Counseling Association) More emphasis on the American

Code of Ethics could be useful with integration as well. The third question is what resources a Christian counselor can use to assist them in case management? For Christian counselors to utilize assisting them in advising their clients in troubled areas. This book sparsely addresses the need for Christian counselors to seek advice or other case management resources. “We as mental health practitioners have limits in our counseling profession.” (Clinton T., & Scalise E., 2013, p.19) “We must often seek constructive referrals to others with more training and/or expertise.” (Clinton and Scalise)


The action section will describe how the main ideas will influence my future counseling techniques and strategies. I will utilize theology or biblical precepts to guide my decisions. I will employ godly principles to guide me as I advise my clients. These concepts support the main idea of theology or employing biblical scriptures.

I will always be aware of area of psychology. “There are several branches areas of psychology: developmental psychology, educational psychology, psychotherapy, personality psychology, and social psychology.” (Castro H.) I will learn and incorporate various areas of these branch areas of psychology into my future practice. I would also intertwine interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in my clinical practice.” (Markowitz, J. C., & Weissman, M. M., 2004) “Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), is a time-limited, empirically validated treatment for mood and non-mood disorders.” (Markowitz, J. C., & Weissman, M. M.) “IPT also has been successful in aiding in the management of acute and maintenance treatment.” (Markowitz, J. C., & Weissman, M. M.) I will also be abreast of the “biopsychosocial model of human development and behavior.” (Rainer S., & Forney J.) “The biopsychosocial model is a way of comprehending the patient’s relative experience as an essential factor for proper diagnosis, health outcomes.

and to give adequate counseling.” (Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M., 2004)

“My case management must feature realistic boundaries, having reasonable fees and to treat all people with fairness, human dignity and mutual respect.” (Entwistle) As a future counselor, I will incorporate biblical morality with holistic clinical treatment and case management. This precept ties in with the main idea of integration. The three core ideas are all significant in my future counseling career.


The American Counseling Association, (2014), A.11.b. Competence Within Termination and

Referral. Retrieved from: https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/default-

document-library/2014-code- of-ethics-finaladdress.pdf?sfvrsn=96b532c_2 Borrell-Carrió, F., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2004). The biopsychosocial model

25 years later: principles, practice, and scientific inquiry. Annals of family medicine, 2(6),

576–582. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1466742/

Castro H, (2004-2017) The Science of the Mind: Definition of Psychology Retrieved from:

www.mindfocus.net/nc00100.html Doweiko, H. (2019, 2015), Concepts of Chemical Dependency, 10th ed., New York, New

York: Cengage)

Entwistle, D. N., (2015) Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity: An

Introduction to Worldwide Issues, Philosophical Foundations, and Models of Integration,

Third Edition, Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books

Markowitz, J. C., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy: principles and

applications. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA),

3(3), 136–139. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1414693/

Rainer S., & Forrey J. (2014) “A Response to The Integration of Christianity and Psychology:

A Guest Post by Sarah Rainer’”. Retrieved from:



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Eric Bell

Liberty University


4MAT Review-Entwistle

Eric Bell

Liberty University

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